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Gender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded lands

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  • 1. Key highlights  Gender matters: trees, forests, agroforestry.  Tenure and access rights demands attention.  Dryland agroforestry our future priority. For example: India, Gran Chaco and Sahel region
  • 2. Gender equity Gender equity includes race, ethnicity, language, socioeconomic status, disability or any other diversities that defines our individual identity.
  • 3. Empirical evidence on.. ¿ What does agroforestry in dry and degraded lands mean for smallholders? ¿ Why gender equity in agroforestry matters? ¿ How local democratic governance influence gender in agroforestry?
  • 4. Research Area: semi-arid tribal India
  • 5. Dryland agroforestry: viable option  Tenure insecurity; small holders (2acres)  Climate variability; seasonal migration  Planting trees a way to claim boundary
  • 6. Gender equity: tenure and access  245 hh: 85% women lack tenure rights  Elder women have more access to fruit trees, fodder shrubs, and fuel wood  Rules on access to resources changes during crisis or opportunity - Climate variability - Value chain (processed fruits; jatropha)
  • 7. Decision-making in agroforestry Roles and responsibilities Men/Women/ Joint Vulnerability Managing fodder shrubs 55% joint 32% women women lead in managing shrubs in consultation Soil fertility improvements 68% joint and 20% men Women lack of knowledge Fuel wood management 65% women and 21% men Selection of species and management by women Fruits and crop production 67% joint and 26% men Frequent drought and market fluctuation = joint Vegetable garden 72% women Daily livelihood food security & men migration Fencing 35% joint 30% men Depend on tenure rights; exclusion of pastoralists Sale and marketing 45% joint New arena for both Information sharing 67% women Social safety net Capacity-building on agrofo 43% men Migration = women active Technological adaptation Men are targeted 66% men
  • 8. Political participation • At democratic local governance women are passive participants though the ‘quota’ give them 35% political space. Elite women are active. • At household level, in crisis situation, men and women play critical role in agroforestry management. • Women are active in negotiating marketing deals.
  • 9. Discussion • Smallholders income increase (men benefit) • Gendered risk- when value of product increases men takeover business from women • Agroforestry has high potential when men and women are involved in technological adaptation, marketing and benefit-sharing.
  • 10. Thank you E-mail: p.bose@cgiar.org CIAT’s focal contact for gender as a cross-cutting theme for Forests, Trees, and Agroforestry
  • 11. Conceptual framework - Identity and Recognition Fraser (2000): Forms of identity are constructed through interaction of self-identity (individual adopts to get recognition), and external identity (reinforced by dominant group) and - Decision making and Gender equity

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