10 Kpc Rao Objective1 Chickpea

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  • 1. Report on Baseline surveys of Chickpea BY Dr.K.P.C.Rao Principal Scientist (VLS) At the TL-II Review and Planning meeting BAMAKO November 16-20 , 2009
  • 2. Situation and outlook •  India, Turkey, Pakistan and Canada together account for 87% of global production •  India is the largest importer, accounting for 30% of total imports •  Canada and Australia are the major exporters of chickpea, accounting for 28% of world exports •  In ESA, the trends suggest that chickpea area and production in Ethiopia will grow significantly in the years ahead
  • 3. Sample size Location Sample size South Asia -Andhra pradesh 270 -Karnataka 270 East Africa -Ethiopia 700
  • 4. Assets and Liabilities Indicator Karnataka Andhra Ethiopia pradesh Operated area 1.56 4.66 2.45 (ha) Value of farm 78,410 65,687 NA implements (rs) Durable 248,559 161,143 NA assets (rs) Debts (rs) 52,618 658,650 NA Savings (rs) 63 428,562 NA
  • 5. Income and Consumption expenditure Income/Exp- Karna- Andhra Ethiopia (birr) enditure taka (rs) Pradesh (rs) Annual 46,857 76,790 16,797 household income Consumption 35,228 66,221 5,235 (Only Expenditure cash exp.)
  • 6. Yield, costs and returns Item Karna- Andhra Ethiopia taka (rs) Pradesh (birr) (rs) Area under Chickpea (ha) 0.93 1.55 0.38 Yield (kg/ha) 429 397 2,552 Gross revenue 8,906 9,117 10,400 Cost of 5,070 7,404 7,200 production Net returns 3,836 1,713 3,200 B:C ratio 1.76 1.23 1.44
  • 7. Adoption pattern of Chickpea varieties •  Annigeri, an improved variety introduced three decades ago, accounts for 90% area under chickpea in Andhra pradesh and Karnataka •  Recently introduced improved varieties cover the remaining 10% area •  In Ethiopia, the proportion of chickpea farmers who planted improved desi during 2007 is less than 3%, while about 76% planted local desi. About 55% of the chickpea area is allocated to local desi, followed by Kabuli varieties, Shasho (21%) and Ejere (12%)
  • 8. Preferred Traits •  Farmers are interested in high grain yield, large grain size, resistance to insect pests and diseases, drought-tolerance and higher fodder yield •  The processors and traders were keen on the quality standards like uniformity in size, grain size, cleanliness and healthy grains •  Consumers, on the other hand, preferred better taste, cooking quality and time and keeping quality
  • 9. Gender Issues •  In ESA, 7% of sample households are headed by women. This proportion was only 3% in India •  Women participate significantly in making decisions related to crop production, education and marriages of children •  Women contribute about 40 to 50 percent of labor required for chickpea cultivation
  • 10. Major constraints • High seed price and poor quality seed • Lack of information about new varieties • Low yield • High pest incidents • Small grain size • Low and fluctuating market price
  • 11. Seed systems and problems • Informal non-market based seed supply system is dominant • Quasi-formal, market based seed supply systems are in their infancy • Low private sector participation • Need for strong public support for legume seed production till private sector gets in
  • 12. Training •  Several national staff in the target countries have been trained in survey design and sampling methods •  In Asia, three training workshops were conducted in the first year on survey design and instruments, sampling and social analysis. In the second year, two write-shops were conducted at ICRISAT to resolve issues faced in data entry, validation and analysis. About 15 persons including 5 women participated in each of these 5 work shops/ write shops •  In ESA, 29 NARS scientists including 4 women, were trained in quantitative and qualitative methods of socio-economic research in the first two years
  • 13. Problems in co-ordination •  Seed exchange between scientists across countries is posing a problem due to plant quarantine regulation, particularly in SSA •  Delay in submission of reports, work plans and progress of work by the partners in all regions. Rigorous follow-up and continued engagement through frequent visits are needed for timely submission of reports •  To achieve cost-effectiveness, use of video conferencing and skype has to be increased
  • 14. Lessons learnt and vision for the second phase •  There is a need to enhance the present Plant Variety Selection (PVS) trials approach to accelerate the spread of improved technologies to users •  Lack of synergy among different stake-holders is a prime stumbling block for successful dissemination of technologies. Innovation systems and learning frame work may have to be adopted to accomplish better synergy •  The project should stay focused in the identified target countries and locations and monitor the uptake process on a regular basis
  • 15. Workplan for 2010 and beyond •  Undertake process documentation and early adoption studies to plan for up-scaling •  Undertake ex-post evaluation studies at the end of 5 and 10 years period •  Promotion of new varieties needed to enhance adoption •  Joint report with breeders on farmer preferred traits and research directions needed •  Refine situation and outlook projections globally and at country level for the TL-II crops •  Regional consultations to be organized in SSA and SA to strengthen the capacity of national partners
  • 16. Thank you!