Howard'Yana*Shapiro,*PhD*
Chief*Agricultural*Officer*
Mars*Advanced*Science*InsAtute*Fellow*
Senior*Fellow*Plant*Sciences*
*...
It*is*Difficult*to*be*the*Agent*of*
Change*
*
The*System*Likes*the*Present*Order*
More*Than*
Discovering*the*Future*
*
2*
Why&Cacao&Science,&&Human&Health,&
Genomics&and&Sustainability?&
&&Without*new*science*the*industry*will*stagnate,*one*onl...
4
Cacao&Flavanols&[Flavan434ols&and&Procyanidins]&
Clinical Research | June 03, 2008 !
Sustained Benefits in Vascular Function Through Flavanol-Containing Cocoa in
Medicated...
The&Science&of&Cacao&
August*2012:*Cacao*flavanol*consumpAon*shown*to*improve*cogniAve*funcAon*
Desideri*et*al.*Hypertensio...
1960*
1945*
1990*
1973*
Cacao*and*Ca`le*
The*Ma`a*AtlanAca*
Rainforest*in*Bahia,*Brazil*
IntegraAon*of*Trees*in*Farms:*Brazil*
10*
Part*Two*
The*Kumasi*Consensus*&**
The*2nd*World*Congress*of*Agroforestry*
Develop*comprehensive*mulA'sector*strategies*for*science,...
Sustainable**
Cacao**IniAaAve*
*Cacao*Science*
Mapping*the*Cacao*
Genome*
Using*Marker*Assisted*
SelecAon*to*develop*more*...
ECONOMIC**
ISSUES*
• Low*farmer*income*
• Inability*to*invest*in*
farms*
• No*new*planAng*
material**
• Limited*use*of*
fe...
Vision*for*Change*
A*“ProducAvity*Package”*with*all*3*elements*to*
farmers*
*
Graned*best*current*plant*material,*even*be`...
June*26th*2008*Mars*announced*it*would*sequence*the*cacao*genome.**We*also*
announced*it*would*give*it*away.**Enormous*med...
*******************
Uncommon&Collabora,on&
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&IBM&
Wall*Street*Journal*May,*2009*
27*
INDIANA*
UNIVERSITY*
Howard4Yana&Shapiro&
Juan&Carlos&Motamayor&
Ray&Schnell&
David&Kuhn&
Brian&Scheffler&
Isidore&Rigoutsos...
Witches’&Broom&inoculated&pods&
Tolerant&clones&
&
'TSH*1188*
'TSH*516*
Suscep,ble&clone&
&
'Amelonado*
GeneAc*Resistance*...
6719
10635
4995
6612
4199
6393
3765
4338
2732
4554
2669
3156
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
PH 16 PH 16 CCN 51 CCN 51
4...
V4C*Empowering*Cacao*Farmers*
*Need*to*drive*yields*to*1500*kgs+*/*Ha*
*Change*must*occur*on*current*land*or*rehabilitated...
Success*is*complex*
VerAcal*integraAon*for*all*Uncommon&Collaborators,*from*governments*to*
farmers*and*all*in*between.***...
We*know*how*to*increase*yields*3x*
Note: Poverty level defined as income of $1/day/person
Source: World Development Report...
InnovaAve*Farm*RehabilitaAon*
Older*ways*of*training*farmers*will*not*work**
*Good*Agricultural*PracAces*do*not*drive*chan...
Capacity*building*and*capacity*mobilisaAon:**
State*of*our*collaborator,*CNRA*HQ*in*Abidjan,**
Cote*d’Ivoire*August*2011* ...
THE&WORLD&AGROFORESTRY&CENTRE&
You*cannot*do*it*alone!*
You*must*have*partners*on*the*ground*
Choose*your*partners*from*sh...
Change*the*Model*of*Training*
V4C*ImplementaAon:**Uncommon*
CollaboraAon*
•  V4C in 2011
•  Community
Development
•  V4C in 2012-2013
•  Productivity
V4C&in&2011&
Staffing&and&facili,es&
Staff&
Soubre*
San*Pedro*
Field&Office&&&Training&
centre&
5*CDC*Offices*
DemonstraAon**
nur...
V4C&in&201142013&
Community&Development&
&
5&CDC&Administra,ve&Unit&
(Terroir)&mapped&
3&Local&development&plan&–
Terroir&...
V4C&in&2011&
&
Introduce grafting
technologies to
revitalize old
cacao plantations
Transforming
cacao landscape
And lives
*
&
V4C*in*2012*&
Plan,ng&Material&&
&
Investments&
IrrigaAon*faciliAes*
Laboratory*faciliAes*for*
SomaAc*Embryogenesis*
*Pr...
&
V4C&in&201142014&&
Plan,ng&Material&&
&
CNRA**
3.5*ha*clonal*gardens*with*15*clones*
PotenAel*300*000*budwoods*sAcks*
*
...
Graning*for*RehabilitaAon*
4&weeks&ajer&grajing&
9&months&ajer&grajing&more&than&30&pods&
Demonstrate*The*Value*of*FerAlizer*
Shared*Value*of*Standards*Leading*to**
3rd*Party*CerAficaAon*
*Economic*power*built**on*higher*yields*(1500k+),*coupled*wit...
The*Only*Future*Is*Sustainable*
ProducAon!**
At*the*2nd*World*Congress*on*
Agroforestry*
*I*said:*
We*will*not*cerAfy*poverty!*
*
Today,*let*be*absolutely*clear:*
We*w...
Part*3*
49*
300 die
We want to improve human health
through making plants more
nutritious!
The*African*Orphan*Crops*ConsorAum*
*was*formed*in*2011*
*
The*African*Plant*Breeding*Academy**
opened*December*2nd*2013,*...
! ! ! ! !
Ayodeji(Abe,(Ph.D.(
Nigeria
Ngozi(Eucharia(Abu,(Ph.D.(
Nigeria!
Olagorite(A.(Adetula,(Ph.D.(
Nigeria!
Daniel(Ade...
The*first*26*of*101*Genomes*will*be**
Sequenced,*Assembled*and*
Annotated**
in*2014**
15*of*the*crops*are*trees*
It*is*an*Uncommon*CollaboraAon*
*
BGI*(Beijing*Genomic*InsAtute)*Will*
Produce*the*101*Reference*
Genomes*Fully*Sequenced,*
Assembled*and*Annotated**
Resequencing*of*CulAvars*Will*Be*
Done*at*the*African*Plant*Breeding*
Academy*at*ICRAF*
Using*the*Life*Technologies**
Ion*...
Big*Data*
That*is*101*genomes*resequenced*with*between*100*and*150*
culAvars.***
Do*the*math,*between*10,100*and*15,150*se...
Breeding*with*Genomics*in*the*Public*Domain*
Whole*Genome*Reference*Sequence*
Resequence*
SNPs/indels*
AnnotaAon*
Genotype...
To*significantly*improve*the*
nutriAon*of*an*enAre*conAnent*
And*posiAvely**
affect*the**
development*of*
every*child,*
shall*India*or*China*be*the*next*
Uncommon*CollaboraAon?*
67*
“Success*is*ConAnuously**Evolving*
Support*and*Discovery”*
*
(Pal*Singh,2014)***
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro
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A Business Case for Agroforestry: Sustainable & Supply - Howard Shapiro

  1. 1. Howard'Yana*Shapiro,*PhD* Chief*Agricultural*Officer* Mars*Advanced*Science*InsAtute*Fellow* Senior*Fellow*Plant*Sciences* *The*University*of*California,*Davis** Fellow*The*World*Agroforestry*Centre* * Uncommon&Collabora,on:& Flavonoids,&Flavanols,&Flavan434ols,&the&Theobroma& Cacao&Genome&and&Visions&for&Change:& A&Business&Case&for&Agroforestry:&&Sustainable&Supply& The&3rd&World&Congress&on&Agroforestry& 11&February&2014&New&Delhi&
  2. 2. It*is*Difficult*to*be*the*Agent*of* Change* * The*System*Likes*the*Present*Order* More*Than* Discovering*the*Future* * 2*
  3. 3. Why&Cacao&Science,&&Human&Health,& Genomics&and&Sustainability?& &&Without*new*science*the*industry*will*stagnate,*one*only*has*to** ********look*at*yields,*disease*resistance,*adaptability*to*see*the*future* **No*single*scienAfic*advance*will*sustain*an*industry* **Soils*are*as*important*as*sequencing* **Mycorrhizae*are*as*important*as*markeAng* **Phytoecology*is*as*important*as*pathogenicity* **Needs*to*be*demand'*driven*not*supply'led*(esp.*by*farmers)* **Not*all*of*science*developed*will*work* **Possible*≠*Feasible*≠*PracAcal*≠*Profitable* Remember*the*biggest*consumers*of*cacao*are*insects,** *********fungus*and*viruses* It*will*cost*money* *Must*be* fundamental*and*translaAonal * *******************************************************************************(from*Tony*Simons)* 3*
  4. 4. 4 Cacao&Flavanols&[Flavan434ols&and&Procyanidins]&
  5. 5. Clinical Research | June 03, 2008 ! Sustained Benefits in Vascular Function Through Flavanol-Containing Cocoa in Medicated Diabetic Patients: A Double-Masked, Randomized, Controlled Trial Jan Balzer, MD*; Tienush Rassaf, MD*; Christian Heiss, MD*; Petra Kleinbongard, PhD*; Thomas Lauer, MD*; Marc Merx, MD*; Nicole Heussen, PhD†; Heidrun B. Gross, PhD‡; Carl L. Keen, PhD‡; Hagen Schroeter, PhD§; Malte Kelm, MD* * Department for Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Vascular Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany † Department of Medical Statistics, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany ‡ Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, California § Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, Maryland. & Conclusion:**Diets*rich*in*flavanols*reverse*vascular* dysfuncAon*in*diabetes,*highlighAng*therapeuAc* potenAals*in*cardiovascular*disease.* * 5*
  6. 6. The&Science&of&Cacao& August*2012:*Cacao*flavanol*consumpAon*shown*to*improve*cogniAve*funcAon* Desideri*et*al.*Hypertension.*(2012)*60(3):794'801.
  7. 7. 1960* 1945* 1990* 1973* Cacao*and*Ca`le* The*Ma`a*AtlanAca* Rainforest*in*Bahia,*Brazil*
  8. 8. IntegraAon*of*Trees*in*Farms:*Brazil*
  9. 9. 10*
  10. 10. Part*Two*
  11. 11. The*Kumasi*Consensus*&** The*2nd*World*Congress*of*Agroforestry* Develop*comprehensive*mulA'sector*strategies*for*science,* technology*and*development,**bringing*together*all*stakeholder* views.** * Bundle*the*scienAfic*values*with*cerAficaAon*for*sustainable* producAon,*intensified*yields*and*diversificaAon*of*cacao*agroforestry* systems*to*change*the*enAre*supply*chain*globally** “Mars&will&not&cer,fy&poverty”& & Develop*Yield*PotenAal*understanding*to*benchmark*global* producAon*figures* * Build*coaliAons/partnerships*of*Governments'Industries'UniversiAes' Farmers'Research*InsAtuAons*to*jointly*solve*the*problems**** All*players*have*to*be*at*the*table.** No*one*part*of*the*soluAon*can*do*this*alone* Put*aside*long*standing*myths*
  12. 12. Sustainable** Cacao**IniAaAve* *Cacao*Science* Mapping*the*Cacao* Genome* Using*Marker*Assisted* SelecAon*to*develop*more* producAve*trees* * Technology*Transfer* Vision*for*Change* * CerAficaAon** 100%*sustainable*cerAfied* cacao*by*2020*
  13. 13. ECONOMIC** ISSUES* • Low*farmer*income* • Inability*to*invest*in* farms* • No*new*planAng* material** • Limited*use*of* ferAlizer* • No*quality* incenAves* SOCIAL*ISSUES* • Low*availability*of* social*services* • Poor*access*to* health*care** &*educaAon* • Declining*interest*in* cocoa*farming* • Increased*urban** migraAon* ENVIRONMENTAL* ISSUES* • Declining*soil* ferAlity* • Aging*trees* • Pest*&*disease* exposure* • Loss*of*biodiversity* • New*land* unavailable* • DeforestaAon* DECLINING** CACAO*YIELDS** AND*QUALITY* Cacao*Cycle*of* Decline* 24*
  14. 14. Vision*for*Change* A*“ProducAvity*Package”*with*all*3*elements*to* farmers* * Graned*best*current*plant*material,*even*be`er* material*in*the*future*enabled*by*the*cacao* genome** * Cacao*specific*ferAlizer* * Rural*sector*financing*
  15. 15. June*26th*2008*Mars*announced*it*would*sequence*the*cacao*genome.**We*also* announced*it*would*give*it*away.**Enormous*media*response.**Quickly,*the* public*domain*release*is*seized*upon*as*a*new*paradigm*in*geneAcs.* * On*September*15th**2010,*Mars,*IBM*and*the*U.S.*Department*of*Agriculture' Agriculture*Research*Service**(USDA'ARS)*and*our*partners*completed*a*two*and* a*quarter*year*effort*to*sequence*assemble*and*annotate*the*cacao*genome.* * Approximately*$8*million*contribuAon*from*Mars,*Incorporated** * Will*allow*cacao*breeders*to*make*decisions*quickly*on*producing*high'yielding,* climate*resilient,*disease'resistant*cacao*plants.* Put*in*the*public*domain*through*the*Public*Intellectual*Property*Resource*for* Agriculture*(PIPRA),*the*cacao*genome*will*not*be*patented.** Sequencing,*Assembling*and*AnnotaAng*the* Cacao*Genome*
  16. 16. ******************* Uncommon&Collabora,on& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&IBM& Wall*Street*Journal*May,*2009* 27*
  17. 17. INDIANA* UNIVERSITY* Howard4Yana&Shapiro& Juan&Carlos&Motamayor& Ray&Schnell& David&Kuhn& Brian&Scheffler& Isidore&Rigoutsos& Niina&Haiminen& Dorrie&Main& Alan&BenneZ& Richard&Michelmore& Chris&Saski& Alex&Feltus& Keithanne&Mockai,s& Greg&May& Tim&Harkins& The*Cacao*Genome* Sequencing*Project* 28*
  18. 18. Witches’&Broom&inoculated&pods& Tolerant&clones& & 'TSH*1188* 'TSH*516* Suscep,ble&clone& & 'Amelonado* GeneAc*Resistance* WB& WB& WB& WB& WB& WB& WB& WB& WB& NAP*23* NB=31* TAP*10* NB=4* WB& WB& Resistance** to*Witches’** broom* 29*
  19. 19. 6719 10635 4995 6612 4199 6393 3765 4338 2732 4554 2669 3156 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 PH 16 PH 16 CCN 51 CCN 51 4 X 2 m 3,5 X 1,5 m 4 X 2 m 3,5 X 1,5 m Kg/Ha POTENTIAL PREDICTED REAL Yield*PotenAal* Globally*the*yield*is*450*kgs*per*ha**
  20. 20. V4C*Empowering*Cacao*Farmers* *Need*to*drive*yields*to*1500*kgs+*/*Ha* *Change*must*occur*on*current*land*or*rehabilitated*land* Expanded*land*use*and*deforestaAon*is*not*the*answer** *Farmers*must*have*criAcal*inputs*available* *Improved*planAng*material*made*available*via*budwood/somaAc* *embryogenesis*for*graning*or*improved*hybrid*seed* Appropriate,*effecAve*and*affordable*ferAlizer* Pest*and*disease*soluAons* Savings,*crop*insurance,*macro*and*micro*credit*instruments* Outreach*and*success*promoted*via*responsible*naAonal*standards* Shared*knowledge*and*value* Science*translated*to*the*Farmer’s*field*
  21. 21. Success*is*complex* VerAcal*integraAon*for*all*Uncommon&Collaborators,*from*governments*to* farmers*and*all*in*between.*** Remember*Edmund*Phelps,*Nobel*Laureate*Economics*thoughts*on*ag* *“…there*will*be*winners*and*losers.**The*early*adaptors*win…”* Mars*leads*and*a*few*of*our*compeAtors*are*becoming*uncommon* *collaborators.*G7* Failure*is*inevitable*but*success*is*realized*if*you*really*are*commi`ed* *and* *will*go*the*distance.*** No*illusions.**Agree*to*evaluate*passionless*the*value*of*the*acAvity.* “Put*your*money*where*your*mouth*is”*in*American*vernacular.* ****************Dollars*in*real*terms.* ****************Ministers*of*Ag*and*Finance*are*key* ****************Long'term*persistence*and*engagement.* ****************Science*and*pracAce*translated*for*the*benefit*of*the*farmer.* ****************Don’t*do*what*you*do*not*know*how*to*do,*others*can*do*it* * * * * *be`er.* ****************Pick*your*intervenAons.* ****************Scale*and*scaling.* ****************…and*more* 32*
  22. 22. We*know*how*to*increase*yields*3x* Note: Poverty level defined as income of $1/day/person Source: World Development Report 2008; C. Peter Timmer, Agriculture and Pro-Poor Growth , Syngenta Foundation Sub-Saharan Africa: Flat Cereal Yields, Persistent Poverty South Asia: Increasing Cereal Yields, Decreasing Poverty 450 135 585 351 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Current Knowledge / Pest Control Plant Material Fertilizer Poten,al&Impact&of&&Cacao&Farm&Produc,vity&Increases& (Gains&in&Kg/Ha)* New Productivity – 1521 Kg/Ha >3X CocoaYield(Kg/Ha) * 600+*
  23. 23. InnovaAve*Farm*RehabilitaAon* Older*ways*of*training*farmers*will*not*work** *Good*Agricultural*PracAces*do*not*drive*change*when:* &Soils&are&depleted& &Trees&/&plan,ng&material&are&old&and&unimproved& &There&is&lack&of&disease&resistance&& &Pest&&&Disease&control&solu,ons& &Technical&training&for&farmers& &There&is&no&incen,ve&for&good&prac,ce&and&quality&of&produc,on& * Farmers*need*to*see*and*believe*that*change*is*possible*on*their*farm* Rigorous*pilot*plots*for*proof*of*concept*(mulAple*sites)* * Capacity*building*in*the**NaAonal*Agricultural*Research*Centres*and*in*the* NaAonal*Extension*Services** *Not*the*responsibility*or*capability*of*NGO s*working*on*short*term*basis* *
  24. 24. Capacity*building*and*capacity*mobilisaAon:** State*of*our*collaborator,*CNRA*HQ*in*Abidjan,** Cote*d’Ivoire*August*2011* 35*
  25. 25. THE&WORLD&AGROFORESTRY&CENTRE& You*cannot*do*it*alone!* You*must*have*partners*on*the*ground* Choose*your*partners*from*shared*value*and*consensus* through*tractable*conversaAons* * Our*choice*was*to*collaborate*with* Uncommon*CollaboraAons*
  26. 26. Change*the*Model*of*Training*
  27. 27. V4C*ImplementaAon:**Uncommon* CollaboraAon* •  V4C in 2011 •  Community Development •  V4C in 2012-2013 •  Productivity
  28. 28. V4C&in&2011& Staffing&and&facili,es& Staff& Soubre* San*Pedro* Field&Office&&&Training& centre& 5*CDC*Offices* DemonstraAon** nurseries* * *
  29. 29. V4C&in&201142013& Community&Development& & 5&CDC&Administra,ve&Unit& (Terroir)&mapped& 3&Local&development&plan&– Terroir&(PDL4T)&developed& 13&ANADER&staff&(EPL&team)& trained&on&Child&labor&and& social&cohesion&by&ICI& CD&Procedures&Manual&in& progress&& & & Funding Mechanism for community empowerment projects developed with the Ivorian government
  30. 30. V4C&in&2011& & Introduce grafting technologies to revitalize old cacao plantations Transforming cacao landscape And lives *
  31. 31. & V4C*in*2012*& Plan,ng&Material&& & Investments& IrrigaAon*faciliAes* Laboratory*faciliAes*for* SomaAc*Embryogenesis* *PropagaAon*
  32. 32. & V4C&in&201142014&& Plan,ng&Material&& & CNRA** 3.5*ha*clonal*gardens*with*15*clones* PotenAel*300*000*budwoods*sAcks* * In*2012:* ' *8ha*clonal*gardens* ' 8*ha*seed*gardens* ' mulAlocal*germplasm*evaluaAon* In*2013** 'Screening*for*disease* 'CerAfied*disease*free*material* In*2014* 'rapid*increase*of*producAon*region* wide* * 1&billion&budwood*sAcks*is* our*goal* *
  33. 33. Graning*for*RehabilitaAon* 4&weeks&ajer&grajing& 9&months&ajer&grajing&more&than&30&pods&
  34. 34. Demonstrate*The*Value*of*FerAlizer*
  35. 35. Shared*Value*of*Standards*Leading*to** 3rd*Party*CerAficaAon* *Economic*power*built**on*higher*yields*(1500k+),*coupled*with*good*farming* pracAces*and*higher*cacao*quality*for*the*marketplace*** Low&Quality& Poverty& High&Quality& Prosperity&
  36. 36. The*Only*Future*Is*Sustainable* ProducAon!**
  37. 37. At*the*2nd*World*Congress*on* Agroforestry* *I*said:* We*will*not*cerAfy*poverty!* * Today,*let*be*absolutely*clear:* We*will*only*cerAfy*prosperity!*
  38. 38. Part*3* 49*
  39. 39. 300 die
  40. 40. We want to improve human health through making plants more nutritious!
  41. 41. The*African*Orphan*Crops*ConsorAum* *was*formed*in*2011* * The*African*Plant*Breeding*Academy** opened*December*2nd*2013,** 250*plant*breeders*will*be*trained,** are*they*the*future*of*Africa* *
  42. 42. ! ! ! ! ! Ayodeji(Abe,(Ph.D.( Nigeria Ngozi(Eucharia(Abu,(Ph.D.( Nigeria! Olagorite(A.(Adetula,(Ph.D.( Nigeria! Daniel(Adewale,(Ph.D.( Nigeria( Michael(Barnor( Ghana( maize! pepper,!allium! creeping!foxglove! cocoa! eggplant,!yam,!rice! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Agyemang(Danquah,(Ph.D.( Ghana! Bathe(Diop,(Ph.D.( Senegal Million(F.(Erena( Ethiopia! Yonas(Moges(Gelaw( Ethiopia! Honoré(Kam,(Ph.D.( Burkina!Faso( sorghum,!bean! rice! bean,!pea,!oil!crops! sorghum,!bean! rice! ! ! ! ! ! Miseo(Keweti( Ethiopia( Sunday(Makinde,(Ph.D.( Nigeria! Busio(Olga(Mavankeni( Zimbabwe( Firew(Mekbib( Ethiopia! Desire(N’Da(Pokou,(Ph.D.( CôteCd'Ivoire ! maize! okra! bean,!cowpea,!rice! tef,!yam,!bean! cocoa! !
  43. 43. The*first*26*of*101*Genomes*will*be** Sequenced,*Assembled*and* Annotated** in*2014**
  44. 44. 15*of*the*crops*are*trees*
  45. 45. It*is*an*Uncommon*CollaboraAon* *
  46. 46. BGI*(Beijing*Genomic*InsAtute)*Will* Produce*the*101*Reference* Genomes*Fully*Sequenced,* Assembled*and*Annotated**
  47. 47. Resequencing*of*CulAvars*Will*Be* Done*at*the*African*Plant*Breeding* Academy*at*ICRAF* Using*the*Life*Technologies** Ion*Proton*Plaworm*
  48. 48. Big*Data* That*is*101*genomes*resequenced*with*between*100*and*150* culAvars.*** Do*the*math,*between*10,100*and*15,150*sequences* The*data*BGI*and*the*AfPBA*generates*will*be*hosted*through* iPlant*at*the*University*of*Arizona* Shared*around*the*world*through*the*Google&Cloud& ** All&data&will&be&held&in&the&public&domain&
  49. 49. Breeding*with*Genomics*in*the*Public*Domain* Whole*Genome*Reference*Sequence* Resequence* SNPs/indels* AnnotaAon* Genotype*by*sequence* Low*pass*sequence* Sequence*sampling* Marker*Assisted*Breeding* QTLs* High*density*geneAc*maps* Genome*selecAon* Shortened*breeding*cycles* Breeding*by*design* Novel*traits* Access*unadapted*germplasm* Biological*models* Sequence*disease*and*pests* Systems*biology* Improved*varieAes* Sustainable*society*
  50. 50. To*significantly*improve*the* nutriAon*of*an*enAre*conAnent*
  51. 51. And*posiAvely** affect*the** development*of* every*child,* shall*India*or*China*be*the*next* Uncommon*CollaboraAon?*
  52. 52. 67* “Success*is*ConAnuously**Evolving* Support*and*Discovery”* * (Pal*Singh,2014)***
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