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25 louise sperlingobjective8.3commonbean


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  • 1. Overview of results and lessons: September 2009    CIAT  KARI  EIAR  SARI  Louise Sperling  David Karanja  Setegn Gebeyehu  Fitsum Alamayehu  Jean Rubyogo  Tarcisius Mutuoki  Endeshaw Habte  Fikadu  Enid Katungi  Wilfred Odhiambo  Kidane Tumsa  Ketema  David Wozemba  Daisy Rono  Kassaye Negash  Clare Mukankusi  Kavoi  Andy Farrow  Steve Beebe  TLII  Seed Systems Mee>ng: November 16‐20,  2009 
  • 2. 1. Give farmers’ access to drought-tolerant varieties •  Increase production/ stabilize production •  Decrease Food Aid/Seed Aid ----------------------------- 2. Stimulate development of seed + commodity agro-enterprise
  • 3.   Having sufficient IniNal supplies of foundaNon and  cerNfied seed    Making supplies available in drought‐prone zones    Developing diffusion strategies which are fast‐ but also  which reach those in drought –prone zones‐  incl.  women and the poor    CreaNng demand, raising awareness: (which strategies)    (doing all of the above – understanding cost‐benefits,  including economic cost, health risks 
  • 4.   Scale up foundaNon + cerNfied seed    Scale up and diversify scores of partnerships    Decentralize producNon and delivery, with  partners, in target zones    SNmulate pro‐poor markeNng  Tes>ng op>ons, monitoring, evalua>ng: how to  maximize impact 
  • 5. FoundaNon /cerNfied  Decentralized Seed producNon  Direct producNon‐NARS  District/Gov’t officers supporNng  Direct ProducNon‐ NARS seed unit,  individual farmers  contract farmers  NGOs supporNng individual farmers  Private seed companies  Farmer CooperaNves/Unions  (Farmer CooperaNves)  CBSS                    Delivery/markeNng    Small pack sale; open  markets    Small pack sale country stores    Small pack sale : agro‐dealers    Sale in open markets: seed/grain traders    Exchange through loans/payment: project based    Direct farmer to farmer diffusion (gi_/sale/exchange0    (GOK delivery as relief) 
  • 6. 20 . 10 Wider Impact Conventional 2 6 1 14 0 Years
  • 7. Kenya and Ethiopia: Zones of Action N-E/D Lake B CRV E-Dryland CRV E-S/C-K dry-lands S-Dry-lands
  • 8. Season    Event  PoliNcal Unrest  Feb to June 2008  Drought‐ central and eastern areas  Sept  to  Dec 2008  Significant seed aid given  (diverNng supplies)  Feb to June 2009   drought  Sept  to Dec 2009  (in progress‐ drought) 
  • 9. Ethiopia Kenya Solely sale 
  • 10.   Partnerships    Seed produc>on    Seed quality     Novel agronomic prac>ces    Marke>ng    Agro‐dealer enhancement‐mapping    Mobile phones and farmer feedback  
  • 11. PARTNERSHIPS  Country  NARS    Specialized  GOs‐  FOs‐ Grain  Seed  NGOs  CBOs    traders   Producers   Church  based    KARI   Leldet  Kenya   •  Dryland seed Co   23  12  2  Katumani  Lambe Seed  •  issi   K Growers   •  joro  N EIAR   ESE   Eth   SARI   Dawro+  Shetedeno  46  19  4  ARARI  MAP private  AREKA  cooperaNve   Haremay  ELFORA Agro  Univer.  industry LTD  Awassa   H.WAQO private  Univers  seed farm 
  • 12. Country  Target  Results  to  # Varie>es  date  Kenya  35  29.4  4  Ethiopia *  93  179.4  10  Total  128  208.8  14  * More partners added
  • 13. Country  Target  Results to date  Western Kenya  Countrywide  83.6  only  740  (western  Kenya‐   Ethiopia  1130  685  (provisional)  Total  1870  732.7 
  • 14. > 225,000 
  • 15.   …….. More refined results, seed  producNon (beyond the milestones) 
  • 16. Country  Total harvest  Propor>on of  (decentralized  harvest used as  produc>on MT)   seed  Ethiopia  2165.1    42%  Western   136.4    46%  Kenya  
  • 17. Gender of farmers participating in Tl2 seed production project Sept 2008- Feb 2009, western Kenya example Cycle 1  Cycle 2  Percent of Percent of Gender  Freq  farmers  Freq  farmers  Female  992  80.3  732  61.1  Male  243  19.7  467  39  Total  1235  100  1199  100.1 
  • 18. ◦  Seed company   ◦  Seed Bulking farmers (trained)   ◦  Farmers secondary beneficiaries (Second  cycle beneficiaries‐ non trained)   ISTA lab results Germination 86.7% Rubyogo and Mukankusi, nd)
  • 19.   FoundaNon Seed‐ Kenya NARS (KARI)    Private Sector Companies (3)    Community based groups    Individual seed producers.  All models profit‐making (at different levels)  BUT‐ all also hit by adverse effects of drought  
  • 20.     Eunice Achieno:  Season February – August 2009: 3 cycles  Eunice with beans harvested  Her son with beans at pod filling  
  • 21. Test markeNng  70 g        10Ksh  ($ 0.15)  500g         50ksh  2000g      180Ksh   Rose of Leldet Ltd
  • 22. * Limited sales to date– in agro-dealers
  • 23. Kenya 28,000 packs sold Sept 08-Jan 09 Ethiopia CRV: 5500 packs sold Meher 2009 South: 6260 packs sold Meher 2009
  • 24. 5404 Customers    2265 (42%) men   3139 (58%) women female male
  • 25. Basic elements of successful seed marketing a)  Seed production, harvest, conditioning, handling and storage operations must be conducted properly and carefully, to ensure that the highest possible seed quality is produced at the lowest possible cost. b)  Quality control monitoring and the work of each person must be constantly aimed at quality. Never sell low-quality seed to farmers; once a farmer has been deceived in the quality of seed he will never again trust that supplier. c)  Make sure the seed is properly treated so that the seed is protected in the field and in delivery storage. High quality seed can completely fail in the field if it is not treated for protection against soil pathogens and insects, short periods of unfavorable weather, and other menaces. d)  Package high quality seed in packages of the size which is most convenient to farmers. The package should suit the farmer, not the packaging equipment in conditioning plant or the seed company’s convenience. e)  Have technically proper storages which provide the proper safe storage conditions for the seed for the required period. f)  Have a transport and delivery system which carefully protects seed during transit and gets seed to the proper places at the proper time. g)  Have a system of market analysis and planning, so a realistic marketing plan can be prepared. h)  ………………………..
  • 26. Mapping Recommendations 23% farmers currently within 1 hr. seed outlet
  • 27.   Feasibility of  distribuNng phones‐‐   to direct farmer  feedback  (KARI and Nodes of  Growth Project) 
  • 28.   Small 30‐60 seed packs of   new bean varieNes;     Empower farmers to  evaluate on their  farms;    Seed Packs are very  cheap  (ca. US$0.04).    Small quanNty of seed  can go a long way  (approx. 66,000 packs  from 1 ton of bean seed)    Farmers quickly bulk up  seed.  One example, Kirinyaga 2007-08: Farmer rec’d 30 seeds and 2 seasons later planted 10 kgs- will give 100kgs
  • 29. A program cannot get impact and solving of real bottlenecks unless leader and teams strategize towards the end user– people in marginal areas. Otherwise-- one ends up with results like: ‘ lots of seed produced----on the supply side
  • 30. Diversification: •  ore seed overall M •  ore stable seed supply M •  ore accessible supply M
  • 31.     Decentralized systems prove to be the more durable,   e.g     During the Kenya poliNcal crisis, the private sector     companies withdrew, NARS had limited mobility       while our partners on the  ground conNnued seed  producNon and delivery (despite massive populaNon  movement, etc) 
  • 32. IniNal small pack markeNng experiments show  farmers and especially women, to be eager to  acquire seed of new varieNes, willing to take  modest risks, and even to pay for small seed  packs .  Small packet markeNng , with decentralized seed  producNon is sNmulaNng demand 
  • 33. >25,000 -- three mediocre seasons western kenya Need GOOD partner on the ground
  • 34. It is crucial to create an urgency for impact  from the start of the project  Pu#ng in place clear M+E systems, managed  by partners, helps to do this.    Seeing ‘first results’ helps spurs all  partners to  greater accomplishments. 
  • 35. We have been working a good deal of the  supply side.    If we are going to reach parNcular clients–  poor, in remote areas, drought  zones‐‐  we  need to work more strategically also on the  demand side 
  • 36. In >mes of this ‘food crisis’  • Private Companies  prefer to sell their seed at the  highest    price (w/ specula>on), rather than honor previous  agreements made with the project .  •  overnment obliga>ons in ‘crisis’ usurp seed.    G
  • 37. Original   Boklenecks  Progress  Emerging and Con>nuing  issues  Having  sufficient quanNNes of  All quanNtaNve targets  Concerned about stability of  foundaNon and cerNfied seed  reached  supply (diversificaNon)  Making supplies available in  mulNple decentralized  Pair DOWN‐ focus on best  drought‐prone zones  producNon  and delivery  bets  schemes operaNonal  Developing fast, pro‐poor, pro‐ Small packs   ****  Professionalize small pack  women  diffusion‐markeNng  markeNng  strategies  Seed loans    ****  Broaden agro‐dealer  networks/trader agents  Scale up seed loans  CreaNng demand/raising  Tested: samples,  Clearer analysis of effects of  awareness  brochures, radio,  DIVERSE awareness‐raising  _____________________  demonstraNons  methods  Gender  Fragmented/Key insights  Make CENTRAL organizing  principle 
  • 38. DomesNcaNon and scaling up of promising approaches – e.g.  small packs in other PABRA countries      Malawi,   Zambia,   SA in small scale farming systems    Uganda   Rwanda     Cameroon    Burundi    Tanzania