Why briquettes?!
•  Cooking	
  	
  with	
  brique0es	
  is	
  9	
  and	
  15	
  (mes	
  cheaper	
  than	
  lump	
  charcoa...
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Cooking fuel briquettes for sustainable communities in Kenya

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Cooking fuel briquettes for sustainable communities in Kenya

  1. 1. Why briquettes?! •  Cooking    with  brique0es  is  9  and  15  (mes  cheaper  than  lump  charcoal  and   kerosene,  respec9vely.     •  Produc9on  of  fuel  brique0es  creates  employment,  generates  income,   empowers  women  grassroot  groups,  cleans  neighbourhoods  and  saves  trees.     •  Turning  the  10-­‐15%  waste  charcoal  dust  from  the  charcoal  supply  chain  into   brique0es  produces  over  15%  addi(onal  cooking  fuel.       •  Brique0es  made  from  charcoal  dust  (80%)  and  soil  (20%)  burn  more  regularly   and  longer  than  charcoal  (4  h  vs  2.5  h);  this  allows  communi9es  to  maintain   their  nutri9ous,  slow-­‐cooked  tradi9onal  diets  (Njenga  et  al,  2013).     •  They  lower  household  air  pollu(on.  Carbon  monoxide  (CO)  and  fine   par9culate  ma0er  (PM2.5)  emissions  from  brique0es  are  a  third  and  a  ninth,   respec9vely,  of  what  lump  charcoal  emits.   •  Brique0es  generate  between  14-­‐25kJ/g  of  energy,  which  is  comparable  to   25kJ/g  for  lump  charcoal.   Objec(ves   •  To  evaluate  fuel  brique0e  produc9on  technologies  and  their  effects  on   energy  efficiency   •  To  compare  household  air  quality  from  fuel  brique0es  vs.  charcoal     •  To  evaluate  the  impact  on  global  warming  poten9al  (GWP)  from  the  use   of  fuel  brique0es   •  To  determine  the  social-­‐economic  benefits  accruing  to  communi9es  from   the  produc9on  and  use  of  fuel  brique0es.     Need  for  affordable  and  cleaner  cooking  fuel   Biomass  energy  is  the  cheapest  and  most  important  cooking  fuel  for  families  in   developing  countries.  But  there  are  nega9ve  health  and  environmental  effects,  as   well  as  issues  of  accessibility  and  affordability,  associated  with  the  use  of  firewood   and  charcoal.  More  appropriate  biomass  energy  op9ons  for  the  rural  and  urban   poor  are  needed.     Brique0es  are  cheaper  and  cleaner  than  charcoal  and  firewood.  They  reduce   indoor  air  pollu(on,  burn  longer,  and  cost  a  frac9on  of  the  price  of  regular  fuels.   Brique0es  are  made  by  mixing  organic  residues  with  water  and  a  binder  (e.g.   paper  or  soil).  This  mixture  is  compacted  and  shaped  into  brique0es  which  are   then  dried  in  the  sun  and  later  used.       Brique0es  can  help  meet  the  increasing  demand  for  cooking  energy  while  saving   trees.   Conclusions  and  recommenda(ons   •  Fuel  brique0es  provide  affordable  and  clean  cooking  energy  –a   good  innova9on  to  scale  up.   •  They  are  easy  to  adopt  (a  “low-­‐cost  shiH”),  since  they  are  used  in   the  same  way  and  in  the  same  cookstoves  as  lump  charcoal.   •  A  system  analysis  considering  impacts  of  fuel  briqueKes  on  health,   nutri(on  and  environment  is  needed  to  aid  more  widespread   adop9on  and  to  iden9fy  major  knowledge  gaps  in  the  value  chain.     References: Njenga. M., Yonemitsu, A., Karanja, N., Iiyama, M., Kithinji, J., Dubbeling M., Sundberg, C and Jamnadass, R. (2013). Implications of charcoal briquette produced by local communities on livelihoods and environment in Nairobi, Kenya. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development (IJRED). 2 (1) 19-29. Studies  on  the  innova(on   •  An  evalua9on  of  the  sources  and   materials  used  for  brique0e  produc9on   by  community  groups  in  poor  areas  of   Nairobi  and  its  peripheries.   •  Experiments  to  develop  higher  quality   fuel  brique0es   •  A  survey  of  cooking  fuel  types  used   among  199  households  in  Kibera  located   within  a  250-­‐m  radius  of  a  brique0e   produc9on  site.   •  Studies  of  the  quality  of  fuel  brique0es   made  by  local  communi9es  and  in  the   laboratory.  Combus9on  proper9es  were   measured  using  infrared  (IR)  spectroscopy   and  wet  chemistry;  and  carbon  monoxide   (CO),  fine  par9culate  ma0er  (PM2.5)  and   carbon  dioxide  (CO2)  emissions  were   measured  in  a  kitchen  simula9ng   household  cooking  condi9ons.   Selling  and  use  of  fuel  brique1es  for  cooking  in  Nairobi     Cooking-­‐fuel  briquettes  for  sustainable  communities  in  Kenya     Health,  wealth,  nutrition  and  environmental  gains  from  recycling  waste  charcoal  and  biomass   Mary Njenga1*, Nancy Karanja2, Miyuki Iiyama1 and Ramni Jamnadass1   1World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) ; 2University of Nairobi   Producing  fuel  brique1es  using   recycled  plas8c  cans,  metal  and   wooden  presses  in  Nairobi   CONTACT:     m.njenga   @cgiar.org  

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