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  • 1. Seed production and delivery strategies in groundnut in India
  • 2. Seed access points to farmers Informal •  Own-saved seed •  Neighboring farmers/relatives (cash, loan, exchange and barter) •  Local traders/local markets (local produce as seed) •  Private seed companies Formal •  DoA •  Public seed sector (NSC, SSCs, SFCI) •  SAUs •  KVKs •  Oilseeds growers federations
  • 3. Steps required to improve legumes seed situation in India Informal seed sector •  Training in ICM •  Training in seed production, processing and storage •  Quality control •  Fair trade practices
  • 4. Steps required to improve legumes seed situation in India Formal seed sector NS→BS →FS →CS BS →FS and FS →CS certification by SSCA •  BS →FS link often weak (by PSSA, DoA, SAUs; lack of accountability) •  FS →CS link very weak (by farmers; poor crop husbandry, cumbersome certification process, open to malpractices)
  • 5. New seed system models Informal seed system •  The PDKV model (Fig 1) •  Seed village model (Fig 2) Formal seed system •  Seed business incubation model (Fig 3) •  Seed farmers’ cooperative society model (Fig 4) Semi-formal seed system •  Variants of seed village model
  • 6. Fig 1. The PDKV model of seed production (Informal seed system) Sources of seed of a new cultivar in India •  SAUs •  National institutions •  ICRISAT Obtain minimum 2 kg good quality •  SSCs pods from any source to raise Stage-I •  Private seed companies seed multiplication plot •  Progressive farmers 2 kg pods obtained from the selected true to type plants every year from Stage-III commercial plot I II III For marketing 1 ha I = Stage-I seed multiplication plot: 0.01 ha 1% of 1 ha expected area under new cultivar. II = Stage-II seed multiplication plot: 0.10 ha 10% of 1 ha expected area under new cultivar (seed comes from Stage-I). III = Stage-III commercial plot for marketing: 0.89 ha (approximately 0.89 to 1 ha) area shall be covered with quality seed every 3rd year / 3rd cropping season.
  • 7. Fig 2. Seed village model (Informal seed system) FPVS / Capacity Farmers’ Associations / SAUs building NGOs / SHGs Search for varieties Basic seed of FPV Problem identification Seed Capacity village Seed Exchange building Procurement of seed Traders / Seed Distribution of seeds Adjacent villages processors
  • 8. Fig 3. Seed business incubation model (Formal seed system) ABI-ICRISAT (Mentor) Implementing partners SAUs / ICRISAT (Hand holding support) (Quality control, DoA, NSCs, SSCs etc. monitoring and capacity (Infrastructure support, building) seed procurement and marketing) Seed business venture (Seed production, processing and marketing) SSCAs (Seed certification) Seed farmers (Seed production)
  • 9. Fig 4. Seed farmers’ cooperative society model (Formal seed system) DoA Registrar of the cooperative society Allocation of Breeder seed as per GoI guidelines, distribution of Registration Certified seed SAUs Seed farmers’ cooperative societies Supply of Breeder seed, monitoring, One time grant for capacity building establishment and consultative services Quality control Marketing board SSCAs
  • 10. Lessons learnt •  Rainfed agriculture (delayed onset of monsoon, drought) – distress sale of seed as commercial grain – Govt. to intervene •  Community seed banks at village / block level (seed mortgage) •  Quality control in informal seed sector •  Seed production under assured growing conditions •  Simplification of certification and processing requirements in legumes •  SRR and VRR •  Knowledge empowerment of farmers
  • 11. Up-gradation of seed production infrastructure •  Linked with resources from ICRISAT other projects operating at partner locations •  Types of infrastructure / facilities created: Threshing yard / Drying floor, Up- Tamil Nadu gradation of irrigation source, Seed stores, Implement shed, Green plant threshers, Trucks / Jeeps, Tractor and farm implements, Seed processing machinery
  • 12. Seed production (2008/09 cropping season) Quantity produced (t) Crop State No. of NS BS FS CS TL varieties GN Tamil 3 2.6 8.9 33.8 146.9 2.3 Nadu Karnataka 4 2.7 172.9 160.0 680.0 200.0 / Dharwad Karnataka 5 1.5 - - 30.0 - / Raichur ICRISAT 5 - 28.6 - - 3.3 Total 10.7 210.4 193.8 856.9 210.6
  • 13. Farmer-friendly literature Tamil 1.  Groundnut seed production manual 2.  Improved package of practices for groundnut 3.  Tips to produce quality seed in groundnut 4.  Techniques to overcome loss of seed viability in rabi / summer groundnut 5.  Groundnut variety ICGV 87846 Kannada 1.  Groundnut seed production manual 2.  Improved production technology for groundnut 3.  Leaflets on new varieties English (ICRISAT) 1.  Obtaining sustainable higher groundnut yields: Principles and practices of cultivation 2.  Groundnut seed production manual 3.  Tips for groundnut seed production 4.  Groundnut variety ICGV 91114 5.  Management of Bruchid in groundnut
  • 14. Training in seed production technology State / No. of No. of participants District Trainings Men Women Total Tamil Nadu Namakkal 7 176 71 247 Erode 8 159 56 215 T’malai 4 101 15 116 Total 19 436 142 578 Karnataka Bagalkot 2 43 7 50 Raichur 5 200 - 200 Chitradurga 4 311 131 442 Total 11 554 138 692
  • 15. Public awareness activities State Medium Content Date / Period Tamil Nadu Print Improved cultural practices in May 2008 groundnut Makkal TV Improved cultivation practices 10 Jun 2008 in groundnut AIR, Coimbatore High yielding groundnut 2 Jul 2008 varieties Pothigai TV Groundnut variety ICGV 87846 5 Jan 2009 Makkal TV Groundnut variety ICGV 87846 25 May 2009 AIR, Coimbatore High yielding groundnut 15 Jun 2009 varieties Doordarshan TV High yielding groundnut 12 Mar 2009 varieties Karnataka Print Seed treatment in groundnut Jun/Jul 2008 DD TV Question and answer session 15 Jan 2009 Print New groundnut varieties 11 Jun 2009
  • 16. Thank You