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  • 1. Objective 8.2: Groundnut, Seed Systems in ESA ICRISAT Bamako, Mali
  • 2. Project Partners in Eastern and Southern Africa - ESA
  • 3. Project Team ESA ICRISAT MALAWI TANZANIA E MONYO F MAIDENI O MPONDA R JONES T KAPEWA F MIZAMBWA B SHIFERAW G KANANJI E KAFIRITI
  • 4. Project Components •  Improve seed availability and thus adoption of new varieties •  Build capacity to ensure a sustainable supply of affordable high-quality seed
  • 5. Highlights of Results •  On Improving Availability
  • 6. What was the legume seed system situation when the project started? Baseline report.
  • 7. Relative contribution (% share) of different seed sources to groundnut seed supply •  Tanzania –  92.9% Farmer saved seed –  3.4% Farmer to farmer –  Balance: agro dealers, traders, local producers family gifts •  Malawi –  53% Farmer saved seed –  16% purchased from local seed producer –  9% Farmer clubs –  8% Farmer to farmer –  7% inherited from family –  Balance: gift and agro dealers
  • 8. Adoption of groundnuts varieties in Malawi (%) (awareness Ever Planted in % of all Planted 06/07 farmers) (% of all (% of all)  Crop variety h’holds) Groundnuts 55 CG 7 53 38 21 Chalimbana 84 69 37 Manipintar 11 9 2 Chalimbana 2005 9 8 5 Kalisere 5 5 2 Nsinjiro 3 3 1 Baka 3 2 0 Kakoma 2 1 1
  • 9. Major reasons for never planting some groundnut varieties in Malawi (% h’holds never planted) Lack of Lack of Low Groundnut varieties access cash to buy yielding CG 7 73 8 3 Kakoma 80 0 0 Chalimbana 2005 80 20 20 Chalimbana 51 10 18 Nsinjiro 100 0 0 Baka 67 11 0 Manipitar 64 18 0
  • 10. Summary of bottlenecks 1.  Lack of awareness 2.  Lack of access to seed
  • 11. Approaches being tested •  Seed Production and delivery strategies for breeder and Foundations Seed – Breeder seed at all Agric Research Stns – – Foundation seed thro Foundation seed farms and contract growers vs Revolving Funds •  Initial production thro project funds but subsequently thro seed revolving fund
  • 12. The ICRISAT Seed Revolving Fund Model ICRISAT  6  Contr 2  Seed Stock  4  NGOs  act  Farm Grow 3  10  ers  ers  Seed Rev  5  Seed Co  7  1  Fund  8  11  Agrodealer  8  13  12 9  Government of Malawi  The bold black arrows indicate the flow of seed.   The red arrows indicate the flow of cash in the system. 
  • 13. Scheme details •  ICRISAT selects outgrowers and gives them seed on credit funded by the Revolving Fund •  At the end of the season the farmer sells the produced seed to ICRISAT •  ICRISAT pays the farmer the contract price per kg of seed using the money from the Revolving Fund •  ICRISAT sells the seed to Seed companies and NGOs •  The buyers of the seed pay to ICRISAT which replenishes the Revolving Fund •  NGOs give away seed to farmers in certain areas •  Seed companies sell seed directly to farmers or, •  Seed companies sell seed through agrodealers •  The government provides farmers with vouchers to purchase seed under the Subsidy Scheme •  Farmers purchase seed from seed companies and pay using cash plus the voucher (subsidy is partial) or, •  Farmers purchase seed from agrodealers and pay using cash plus the voucher •  The agrodealer collects the redeemed vouchers and gives them to the government who pays the value of the vouchers to the agrodealer •  The seed company collects the redeemed vouchers and gives them to the government who pays the value of the vouchers to the seed company
  • 14. Production and Delivery Approaches cont •  Certified Seed through – Farmer Associations – FA (NASFAM; MW), Farmer Cooperatives-FC (Tanzania) •  Smallholder farmers linked to FA /FC are trained to produce certified seed for NGOs with DoA support •  NGOs purchase for relief (10t CARE-MW) •  FA/FC purchase for their membership (40t TZ) •  Govt buys for subsidy programs (300t MW)
  • 15. Production and Delivery Approaches cont •  Community / informal seed supply –  Community seed banks; Farmers pay back seed loan on post-harvest return in kind to the community (140t MVP MW, 12t CARE&NASFAM) –  Rural Community structures: FFS (80 TZ 134 MW), seed villages/churches(46 TZ, 50 MW), –  Farmer field days (19 MW/TZ ≥1000 farmers), Demos & PVS in each seed village/FFS and seed fairs involving 2500 farmers
  • 16. Production and Delivery Approaches cont •  Seed marketing platforms –  Farmer associations in Malawi under the umbrella of NASFAM and Pvt Traders –  Farmer Marketing Groups in Tanzania under the umbrella of District Cooperatives in District Councils (support NGO efforts) –  Govt of Malawi thro registered dealers (seed co, seed associations, agro-dealers, private individuals for the subsidy program)
  • 17. Capacity for sustainable supply of affordable quality seed •  Training in seed production and delivery strategies –  547 seed producers (Farmers and their supervising officers), 57 technicians, 141 extension officers, 46 farmer research group leaders in MW and TZ •  Establish & train farmer marketing groups in Tanzania and Malawi –  Three groups in TZ under Masasi and Nanyumbu District Councils-DC (Mpeta, Mnanje B and Likokona) –  19 groups in Mchinji, 28 groups in Nkhotakhota under NASFAM and 3 groups in Zomba under MVP in MW. –  134 FFS under CARE MW, 80 FFS under DC and KIMAS in TZ trained on seed production & marketing
  • 18. Capacity for affordable quality seed cont •  Produced groundnut seed production manual in Swahili (Tanzania) •  More than 15000 flyers for released varieties and their production practices in Swahili and Chichewa •  TV, Radio broadcasts, newspapers, live interviews a norm •  Degree training 1 MSc
  • 19. Challenges  Weather – Early cessation of rainfall  Transport problems –Restricted mobility to supervise/monitor seed production  Food insecurity –used as food or sold it as grain to meet other demands  Low private investment- Small market size of legume seeds  Trained Manpower- Limited number of research & seed technicians  Seed production during off-season- Irrigation system installation with most of the NARS still incomplete
  • 20. Lessons learned •  Areas for seed production should target assured productive regions to lower seed costs •  Cumbersome seed certification procedures for gnuts is unnecessary discourages smallholders leading to high seed costs •  Whereas small seed packs is popular with new vars, for gnuts they should be at lease 1-2kg to be appreciated. •  New vars are a stimulant for adoption of Good Agron Practices hence the need for faster testing and release system •  Informal sector supplies signf proportion of legume seed. Its improved efficiency will have positive contribution to enhanced legume seed supply
  • 21. Other Collaborating Projects •  Groundnut Breeding E/S Africa – (The McKnight Foundation) •  Malawi Food Security Program (CARE/ICRISAT) - EU •  Malawi Legumes Seed Development Program (IRISH AID) •  ICRISAT Seed Revolving Fund (USAID) •  Treasure Legumes – IFAD Project (Malawi and Tanzania)
  • 22. Thank You