LEGUMES FOR LIVELIHOOD PROJECT

IITA cowpea Seed production and delivery: Africa


  A.Y. Kamara, H.A. Ajeigbe, I. Baoua, ...
General Objectives


•  To bring about significant increases in the productivity
   and production of cowpea

•  To improv...
Participating countries

•  Mali
•  Mozambique
•  Nigeria
•  Niger Republic
•  Tanzania




                              ...
Major Outputs

•  Seed sub-sector studies in the five countries

•  Facilitation of foundation seed production

•  Facilit...
Outcome of seed sector studies in the five
countries

•  Clearly formal seed production systems as they exist are
   not y...
Seed Strategy: Support community seed
production




                                   www.iita.org
Establishment of community-based
  seed schemes

Objectives

             •  Increase use of superior quality
            ...
Approach: Form coalition of partners in each of the 5
   countries to address the cowpea seed problem
•  Research: IITA, N...
Quantity of foundation seeds produced (Mt)

Country      Variety                 Total Seed    Production
                ...
IT93K-876-30 (15/09/09)



                          IER/IITA
             CZ11-94-5C    www.iita.org
www.iita.org
Community-based seed schemes
 Country       Year   No. Schemes   Quantity seed
                                    (MT)
  ...
Community Seed Production




                        www.iita.org
Number of fields certified
Country        Year   No. fields certified

Nigeria       2007                 41

            ...
Enhance seed certification




                             www.iita.org
On-farm demonstration to popularize varieties
      Country          Year    On-farm
                               demons...
Creating awareness through on-farm demonstrations

•     In Nigeria, a total of 94 in 2007, 255 in
      2008, 111 in 2009...
Cowpea evaluation criteria (Farmers)
Production                    Utilisation
  Early maturity              Large grain...
Participatory evaluation - cowpeas
3=best or highest, 2=average, 1=worst or lowest
Evaluation criteria                288 ...
Creating awareness through field days and mid-season farmer
  evaluations

•  Four mid-season evaluation/
   field days co...
Seed marketing

•  Up to 101 tons of
   cowpea sold in Nigeria,

•  15 tons sold in small
   packs in 2 kg packs in
   Nig...
Capacity building
Objectives
             •  Train extension agents in crop
                management techniques
        ...
Capacity Building

Country               Extension Agents   Farmers

Nigeria                            55      2445

Nige...
Capacity building




                    www.iita.org
Capacity building

•  Mr. Habou Aboubacar from INRAN, Niger
   Republic registered at the University of
   Niamey for the ...
Capacity Building
•  About 200 cowpea production guides
   distributed to farmers, extension agents,
   and other stakehol...
Improving infrastructure


•  In Niger Republic , a seed
   store has been refurbished at            Niger
   INRAN region...
Support for seed testing

•  Funds disbursed to buy equipment at the
   University of Sokoine, Tanzania

•  Ahmadu Bello U...
Creating awareness through seed dissemination

•  In Nigeria, 2341 farmers received
   3409 kg in 2007, 900 received
   10...
Seed disposals during 2008 in Nigeria

                                  Credit retrieval        1%



       Total quanti...
Lessons learned
•  To deliver cowpea varieties and production technologies
   require diverse partners drawing from indivi...
Challenges
•    Severe drought in the Sahelian countries
•    Diseases and Alectra in ESA
•    Rules and Regulations gover...
Thank You




            www.iita.org
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26 Alpha Kamara Objective8 4 Cowpea

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26 Alpha Kamara Objective8 4 Cowpea

  1. 1. LEGUMES FOR LIVELIHOOD PROJECT IITA cowpea Seed production and delivery: Africa A.Y. Kamara, H.A. Ajeigbe, I. Baoua, S. Boahen, D. Chikoye, O. Coulibaly, D. Dias, Z. Kouyate, V. Manyong, J. Mligo, J. Mshelia, L. Omoigui, K. Sibuga www.iita.org
  2. 2. General Objectives •  To bring about significant increases in the productivity and production of cowpea •  To improve farmers’ income, nutrition quality, and livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) •  To ensure that improved cowpea varieties occupy 30 percent of the total area planted by resource poor farmers in the coming 10 years www.iita.org
  3. 3. Participating countries •  Mali •  Mozambique •  Nigeria •  Niger Republic •  Tanzania www.iita.org
  4. 4. Major Outputs •  Seed sub-sector studies in the five countries •  Facilitation of foundation seed production •  Facilitation of certified seed production •  Promote and strengthen seed/input marketing •  Awareness creation to popularize improved stress- tolerant cowpea varieties •  Capacity building to strengthen stakeholders www.iita.org
  5. 5. Outcome of seed sector studies in the five countries •  Clearly formal seed production systems as they exist are not yet providing sufficient quality seed of legume to meet the demands of farmers •  For farmers to benefit from new technologies, the public sector needs to work in closer partnership with the private sector to improve seed systems ensuring also that small farmers are brought into the process. www.iita.org
  6. 6. Seed Strategy: Support community seed production www.iita.org
  7. 7. Establishment of community-based seed schemes Objectives •  Increase use of superior quality seeds by smallholder farmers •  Improve the availability of better quality seeds at affordable costs to farmers www.iita.org
  8. 8. Approach: Form coalition of partners in each of the 5 countries to address the cowpea seed problem •  Research: IITA, National Agricultural Research Institutions •  Extension: National Agricultural Extension Systems. •  Diverse NGOs (World Vision, SNV, Africare, SG2000) •  Input dealers: Particularly private seed enterprises (Seed companies, co-operatives) •  Policy makers: Local Government Authorities, Seed regulatory bodies (e.g Nigerian Seed Council) •  Farmers organisations •  Communication outfits: www.iita.org
  9. 9. Quantity of foundation seeds produced (Mt) Country Variety Total Seed Production produced (2008/09) (2007/2008) Nigeria IT03K-338-1, 6.3 6.5 IT97K-499-35, IT90K-277-2, IT89KD-391, IT98K-205-8 Niger IT97K-499-38, 5.0 0.77 IT98K-205-8, IT90K-372-1-2 Mali IT89KD-374, 3.66 IT89KD-245, IT93K-876-30 Tanzania Tumaini, Vuli 1, Vuli 3.5 4.9 2 Mozambique IT-18, IT-16, INIA-36 3.5 6.7 www.iita.org
  10. 10. IT93K-876-30 (15/09/09) IER/IITA CZ11-94-5C www.iita.org
  11. 11. www.iita.org
  12. 12. Community-based seed schemes Country Year No. Schemes Quantity seed (MT) Nigeria 2007 84 61 2008 117 45 2009 96 - Niger 2007 6 2.2 2008 80 6.6 2009 41 - Mali 2008 21 0.68 2009 21 - Mozambique 2008 58 7.5 2009 63 26 Tanzania 2009 101 2.3 www.iita.org
  13. 13. Community Seed Production www.iita.org
  14. 14. Number of fields certified Country Year No. fields certified Nigeria 2007 41 2008 111 Niger 2008 65 Mali 2008 21 Mozambique 2008 35 www.iita.org
  15. 15. Enhance seed certification www.iita.org
  16. 16. On-farm demonstration to popularize varieties Country Year On-farm demonstration Nigeria 2007 94 2008 255 2009 111 Niger Republic 2007 180 2008 49 2009 21 Mali 2008 44 2009 58 Mozambique 2008 110 2009 1065 www.iita.org
  17. 17. Creating awareness through on-farm demonstrations •  In Nigeria, a total of 94 in 2007, 255 in 2008, 111 in 2009 on-farm demonstration plots were established •  In Niger Republic, 180 in 2007, 49 in 2008, 21 in 2009 demonstration plots were established •  In Mali, 44 on-farm demonstration plots were established in 2008, and 45 in 2009. •  In Mozambique, a total of 110 in 2008 and 1065 in 2009 demonstration plots were established •  In Tanzania 75 demonstration plots established www.iita.org
  18. 18. Cowpea evaluation criteria (Farmers) Production Utilisation   Early maturity   Large grain size   Good for relay cropping   Colour (brown for market)   High yield   Good fodder value   Pest resistance   High market value   Striga tolerant   Cooking time   Taste   Post harvest pest resistance www.iita.org
  19. 19. Participatory evaluation - cowpeas 3=best or highest, 2=average, 1=worst or lowest Evaluation criteria 288 391 568-1 131-1 B Brown K Brown 8 Production criteria Early maturity 2.4 3.0 2.9 2.8 1.1 1.7 Good for relay cropping 3.0 3.0 1.2 1.1 3.0 3.0 High yield 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.0 2.3 Pest resistance 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.4 1.8 1.7 Striga tolerant 2.0 1.0 1.8 1.9 1.1 1.1 Utilisation criteria Large seed size 2.6 3.0 1.8 1.6 2.9 3.0 Brown colour 1.4 2.9 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.0 Good fodder value 2.4 1.3 1.3 1.6 2.6 2.6 High market value 2.6 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.9 3.0 Cooking time/taste 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.3 Total score 23.6 22.4 21.2 21.0 22.6 23.7 Rank 2 4 5 6 3 1 Number of groups evaluating 5 7 9 8 8 9 % intending to plant 64% 30% 44% 49% 45% 100% www.iita.org
  20. 20. Creating awareness through field days and mid-season farmer evaluations •  Four mid-season evaluation/ field days conducted in Nigeria in 2007 and 8 in 2008 •  Two field days conducted in Niger Republic in 2007 and 1 2008 •  Eight mid-season evaluation/ field days organized in Mozambique in 2008 and 10 in 2009 •  One field day in Mali in 2008, 5 in 2009. www.iita.org
  21. 21. Seed marketing •  Up to 101 tons of cowpea sold in Nigeria, •  15 tons sold in small packs in 2 kg packs in Nigeria by Jirku Seed Co-operaitve and Seed Project Company. •  In Mozambique, 1, 3, and 25 kg bags popular. Over 12 tons sold by Ikuru seed Co-operative www.iita.org
  22. 22. Capacity building Objectives •  Train extension agents in crop management techniques •  Train extension agents in the application of participatory methods for technology evaluation •  Train farmers in sustainable crop production methods and seed production •  Train farmers in the safe use and handling of agrochemicals •  Train farmers in seed processing and marketing www.iita.org
  23. 23. Capacity Building Country Extension Agents Farmers Nigeria 55 2445 Niger Republic 56 313 Mali 10 90 Mozambique 22 1500 Tanzania 9 354 www.iita.org
  24. 24. Capacity building www.iita.org
  25. 25. Capacity building •  Mr. Habou Aboubacar from INRAN, Niger Republic registered at the University of Niamey for the M.Sc. Degree in Seed Science •  Mr Guilhermo Boina from Mozambique currently registered at Bunda College of Agriculture for M. Sc. Degree in Seed Technology www.iita.org
  26. 26. Capacity Building •  About 200 cowpea production guides distributed to farmers, extension agents, and other stakeholders in Nigeria in 2007 •  A new cowpea manual prepared for West Africa with over 2000 copies distributed in Nigeria and Niger. •  It is being translated into French for distribution to farmers in other countries www.iita.org
  27. 27. Improving infrastructure •  In Niger Republic , a seed store has been refurbished at Niger INRAN regional head quarters in Maradi to store breeder and foundation seeds. •  In Mali, a seed store has been refurbished in Cizana Station Mali •  In Mozambique, one Air Conditioner was installed in a seed store at IIAM in Nampula www.iita.org
  28. 28. Support for seed testing •  Funds disbursed to buy equipment at the University of Sokoine, Tanzania •  Ahmadu Bello University in Nigeria: Seed testers and air-conditioners purchased www.iita.org
  29. 29. Creating awareness through seed dissemination •  In Nigeria, 2341 farmers received 3409 kg in 2007, 900 received 1000 kg in 2008 and 1500 received 1500 kg in 2009 in 1kg packs •  In Niger Republic, 300 kg of cowpea seeds were distributed to 250 farmers in 2008 •  In Mali, 2000 kg of two improved varieties were distributed to 300 farmers in 2008. •  Cowpea seeds in 1 kg packs were distributed to 355 farmers in Mozambique in 2008 www.iita.org
  30. 30. Seed disposals during 2008 in Nigeria Credit retrieval 1% Total quantity remaining in store 4% Amount given away for seed 4% Amount given away as food 4% Amount retained for own use as seed 4% Amount sold for food 10% Amount consumed as food 19% Amount sold for seed 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% www.iita.org
  31. 31. Lessons learned •  To deliver cowpea varieties and production technologies require diverse partners drawing from individual strengths •  Capacity of partners vary from country to country and even within countries •  It is not enough to develop and deliver seeds of cowpea. Complementary crop management practices contribute to yield improvement •  Low adoption is not only a problem of varietal characteristics. We need to examine the pathways to adoption www.iita.org
  32. 32. Challenges •  Severe drought in the Sahelian countries •  Diseases and Alectra in ESA •  Rules and Regulations governing Foundation Seed production in some countries limit seed production e.g. in Tanzania only the Agricultural Seed Agency (ASA) is mandated to produce Foundation Seed •  Low capacity and slow response in some partner institutions www.iita.org
  33. 33. Thank You www.iita.org
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