DIFFERENCES IN LOCAL AND EXTENSION KNOWLEDGE   FAVOURS THE USE OF EXOTIC OVER NATIVE SPECIES IN            AGROFORESTRY IN...
CONTEXT OF THE STUDY        ICRAF consultative and training role in the Lake        Tanganyika Sustainable Catchment Manag...
RATIONALESuccess of AF interventions is strongly dependant on:• Local perceptions of trees (opportunities, constraints, tr...
OBJECTIVES• Elicit qualitative information on drivers of land use changes and  their impact• Collect and collate local eco...
RESEARCH SITES        1. Mulongwe           Uvira                          2. Kalimabenge3. Kakumba/Kigongo
METHODOLOGY      Qualitative scoping research using a combination of participatory      research techniques applied throug...
HYPOTHESES                    AND SAMPLING STRATEGY    Farmers possess important local ecological knowledge of trees, eros...
SAMPLES AND RESEARCH TECHNIQUES               Participatory mapping and sketches
OTHER DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES
PRESENTATION           OF SOME RESULTS1. Knowledge variations (extension/farmers/upland-lowland farmers – Gender)2. Priori...
REFORESTATION PROGRAMS             AND EXTENSION KNOWLEDGE DERIVATION•   PROBLEMS IN THE CATCHMENT ARE NOT NEW: Long histo...
EXTENSION KNOWLEDGE  Local extension staff (agronomists or agricultural technicians )  have theoretical knowledge of :• Di...
SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE• Lack of taxonomic identification for native species• Absence of scientific documentation/p...
LOCAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE•   Utilitarian knowledge (provisioning services,    preferences) linked to ancestral practices•...
LOCAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE  Farmers interviewed classify 3 main agro-ecological zones  determined mainly by altitude condi...
LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND INFLUENCES• Lack of access to technical knowledge or improved technologies• Little if no interactions ...
LK AND GENDER VARIATIONS        Cultural household division of labour: knowledge and interests            MEN             ...
PRIORITIES FOR AGROFORESTRY INTERVENTIONS             ELICITED FROM FARMERS1. Fruit trees2. Woodlots3. Restoring soil fert...
1. FRUIT TREES•   Decline in all fruit trees - wild and    exotic (war, abandonned groves,    trees felled for charcoal)• ...
1. FRUIT TREESGrown near homestead , River buffer zonesPotentially highly productive systems in gullies and near watercour...
2. WOODLOTS                                                exotic plantations : fuelwood,                                 ...
3. RESTORINGSOIL FERTILITYIN CROP LAND
PROBLEMS IN CROP LANDWIDESPREAD EROSION (SURFACE RUN-OFF PREVENT VERTICAL INCISIONS, GULLYING)FERTILITY LOSS, CROP LOSS , ...
DOMINANT CULTIVATION PRACTICESLuhongolo traditional practice of verticalstone alignmentIn general trees are absent in crop...
TRADITIONAL AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES                        Live-fences, boundary plantingNewly established KILONDOLONDO bra...
TRADITIONAL AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES :                         shade/mulch trees              EXAMPLES OF MULTIPURPOSE NATIV...
CHALLENGES TO THE ADOPTION OF NEW              TECHNOLOGY IN CROP LANDCombination of SWC and AF techniques(Contour farming...
4. REHABILITATION OF PASTURES                         Loss of tree cover in                         previously savannah ty...
EROSION HOTSPOTSLOCAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT WATERSHED FUNCTIONS AND PERTURBATIONS IN THE           WATER REGIME   EXAMPLE OF THE...
SEISMIC ZONES AND LANDSLIDES  Participatory mapping of erosion and degradation  hotspots and information elicited from far...
DEGRADATION HOTSPOTS AND SEDIMENT             LOADING       Kabundamugere valley
DEGRADATION HOTSPOTS AND SEDIMENT LOADING
DEGRADATION HOTSPOTS AND SEDIMENT LOADINGLoss of fields or grazing area - Perturbations in river regimes (dam formation, d...
DEGRADATION HOTSPOTS : River banks
RIVER BUFFER ZONE         Are river banks negociable space?More fertile land with loamy soils and higher water retentionPr...
DEGRADATION HOTSPOTS : Mountain pathways• Dynamic transit zone linking the plain to the high-plateaux
Mountain pathways and dangers
MOUNTAIN PATHS                Slope stability and erosionCOLLECTIVE AND/OR INDIVIDUAL REFORESTING ACTIVIESFAST GROWING ANT...
SUMMARY OF OPPORTUNITIES• Agroecological zones suitable to a wide range of tree species• Traditional AF knowledge and prac...
CONSTRAINTS AND BOTTLENECKS•   Land scarcity and fragmentation•   Bush-fire practices•   Construction material•   Energy d...
Knowledge gaps               Farmers technical knowledgeSoil and water conservation methodssuch as contour farming, vegeta...
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH:• Taxonomic identification and ethno-botanic  inventory of native species• Geophysical an...
THANK YOU!
DIFFERENCES IN LOCAL AND EXTENSION KNOWLEDGE FAVOURS THE USE OF EXOTIC OVER NATIVE SPECIES IN AGROFORESTRY INTERVENTIONS
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DIFFERENCES IN LOCAL AND EXTENSION KNOWLEDGE FAVOURS THE USE OF EXOTIC OVER NATIVE SPECIES IN AGROFORESTRY INTERVENTIONS

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DIFFERENCES IN LOCAL AND EXTENSION KNOWLEDGE FAVOURS THE USE OF EXOTIC OVER NATIVE SPECIES IN AGROFORESTRY INTERVENTIONS

  1. 1. DIFFERENCES IN LOCAL AND EXTENSION KNOWLEDGE FAVOURS THE USE OF EXOTIC OVER NATIVE SPECIES IN AGROFORESTRY INTERVENTIONSA SCOPING STUDY FROM LAKE TANGANYIKA IN UVIRA, DRC Emilie Smith with Dieudonné Kilola World Agroforestry Centre ICRAF
  2. 2. CONTEXT OF THE STUDY ICRAF consultative and training role in the Lake Tanganyika Sustainable Catchment Management Program . Transboundary program aiming to : Promote of agroforestry and sustainable land use practices to: • Reduce sediment loading • Mitigate the degradation of lake resources • Improve local livelihoods
  3. 3. RATIONALESuccess of AF interventions is strongly dependant on:• Local perceptions of trees (opportunities, constraints, trade-offs)• Available knowledge and technologyBuilding on Local Knowledge is essential to understand where to placetrees in the landscape and with which species and assemblagesLocal knowledge wealth can inform further research and developmentneedsKnowledge gaps can be identified and addressed through trainingprovision
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES• Elicit qualitative information on drivers of land use changes and their impact• Collect and collate local ecological knowledge about land use and land cover changes and ecosystem services associated with trees• Evaluate possible agroforestry interventions in the catchment through: a. Participatory assessment of farmers’ preference and priorities for tree planting (attributes, utilities and spatial characterisation) b. Review of governance and socio-economic indicators
  5. 5. RESEARCH SITES 1. Mulongwe Uvira 2. Kalimabenge3. Kakumba/Kigongo
  6. 6. METHODOLOGY Qualitative scoping research using a combination of participatory research techniques applied through : • A selection of tools designed within the TULSEA framework: - DRILUC - Drivers of land use change - RAFT - Rapid Appraisal of Agroforestry Practices, Systems & Technology • AKT Agroecological Knowledge Toolkit – methodology and software for knowledge aquisitionTrees in Multi-Use Landscape in Southeast Asia (TUL-SEA) A negotiation support toolbox forIntegrated Natural Resource Management http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/tul_seaInformation on AKT methodology and applications http://akt.bangor.ac.uk/
  7. 7. HYPOTHESES AND SAMPLING STRATEGY Farmers possess important local ecological knowledge of trees, erosion process and land degradation• There are variations in local ecological knowledge of farmers determined by altitude• There are gender differences in knowledge about trees• Extension knowledge differs from local farmers knowledge about land management and trees AND that it is useful to analyse these variations in order to generate a range of options to address erosion and land degradation Combination of purposeful, convenience, self-selecting sampling to obtain representation of knowledge variations in the area.
  8. 8. SAMPLES AND RESEARCH TECHNIQUES Participatory mapping and sketches
  9. 9. OTHER DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES
  10. 10. PRESENTATION OF SOME RESULTS1. Knowledge variations (extension/farmers/upland-lowland farmers – Gender)2. Priorities for intervention elicited from farmers
  11. 11. REFORESTATION PROGRAMS AND EXTENSION KNOWLEDGE DERIVATION• PROBLEMS IN THE CATCHMENT ARE NOT NEW: Long history of reforestation/anti- erosion programs to address land degradation• Extension knowledge derived from training as part of external programs through local peasant associations or parishes (e.g. CEPAC and churches)• Programs concentrated on the lower catchment due to easier accessibility• Programs using mainly exotic species (historically Eucalyptus though with an increasing and recent interests in other species)• Promotion of species which are not adapted to the higher altitude in the catchment ( Acacia mangium, Senna siamea, Pterocarpus angolensis, Tamarindus indica)
  12. 12. EXTENSION KNOWLEDGE Local extension staff (agronomists or agricultural technicians ) have theoretical knowledge of :• Different soil and water conservation techniques (contour farming, terraces, mulch, compost)• Exotic tree species• Agroforestry species (including Calliandra, Leucena, Moringa sp. Acacia sp). BUT little knowledge of local species beyond those economically important (export timber species) or trees located in the lower part of the catchment
  13. 13. SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE• Lack of taxonomic identification for native species• Absence of scientific documentation/publication on native species (identification guide) (only publication 1944 – long list of forest species in the Kivu region)• Identification of trees complicated by the different local vernacular names giving rise to confusions
  14. 14. LOCAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE• Utilitarian knowledge (provisioning services, preferences) linked to ancestral practices• Highly developed local taxonomic knowledge• Knowledge elicited vegetation behaviour, niches, regeneration, biodiversity associations derived from observations• Explanatory knowledge of processes and interactions (deforestation- erosion-river regimes) derived from observations
  15. 15. LOCAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE Farmers interviewed classify 3 main agro-ecological zones determined mainly by altitude conditions1. Plain and lacustrian zone (dry and hot zone)2. Lower mid-plateaux (temperate zone )between 900m until 1500m3. Upper mid-plateaux (cold zone) (1500 to 2200 m)Within these zones farmers have different experiences withtrees and land management and different knowledge aboutnative tree species BOUNDARY LOWER AND MID CATCHMENT
  16. 16. LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND INFLUENCES• Lack of access to technical knowledge or improved technologies• Little if no interactions with extension agents especially for farmers located upland• Absence of government extension services• Hearsay about successful reforestation programs from neighbouring countries (part. Rwanda)• Hearsay about Leucena sp. widespread negative image (CEPAC project)
  17. 17. LK AND GENDER VARIATIONS Cultural household division of labour: knowledge and interests MEN WOMEN Main concern : FEEDING THE FAMILYfruit groves, construction, hunting, bee- Direct interest in fuel-wood and fruitkeeping, timber trade trees (exotic and indigenous) important for family nutrition and incomewide knowledge of different trees More interested in talking about soil fertility and mainly about cassava anda strong interest in trees their need for cuttings from improved mosaic disease resistant varietiesAND a lot more time to discuss trees
  18. 18. PRIORITIES FOR AGROFORESTRY INTERVENTIONS ELICITED FROM FARMERS1. Fruit trees2. Woodlots3. Restoring soil fertility4. Pastures5. Erosion hotspots (landslides, river, buffer, paths)
  19. 19. 1. FRUIT TREES• Decline in all fruit trees - wild and exotic (war, abandonned groves, trees felled for charcoal)• Important for nutrition, health and income (diversity of trees with different phenology)• Lack of reproduction material Loss of genetic diversity
  20. 20. 1. FRUIT TREESGrown near homestead , River buffer zonesPotentially highly productive systems in gullies and near watercoursesAbsence of grafting and improved reproduction techniquesExtremely severe pest and disease problems and the urgent need to develop IPMprograms – This is causing large scale abandonment of banana based gardens(previously mutli-strata fruit gardens)
  21. 21. 2. WOODLOTS exotic plantations : fuelwood, construction and income source Individual and community plantations dominated by Eucalyptus but also Grevillea and Cypressus Potential for use on marginal upslope fields with low fertilityAlternative plantations (eg. Khaya spp,Terminalia spp, Haegenia abyssinica, Syzygiumsp.) But ambiguous status of native foresttrees
  22. 22. 3. RESTORINGSOIL FERTILITYIN CROP LAND
  23. 23. PROBLEMS IN CROP LANDWIDESPREAD EROSION (SURFACE RUN-OFF PREVENT VERTICAL INCISIONS, GULLYING)FERTILITY LOSS, CROP LOSS , LAND LOSS, PESTS AND DISEASESHUNGER
  24. 24. DOMINANT CULTIVATION PRACTICESLuhongolo traditional practice of verticalstone alignmentIn general trees are absent in crop fieldsSlash and burn field preparationRare application of soil and waterconservation techniques(No contour planting, green terraces, rarehorizontal furrows) Thitonia diversifolia for improvement of short fallow Digging trenches to prevent water from entering fields - Earth banks along pathways
  25. 25. TRADITIONAL AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES Live-fences, boundary plantingNewly established KILONDOLONDO branch Remanants of Boundary planting KIGOHWA (Erythrinacuttings (Ficus cf. tremula) abyssinica) (Nfixer) Practices largely destroyed/abandoned as a result of the wars Small scale recent reintegration of these tree systems can be observed in the landscape Farmers have reproductive knowledge of these trees (mainly through branch cuttings)Live fence MUSHALABA Tetradenia riparia
  26. 26. TRADITIONAL AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES : shade/mulch trees EXAMPLES OF MULTIPURPOSE NATIVE NITROGEN FIXING TREESMuvula (Milicia excelsa) in Musa sp. grove Kishenya (Entada abyssinica) retained with crude pollarding in field
  27. 27. CHALLENGES TO THE ADOPTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY IN CROP LANDCombination of SWC and AF techniques(Contour farming, vegetation strips, livefences)Difficulty to change ‘habits’Negative image of trees competitionwith cropsNew skills requiredPhysical and labour intensive Develop techniques with minimal soil disturbance, least labour intensive,Lack of land tenure security cheap, giving fast results, using local resources
  28. 28. 4. REHABILITATION OF PASTURES Loss of tree cover in previously savannah type zones Bush fire incidence Overgrazing Loss of palatable forage Weeds that exhaust an already fragile soil
  29. 29. EROSION HOTSPOTSLOCAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT WATERSHED FUNCTIONS AND PERTURBATIONS IN THE WATER REGIME EXAMPLE OF THE KALIMABENGE
  30. 30. SEISMIC ZONES AND LANDSLIDES Participatory mapping of erosion and degradation hotspots and information elicited from farmers in the mid-plateaux confirm:• the scientific study conducted on tectonic mouvements, landslides and hydrographic regime in the uvira sub-catchments (Moeyerson et al. 2009) in highlighting zones particulerly prone to erosion, sediment and rock movements and the dangers for downstream communities (cf. cyclical calamities linked to flooding and stone projections)
  31. 31. DEGRADATION HOTSPOTS AND SEDIMENT LOADING Kabundamugere valley
  32. 32. DEGRADATION HOTSPOTS AND SEDIMENT LOADING
  33. 33. DEGRADATION HOTSPOTS AND SEDIMENT LOADINGLoss of fields or grazing area - Perturbations in river regimes (dam formation, domino effect, )Farmers suggest reforestation with a variety of grasses and native trees adapted to these zones(Dombeya sp., Ficus spp, Bamboos) along inside and around landslides
  34. 34. DEGRADATION HOTSPOTS : River banks
  35. 35. RIVER BUFFER ZONE Are river banks negociable space?More fertile land with loamy soils and higher water retentionProductive land for off-season cropsPotential for fruit orchards – native riparian species, nappier grass and bamboos
  36. 36. DEGRADATION HOTSPOTS : Mountain pathways• Dynamic transit zone linking the plain to the high-plateaux
  37. 37. Mountain pathways and dangers
  38. 38. MOUNTAIN PATHS Slope stability and erosionCOLLECTIVE AND/OR INDIVIDUAL REFORESTING ACTIVIESFAST GROWING ANTI-EROSION TREESMINIMUM INTERFERENCE WITH FIELDS
  39. 39. SUMMARY OF OPPORTUNITIES• Agroecological zones suitable to a wide range of tree species• Traditional AF knowledge and practices to build on• Extensive hydrographic network and potential for water harvesting techniques• Knowledge of SWC methods held by agronomist and extension agents, some knowledge of forest nurseries• Existence of numerous peasant organisations• Legal recognition of community forest ownership• Traditional structure for customary land use management• Social cohesion strong in the upper catchment• Markets in Uvira,Bujumbura, Bukavu, Goma
  40. 40. CONSTRAINTS AND BOTTLENECKS• Land scarcity and fragmentation• Bush-fire practices• Construction material• Energy dependency on charcoal• Land tenure• Isolation and lack of voice• Poverty and lack of long term vision• Corruption at all levels of NRM• Disincentive to reforest (tax)• Low integration of women in programs
  41. 41. Knowledge gaps Farmers technical knowledgeSoil and water conservation methodssuch as contour farming, vegetation SUGGESTIONS TO INCREASEstrips, mulch, improved fallows) KNOWLEDGE CAPACITYTree management: Root pruning, spacing Farmer leaders network andfor better integration of trees in fields, Farmer to farmer visits (e.g. Rwanda)Village tree nurseries: seed and seedlingmanagement, grafting and improved Community field demonstrationsreproduction methods Programs specifically targettingIPM for pest and diseases in fruit trees women for soil fertility managementAnimal husbandry (feeding strategies)linked to improved pasture management– fodder trees
  42. 42. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH:• Taxonomic identification and ethno-botanic inventory of native species• Geophysical analysis of landslide zones for design of interventions (mechanical + reforestation ?)• Soil analysis for heavily degraded sites to determine suitable pioneer trees• Domestication of native wild fruit species (e.g. Uapaca spp., Myrianthus holstii)• IPM for fruit grove rehabilitation
  43. 43. THANK YOU!

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