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  • Motivations
  • Carbon rich product from the thermal degradation of organic materials under oxygen deprived conditions and at relative low temperatures (<700C)
  • This system is designed to provide the small holder farmer an opportunity to be able to have clean energy for cooking which is not based on the sole use of wood, which is a resource which is scarce in the country right now. Only having 1.7% of the arable land covered by forest vegetation. Provide a farmer with an alternative to the use of fossil fuel fertilizers. Biochar is used for the application of improving soil properties which does not necc mean the fertility itself but also properties such as pH, water holding capacity, increase efficiency of fertelizer use, reducing the amount of fertilizer that its necc. Reductions of GHG emissions which are the cause of global warming.
  • Resource base – where those the biomass or the initial feedstock comes from and how much of it there is and what are the present uses Agricultural and land use base – allows to see what is the current use of the agricultural land and see what the land use is in order to establish purpose grown crops or etc. Transportation – which will allow in industrial processes to determine the feasibility of transporting feedstock and end product of biochar in order to be able to use it Industrial and local skills- engineering skills that allow the design and building of pyrolysis processing plants that are apt for the conditions of the location and the end purpose of the system Sales and Distr – for the sale of the energy, carbon credits and the biochar for the use of large scale farming and the small scale farmers Energy infrastructure – for those that are to use the energy as a source of power Markets – specifically for the use of carbon credits

Dorisel   Icraf Presentation Dorisel Icraf Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Biochar and bioenergy production systems in small-holder farms in Western Kenya Pyrolysis of biomass residues while cooking, can provide syn-gas as a source of fuel energy and biochar as a soil amendment; improving the livelihoods of poor rural farming households Dorisel Torres
    • Environmental impact of unsustainable use of biomass as fuel:
      • Global warming and atmospheric pollution
      • Deforestation
      • Land degradation
    • Human Impact:
      • Increase workload
      • Health problems due to emissions
    Agriculture, Land Degradation and Energy
    • Major limitations of farm productivity:
      • Constant cultivation
      • Removal of soil nutrients w/o replenishment
      • Soil erosion
      • Weathering
    Agriculture, Land Degradation and Energy
  • Energy Overview
  • What is Biochar?
  • Main Objective
    • Development of sustainable biochar systems
    Soil Improvement Climate Change Waste Management Energy
  • System Components Markets Energy Infrastructure Sales and Distribution Outlets Industrial Or Local Skills Transportation Ag/Land Use Base Resource Base Biochar Systems
    • Initial assessment of resource base and energy consumption
    • Traditional and pyrolytic stove performance testing
    • Characterization of biochar produced
    • Maize biomass production under different applications of fresh biomass, biochar and ash
    Objectives
  • Vihiga and South Nandi Districts, Western Kenya Methods Aboveground Biomass Estimation Tree Standing Biomass : Allometric measurements were taken on all live trees in the farm. Mixed species allometric equations for tropical moist trees ( Brown et al. 1995) were applied to determine total aboveground standing biomass. Banana and Collard Green Stalks : DBH for banana trees, were measured and specific allometric equations ( Hairiah et al. 2002), used to calculate standing biomass. Repeated plot sampling and destructive harvest were used to determine, Collard Green stalks biomass. Maize Residues : Secondary data collected from Kimetu et al. (2008) on maize yields, provided estimates of maize stalks and cobs with no nitrogen applications.
  • Energy Consumption : A sample size of 20 HH was used to conduct, cooking tests to evaluate specific fuel and energy consumption; following a modified HEH Shell Foundation Protocol Maize Biomass Production: Screen house growth experiments with different types of biochar’s under field conditions Complete Block Randomization (5 replicates, 3 control) Methods
  • Results Temporal variability Biomass Productivity per Farm
  • Results Temporal variability Biomass Productivity per Farm
  • Results Wood and Biomass Consumption / Biochar Production a a b n=20 n=10
  • Maize Biomass Production Results
  • Emissions
  • Emissions
    • Emissions of non-CO 2 greenhouse gases during pyrolysis
    • Effects of feedstock and pyrolysis procedure on energy, emission, economics, soil productivity, leaching, stability, etc
    • Better understanding of the mechanisms of stability and stabilization for prediction of variable biochar quality
    • Water and biological effects (both as carrier for beneficial microorganisms as well as risk)
    • Economic feasibility, markets, carbon trading
    Poor documentation of opportunities/constraints
    • Emissions for GWP of CO 2 non-CO 2 greenhouse gases, PM and BC during the use of pyrolytic stoves
    • Effects of feedstock and pyrolysis procedure on energy, emission, economics, soil productivity, leaching, stability, etc
    • Nominal Combustion Efficiencies
    • Economic feasibility, markets, carbon trading
    Future Projects/Expectations
  • Thanks Enaudi Center, Cornell University MicroUnity Group, California Richard Bradfield Research Award