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Cbp Best Practice Simons
 

Cbp Best Practice Simons

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Cbp Best Practice Simons Cbp Best Practice Simons Presentation Transcript

  • Best Practices Support on: Where to plant – trees suitable for your area Which to plant – sources of tree seeds How to plant – good tree nursery practices What to plant – trees suitable for your purposes How to engage communities and scale up
  • The climate agenda Solving the climate change problem is as much a social problem as it is a technical and economic problem “ Why should I care about future generations – what have they ever done for me?” Groucho Marx
  • The right tree for the right place 1. Trees for Products 2. Trees for Services fruit firewood medicine income sawnwood fodder soil fertility carbon sequestration soil erosion watershed protection shade biodiversity
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  • fruit firewood medicine construction soil fertility fodder Firewood Medicine Construction Fruit Soil fert. Fodder Cameroon Uganda Western Kenya Meru, Kenya 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Number of farms 0 25 50 75 100 125 0 25 50 75 100 125 Number of species
  • Imagine there are 155 trees of 16 species in a farmer’s field of 1.6 hectares. A farmer can do one of 4 things … ..
  • Woody Interventions
    • A. Replacement
    • harvest Grevillea, replant with
    • Grevillea (improved or not)
    • B. Substitution
    • harvest Grevillea, replant with Vitex
    • C. Expansion
    • increase number of trees from 155,
    • and increase number of species from
    • 16, of both planted and nat. reg. trees
    • Management
    • better manage existing and new trees
    • (spacing, thinning, pruning, harvesting)
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  • Interpolated surface layers Afro-alpine Montane scrubland and moorland Bamboo Crosses indicate 10%-25%-75%-90% quantiles and are centred on mean Altitude Dry montane forest Evergreen bushland Upland Acacia Lowland Acacia-Commiphora Precipitation
  • Forests dry montane moist montane dry intermediate moist intermediate Convex hulls delineate all observations; line types show concentric hulls after outer hull was left out Altitude Precipitation
  • Woodlands Upland Acacia lowland Acacia- Commiphora Altitude Precipitation
  • Savannas Moist Combretum-Terminalia Impeded Acacia Dry Combretum Upland Acacia Mixtures of evergreen bushland and broad- leaved savanna Altitude Precipitation
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  • Correspondence to other vegetation classification schemes What happened with evergreen and semi-evergreen bushland, semi-evergreen thickets and in the western part of the map? Boundary between lowland Acacia types? Olson et al. 2001. 1:5,000,000 From White
  • Current patterns of indigenous tree diversity around Mount Kenya Survey by Ogi et al. 250 quadrats of 50 × 100 m 2 within map 279 indigenous tree species (174 species also in literature description)
  • Total and shared species richness between literature and current species assemblages Potential Natural Vegetation Type n Species total (literature) (Based on total shared) Species confirmed by survey % Species total (survey) Kulczynski ecological distance Moist intermediate forest 57 105 51 31 61% 82 0.41 Dry Combretum 40 23 21 18 86% 108 0.45 Dry montane forest 37 91 58 31 53% 83 0.42 Moist montane forest 37 99 46 30 65% 85 MIF (dif 0.005) Lowland Acacia-Commiphora 25 92 48 35 73% 102 0.36 Evergreen bushland 16 44 38 18 47% 52 0.47 Dry intermediate forest 15 74 49 27 55% 63 0.43 Upland Acacia 7 22 20 6 30% 35 ST (dif 0.108) Acacia (impeded) 6 28 18 5 28% 18 UA (dif 0.042) Semi-evergreen thicket 6 29 19 6 32% 52 DC (dif 0.233)
  • Selection of species for agroecosystem diversification
    • Select frequent species? Promote underutilized species? Balance with exotic species?
    • Timber, for example
      • All confirmed species?
      • Faster growing primary species with relatively high current frequencies?
        • Juniperus procera (49 and 27% of quadrats in dry forests)
        • Vitex keniensis (19 and 18% of quadrats in moist forests)
      • Faster growing primary species with low current frequencies?
        • Hagenia abyssinica (1 quadrat), Zanthoxylum gillettii (none), Podocarpus latifolius (none)
      • Slower growing primary species?
        • Olea europaea (22%), Ocotea usambarensis (1 quadrat), Cassipourea malosana (2 quadrats), Podocarpus falcatus (none)
  • Small-scale saw mill Large-scale saw mill Small-holder production Large-holder production Industrial plantations Out-grower schemes Independent growers
  • Tree management for timber
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  • Nursery operators = extension officers of future
  • 2008: Guideline for Allanblackia species germplasm (both seeds and vegetative materials) supply produced.  Munjuga et al . 2008..
      • Ghana
    • Allanblackia gene banks established in Ghana (2008)
    • Established 3 mother blocks (20 accessions each)
    • Agroforestry plot established Allanblackia with Cocoa + forest trees
    • Allanblackia + food crops trials set up
    • Demo plots with different propagules has been set up
    • Capacity building: (2007 onwards…)
    • 3 PhD students
    • 2 M.Sc.
    • 4 Undergraduates on AB projects
    • Training workshops in Ghana, Tanzania, Nigeria
  • Timber management: pruning
  • Timber management: thinning
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  • seed Felled tree at farm gate Nursery seedling Sapling in field Log at timber yard Standing pole in field sowing, watering, tending Timber Value Chain (per standing tree) Standing tree in field Pole at farm gate Pole in merchant yard Sawn wood at timber yard Planting, weeding, protecting thinning, pruning, protecting thinning, pruning, protecting Felling, limbing, stacking Transport, sizing, stacking Felling, limbing, cutting, stacking Transport, sizing, stacking Sawing, grading, stacking (year 1) (year 2) (year 9) (year 16) Assumptions : For Vitex grown in Meru Seed germination 60% Nursery survival 85% Field survival 70% 15 year rotation Three lengths 2.8m a 40cm dbh Sawnwood recovery 40% Carbonprice $14 per tonne Wood density 0.65 tree, 0.55 pole Product value $0.86 $2.52 $6.30 $6.30 $9.45 $0.01 $0.86 $1.15 Carbon value (total) (If use half life cycle of 30 years and Roy and Phelps decay curve then 15% of carbon still stored at 100 years) Farmer Project Manager Broker Buyer Carbon Value Chain $8.08 $12.01 $14.00 Gross – with no: Community risk DNA verification $0.01 $0.30 $7.14 $8.57 $17.14 $42.85 $50.00 $64.28 $128.57 If 15% is permanent then it equals US$0.37
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  • Wide variation even in one species
  • Example 1: African Plum Creation of a cultivar
  • Noel cultivar (out of season variety, yield US$20 per tree per year) … developing elite varieties
  • WCA-Sahel GRP1, GRP3 Baobab nutritional values
  • Cocoa Tree of Change Symposium 28-30 October 2008 World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Cocoa Biology and Ecology: the tree in the system
  • Frequency of shaded cocoa in West Africa Gockowski et al., (unpublished) (shade as % canopy cover) Number h/holds surveyed No shade Shade < 30% Shade 30-60% Shade > 60% Cameroon 1,852 8% 33% 44% 15% Cote D’Ivoire 1,785 28% 44% 16% 12% Ghana 1,873 28% 42% 25% 5% Nigeria 3,101 3% 47% 48% 2%
  • Land suitable for CDM Afforestation according to tree canopy cover as forest definition % increase from 10-30% Difference (hectares) Cote d’Ivoire 1583% 7.7 million Ghana 1063% 6.8 million Nigeria 446% 19.5 million
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  • Kontalakiti (Chichewa) Kontalakiti iyi ndi yapakati pa olemba ntchito ndi ICRAF – The World Agroforestry Centre (olembedwa ntchito) pantchito yodzala mbande za mitengo ya m’bawa pa malo anga a panyumba pano. Ndondomeko zili m’munsizi zidzagwila ntchito pa nthawi yokwanila zaka zitatu ndipo zidzatsatidwa. Legality, conformity, consent and contracts
    • Pazaka zitatu za kontalakitiyi imeneyi:
    • 1. Olembedwa ntchito (mwinimalo) adzachita izi:
          • 1.1 Kukonza malo ake okwanila hafu la ekala kuti adzalepo mitengo.
          • 1.2 Kudzala mitengo ya m’bawa pamalopa pa mlingo wothithikana wokwanila
          • mtengo umodzi pa mamitala okwana awiri ndi theka (2.5 meters)
          • 1.3 Kubwera ku maphunzilo azakonzedwe ka malo, madzalidwe, ndi kasamalidwe
          • ka mbande za mtengo wa m’bawa okonzedwa ndi bungwe la ICRAF kapena
          • alangizi a zaulimi
          • 1.4 Kusamala mbande za mitengoyi pa kupalira, kutsilira ndi zina zotero monga
          • mmene zimafunikira kuti mbewu zikule bwino
  • Influence of Distance to Market Centre and Tenure on Net Returns to Land
  • Rural Resource Centre satellite nursery farmer’s fields satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery satellite nursery 1 Rural Resource Centre serves 10-30 satellite nurseries 1 Satellite nursery serves 20-50 farmers 1 farmer growing 10-100 trees 1 Rural Resource Centre for each 200-1500 farmers (av. 800) 1 RRC leads to 2000 – 150,000 (av. 40,000)
  • A suite of rapid assessment tools (IPGs)…
  •