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Current extent and potential of Faidherbia albida and Conservation Agriculture (Evergreen Agriculture) in Ethiopia
 

Current extent and potential of Faidherbia albida and Conservation Agriculture (Evergreen Agriculture) in Ethiopia

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    Current extent and potential of Faidherbia albida and Conservation Agriculture (Evergreen Agriculture) in Ethiopia Current extent and potential of Faidherbia albida and Conservation Agriculture (Evergreen Agriculture) in Ethiopia Presentation Transcript

    • Current extent and potential of Faidherbia albida and Conservation Agriculture (Evergreen A i lt ) i Ethiopia (E Agriculture) in Ethi i Kiros Meles Hadgu (PhD) Mekelle University Ethiopia Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Ethiopia Size Ethiopia covers an area of 1.14 million square Kilometers Population (2004 CSA) Total: 80 million Rular population: 84.87% 84 87% Urban population: 15.13% Density: 59.4/Km2 Average rainfall 850mm in two distinct seasons: the “small rains” during February and March and the “big rains” from June to September. Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Highlands of Ethiopia hold extraordinary landscape Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Challenges… Declining agricultural productivity and food insecurity mainly because of: -Extreme weather events (shortage of rain water/changes in rainfall patterns) Extreme patterns), combined with a low capacity to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change Average Annual Rainfall anomaly (1951-2005) (1951 2005) Average Annual minimum temperature difference (1951-2005) (1951 2005) National average of standardized annual rainfall anomaly compated to 1971-2000 National average annual minimum temprature differnce compared to 1971-2000 normal normal 1.5 1.5 15 1 y = 0.0372x - 1.2835 1 0.5 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -0.5 -1 1 -1 -1.5 -1.5 -2 1951 1954 1957 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 1951 1954 1957 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Challenges… GDP is correlated with Rainfall variability in the country Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Challenges… Land degradation Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Challenges… Declining agricultural productivity and food insecurity mainly because of: poor land management Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Challenges… Loss/decline of trees from farm and communal lands resulting in expansion of agriculture to marginal lands and deforestation resulting in rapid environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity and desertification. Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Challenges… Use of dung, straw, biomass as source of energy: -Nearly 90% of HH energy in Ethiopia Nearly is generated from biomass: - Rural: 81% use fuelwood, -9%d ddund, - 8 % crop residue, and - the rest other sources Removal of biomass results in - Deterioration of chemical and physical soil properties - High soil loss by run off - Reduction in soil productivity Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Challenge… The human population in Ethiopia is expected to double by 2030, at a g growth rate of 2.7% annually. y Food demand is expected to grow even faster, at a rate of 3.6% annually because of the increasing human population and global agricultural markets. Mineral f ili i used much b l the recommended level, Mi l fertilizer is d h below h d dl l The cost of mineral fertilizer is increasing from time to time and farmers may not afford anymore, y y , Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Challenge… Challenge These challenges coupled with climate change and variability Th h ll l d ith li t h d i bilit increases the cost of agricultural production and results in reduced agricultural productivity, food insecurity and environmental degradation. Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • So, how do smallholder farmers improve , p agricultural productivity, food security and environmental resilience? Sustainable Alternative: Through restoring exhausted soils to improve crop productivity, productivity food security and environmental resilience through Agroforestry (Faidherbia and other spp) Based Conservation Agriculture (CAWT): pp) g ( ) Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Objective To assess the current extent of Faidherbia and Conservation Agriculture practices at the smallholder farmers level in Ethiopia. Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Study Sites Tigray Gondar Eastern Hararghe East Shoa Konso Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi Fig1. Location of the study areas in Ethiopia.  12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Data collection and analysis methods Data collection involved desk studies, expert consultations and discussion with key informants and household surveys. y y Sample sites were selected by employing a transect of East- West d N th S th from diff W t and North-South f different altitude zones in the t ltit d i th country. A stratified random sampling was used, i.e. strata altitude zones across transects (East-West, North-South). Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Cont.... To get historical information on the extent of agricultural land uses and agroforestry practices will be discussed with farmers, extension workers, local administrators and f i k l l d i i d decision makers Household survey A sample of 115 households were used for individual interview p which included both male and female headed households. Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Cont.... Ancillary data Altitude and geographic coordinates of each sample farm were also measured using a pressure altimeter and g p Garmin etrex Summit 2000 hand held GPS (GARMIN International Inc., Kansas). Area of farmers’ fields were measured using the GPS, and the number of Faidherbia albida trees and crops growing under the tree were recorded. Crop yield estimates (farmer’s estimate per ha), crop diversity (number of crop type grown per farm) amount of mineral farm), fertilizer used per ha and livestock holding per farm were collected. Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Cont.... Visual assessment and quantification of the sample farms in terms of conservation agriculture practices was made. made Farmers were asked why they decide to practice conservation y y p agriculture practices and Faidherbia albida based farming. Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Cont.... Farmers’ soil fertility classes (e.g. high, medium and low F ’ il f ili l ( hi h di dl soil fertility) based on yield, soil water holding capacity, colour, colour texture and depth stoniness and steepness depth, stoniness, steepness. Visual assessment was made on the status of soil erosion of the sample farms. To help us easily distinguish the soil erosion status of the farms, five classes of soil erosion were considered: no, low, moderate, no low moderate high and extremely high erosion, erosion corresponding with no noticeable erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, sheet and rill erosion together, and gully erosion Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Statistical Analysis Descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, Redundancy analysis (RDA) were employed in SPSS and CANOCO statistical packages to describe current extent of Faidherbia albida and conservation agriculture practices. Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • RESULT Attitude f Attit d of respondent farmers on Faidherbia albida d tf F idh bi lbid Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Cont… Benefits of Faidherbia albida according to the respondent farmers Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Cont… Relationship between relative Faidherbia density, amount of mineral fertilizer and grain yield (compared to the maximum of these variables in the data set) Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Cont… Faidherbia density in relation to explanatory variables y p y 1.0 Medium Faid No. Livestock PlotSize Beehives Fetilize Amt Low Faid High Fiad Hi h Fi d Altitude Grain yield No. crop types -1.0 -1.0 1.0 Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Cont… Conservation agriculture (a) and Soil and Water Conservation practices (b) (a) (b) Conservation agriculture practices Soil and Water Conservation practices Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • CAWT practices in Ethiopia -Minimum tillage: Hoe tillage and ox-drawn plough (10 – 12 cm deep) Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • CAWT practices… - Crop rotation and mixing/intercropping (diversification) ( ) Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • CAWT practices… - In situ soil and water conservation structures: il d i Deep trench Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • CAWT practices… - In situ soil and water conservation structures Tree planting in Half moon: Deep trenched Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • CAWT practices… - Soil and water conservation structures Gully h bilit ti G ll rehabilitation Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • CAWT practices… - Soil and water conservation structures Rehabilitated G ll R h bilit t d Gully Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • CAWT practices… - Soil and water conservation structures: Communal land -stone terrace, -stone bund, -earth bund Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • CA Research site CAWT practices… - Few examples of Permanent soil cover not enough to cover the whole off-season Farmers fields influenced by the CA Research Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Zero grazing in some villages CAWT practices… - Maintaining il M i t i i soil cover through th h Zero grazing and cut/carry systems (practiced in few villages) Cut and Carry livestock feeding Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • But still… There are CA constraints. CA practices also vary from farmer to f f farmer, community to community and district to i i d di i district. - Among others, the main constraint is removing soil cover through harvesting of crop residue and free grazing by g g p g g y livestock (the highest number in the continent) Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Sustainable Alternative? Integrate Conservation Agriculture With Trees (Fertilizer and fodder trees like Faidherbia albida) ) Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Integrating CA With Trees (CAWT), with F. albida as a keystone species to: - E i h soil fertility through N fixation and nutrient cycling, Enrich il f tilit th h fi ti d ti t li - Improve soil structure and minimize soil erosion, - Increase water infiltration and recharge ground water water, - Maintain vegetative soil cover mainly during the dry season,, - Provide feed for livestock, bee forage, fuel wood and income from sale, - Environmental rehabilitation and Carbon sequestration, and - Enrich Biodiversity. Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Benefits of CAWT… Soil fertility enrichment through N fixation and nutrient cycling, Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Benefits of CAWT… - Improve soil structure and minimize soil erosion il d i i i il i Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Benefits of CAWT… - Increase water infiltration and recharge ground water, Faidherbia covered area in upper catchments called locally Water Bank (Northern Ethiopia) Shallow water wells at lower catchments Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Benefits of CAWT… - Maintain vegetative soil cover mainly during the dry season,, Faidherbia albida dominated farmlands (northern Ethiopia) Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Benefits of CAWT… - Provide feed and shade for livestock id d d h d li k Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Benefits of CAWT… - Provide bee forage during the dry season when other flowering plants are getting dry. fl i l i d Huge amount of flower per mature F. albida tree
    • Benefits of CAWT… - Generate income from sale of products.
    • Benefits of CAWT… - Generate income from sale of products.
    • Benefits of CAWT… - Generate income from sale of products.
    • Benefits of CAWT… - Environmental rehabilitation, Carbon sequestration, and biodiversity enrichment bi di it i h t F. Albida on farmland F. Albida on communal land
    • Development Strategies/Programmes of Ethiopia favors CAWT Principles/Objectives: Ethi i f P i i l /Obj ti - Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) - Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) - Agricultural and Rural development strategies - New Coalition for Food Security - Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) - Increasing forest cover - Sustainable land management (SLM) program - Agricultural growth program
    • CAWT and Development policies of Ethiopia - have the potential to improve food crop productivity, food security and income of households through improvements in soil quality, moisture/water availability and feed/forage sources for livestock and beehives. b hi
    • Cont… CAWT can improve food crop productivity, food security and income of households through improvements in soil quality, moisture/water availability and f d/f il bilit d feed/forage sources for livestock and beehives. f li t k d b hi
    • Cont… CAWT can improve food crop productivity, food security and income of households through improvements in soil quality, moisture/water availability and f d/f il bilit d feed/forage sources for livestock and beehives. f li t k d b hi Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • Concluding Remark/Way forward There are good practices of Conservation Agriculture With Trees in Ethiopia although they vary from community to community in different parts of Ethiopia. Conservation Agriculture With Trees has the potential to restore ecosystem while providing ecosystem service and mitigate climate change. h Food security (increasing food production in a sustainable way) can be ensured by increasing productivity of crops and soils through Conservation Agriculture With Trees (e.g., appropriate use of local agroforestry resources such as Faidherbia trees). It is high time to scale-up Conservation Agriculture With Trees in the country. country Presented at the World Agro forestry Centre , Nairobi 12 August 2010 Organized by ICRAF-East Africa
    • THANK YOU! A O !