18 Pooran Gaur Objective5 Chickpea

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  • 1. Objective 5 Enhance chickpea productivity and production in drought-prone areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Pooran Gaur, NVPR Ganga Rao, CLL Gowda, Said Silim, PM Salimath, DM Mannur, V Jayalakshmi, Y Satish, Asanke Fikre, Kebebew Assefa, Robert Kileo, Wilson Thagana, S Tripathi, V Vadez, L Krishnamurthy, S Pande, HC Sharma, Rajeev Varshney
  • 2. Project target regions Country States/ Districts Zones Andhra Kurnool, India Pradesh Prakasam Karnataka Gulbarga, Dharwad East Gimbichu Shewa Ethiopia North Minjar, Shewa Shenkora Kenya Rift Valley Bomet, Nakuru Tanzania Lake zone Mwanza, Shinyanga
  • 3. Objective 5 Team ICRISAT-Patancheru, Pooran Gaur, CLL Gowda, S Tripathi, V Vadez, India L Krishnamurthy, S Pande, HC Sharma, Rajeev Varshney ICRISAT-Nairobi, Kenya NVPR Ganga Rao, Said Silim NARS partners India ANGRAU, Veera Jayalakshmi, Y Satish, CKK Reddy, P Hyderabad Muniratnam, Y Koteshwar Rao UAS-Dharwad PM Salimath UAS-Raichur DM Mannur Ethiopia EIAR, Addis Asnake Fikre, Kebebew Assefa, Million Ababa Eshete, Nigussie Tadesse, Sherif Aliye, Sitotaw Ferede, Lijalaem Korbu, Abebe Atilaw, Tebkew Damte Tanzania LZARDI, Robert Kileo , Epifania Temu, Everina Lukonge Ukiriguru Kenya KARI, Nairobi Wilson M. Thagana, Lucy Kuria, Clerkson Mahagayu
  • 4. Activity 1 Identify and enhance adoption of farmer and market preferred chickpea cultivars in water-limited areas
  • 5. Identification of varieties for FPVS trials The varieties for FPVS were identified after discussions with all stakeholders including, NARES partners, farmers and traders Country No. of varieties identified for FPVS Desi Kabuli Total India 4 4 8 Ethiopia 1 5 6 Tanzania 2 4 6 Kenya 2 4 6
  • 6. FPVS in India •  237 trials (20 mother + 217 baby trials) in 23 villages •  1181 farmers (1052 male + 129 female) involved in ranking of varieties
  • 7. Some Challenges in FPVS Trials •  The crop was destroyed in Prakasam district of India during 2007/08 due to heavy rains before harvest and also during 2008/09 at seedling stage due to Nisa cyclonic rains. •  The trials were re-sown during 2009/10 which were successful
  • 8. FPVS in ESA •  Over 100 (Ethiopia 38, Tanzania 39, Kenya 24) FPVS trials conducted. •  Over 2100 farmers (Ethiopia 1746, Tanzania 163, Kenya 197) participated in varietal selection •  190 field demonstrations conducted in Ethiopia
  • 9. Cultivars preferred by farmers at different locations Country Cultivars preferred by farmers Desi type Kabuli type India - Andhra JG 11, JAKI 9218, Pradesh - Kurnool JG 130 India-Andhra JG 11, JAKI 9218, KAK 2 Pradesh - Prakasam JG 130 India-Karnataka JG 11, JAKI 9218, BGD 103 Ethiopia Habru, Ejere, Arerti Tanzania ICCV 00108 ICCV ICCV 92318, ICCV 97105 00305 Kenya ICCV 97105, ICCV ICCV 95423, 00305 00108
  • 10. Varietal traits preferred by farmers •  High yield potential •  Profuse podding, •  Early maturity •  Resistance to fusarium wilt (in all countries) and ascochyta blight (in Ethiopia) •  Seed traits (size, shape and color) preferred by the market.
  • 11. Number of varieties released and in the pipeline for release India: One desi chickpea variety BGD 103 was released and notified for cultivation in Karnataka state of India during 2009. Kenya: Two desi (ICCV 97105, ICCV 00108) and one kabuli (ICCV 00305) lines identified through FPVS trials are under NPT. Tanzania: Two desi (ICCV 97105, ICCV 00108) and two kabuli (ICCVs 92318, 00305) lines are going to enter NPT.
  • 12. Breeder seed production Over 150 t breeder seed of farmer-preferred varieties was produced by ICRISAT (Patancheru and Nairobi) and NARS partners in India, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya (Details in Objective 8 report)
  • 13. Activity 2 Develop improved chickpea germplasm with enhanced tolerance to drought, resistance to fusarium wilt and pod borer, and market preferred seed traits
  • 14. Development and evaluation of breeding lines •  Over 1000 breeding lines with early maturity, high resistance to fusarium wilt and market-preferred seed traits were evaluated at ICRISAT-Patancheru. •  Over 200 lines (117 desi + 92 kabuli) were supplied to NARS partners in India and ESA.
  • 15. Marker-assisted introgression of drought tolerance traits (large roots) - linked to TL1 Root length density (cm cm3) Donor parents for root traits
  • 16. MABC for improving root traits Crosses: 3 Cultivars x 2 Donors for root traits Donors BC1: Cultivar x F1 ↓ BC1F1 BC 2: Cultivar x BC1F1 ↓ BC2F1 Subjected to foreground and background selection BC3: Cultivar x BC2F1 Cultivars As in BC 2 ↓ BC3F1 Selected heterozygous plants for QTL-linked markers and over 90% genome of the recurrent parent JG 11 ↓ BC3F2 Selected homozygous plants for QTL-linked markers ↓ BC3F3 2009/10 Seed multiplication Chefe KAK 2 ↓ 2010/11 Multilocation evaluation BC3F4 lines
  • 17. Marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) using good-by-good crosses for improving yield under moisture stress conditions Reselection generation after generation, with interbreeding of selects (selected using QTL-associated molecular markers) to provide opportunity for genetic recombination and cumulate favorable alleles 2 crosses 1 cross 2009/10 Genotyping of F3 completed; Genotyping of F3 plants F4 grown for seed multiplication 2010/11 Multilocation evaluation F4 (Seed multiplication) of F5 progenies and QTL analysis Selection and inter-crossing Multilocation evaluation of F3s of F5 progenies and QTL analysis • 
  • 18. Enhancing pod borer resistance •  Efforts are being made to combine different mechanisms of resistance from cultivated and wild species •  40 F6 progenies of C. arietinum (ICC 506) x C. reticulatum (IG 72933) crosses were evaluated. Four progenies with higher levels of resistance than both the parents were identified for further evaluation. •  Seven C. arietinum (JG 130, JAKI 9218, JG 11, KAK 2, JGK 1, ICC 17109, ICC 506) x C. reticulatum (IG 72933) crosses advanced to F2
  • 19. Activity 3 Enhance capacity of NARS in chickpea improvement research and development and provide training to farmers in improved chickpea production technology
  • 20. Training of Extension Personnel The extension personnel of the Department of Agriculture/ NGOs were trained as Master Trainers in improved production technologies India: 413 Extension personnel (389 male + 24 female) ESA: 36 Extension personnel Ethiopia 10 Tanzania 18 Kenya 8
  • 21. Training of farmers Training to farmers was provided on various aspects of improved crop and seed production technologies of chickpea. India: 5556 farmers (5016 male + 540 female) ESA: 3465 farmers Ethiopia: 2774 Tanzania: 240 Kenya: 451
  • 22. Training of Researchers Two one-month training courses on “Chickpea Breeding and Seed Production” organized at ICRISAT Patancheru Batch 1: Jan/Feb 2008 Participants: 9 5 Male + 4 Female Ethiopia: 2M Tanzania: 1M+1F Kenya: 2M Myanmar: 3F
  • 23. Batch 2: Jan/Feb 2009 Participants: 10 5 Male + 5 Female Ethiopia: 2M Tanzania: 2F Kenya: 2M Myanmar: 3F Philippines: 1M
  • 24. Training course on Chickpea Breeding and Seed Production Lectures and hand on trainings on  Screening techniques for abiotic and biotic stresses  Conventional and biotechnological approaches of chickpea improvement  Crop and seed production techniques  Seed processing storage and quality testing
  • 25. Degree students Country Student Degree Research area program Ethiopia Tadesse M Sc Molecular characterization of Sefera Gela chickpea cultivars Kenya Peter Kaloki M Sc Heat tolerance in chickpea India Tosh Garg PhD Molecular mapping of fusarium wilt, ascochyta blight, and botrytis grey mould resistance in chickpea
  • 26. Lessons learnt ….1/2 •  Farmers’ awareness of the improved varieties and availability of the seed of improved varieties are the key factors in spread of improved chickpea cultivars. •  FPVS trials are very effective in enhancing awareness of farmers to improved varieties and in spreading new varieties. •  The farmers need some orientation and close follow ups for their active participation in FPVS trials.
  • 27. Lessons learnt….. 2/2 •  In addition to yield, maturity duration and resistance to diseases, seed traits preferred by market (seed size, color and shape) were given high weightage by the farmers in PVS. •  The farmers’ preference for growing kabuli chickpea varieties largely depended on the price premium received over desi type. •  Off-season seed multiplication with supplemental irrigation can facilitate faster varietal spread in Ethiopia.
  • 28. Vision for Phase II •  Expansion of activities to new districts/states/zones/ regions in the countries of phase I •  Possible expansion of activities to other countries like Malawi and Mozambique. •  Further strengthen of seed system based on the experiences of phase I. •  Evaluation of breeding materials generated through genomic approaches (MABC &MARS) under TL I along with breeding material generated under TL II in target environments.