Fano, March 29th 2012           PSYCHIATRY AND        QUANTUM CONSCIOUSNESS:         A POSSIBLE LINK?                   Ma...
Summary                   SUMMARY• CHAPTER 1: DEPRESSION  Fatty Acids profile and Major Depression• CHAPTER 2: G PROTEIN  ...
CHAPTER 1DEPRESSION
1.1 INTRODUCTION  The first experiment
Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction                                              Data Base     C 14:0                   ...
Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction                  Searching for differences  VARIABLE            p    C20:4          ...
Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction                Statistical Analysis      Many statistical tools         have been us...
Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction       Artificial Neural Network (ANN)          ANNs are Mathematical Models      rep...
Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction                    ANN analysis                                   8 Variables  Many ...
Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction                   ANN analysis In fact, the SOM can map MD subjects and controls, di...
1.2 MATERIALS and     METHODS:     The SOM
Chapter 1.2, Depression: Materials and Methods          Self Organizing Map (SOM)               (Malsburg, 1973; Kohonen,1...
Chapter 1.2, Depression: Materials and Methods                   Visual cortex                          For cells in visua...
Chapter 1.2, Depression: Materials and Methods                  Visual cortex          SIMILAR                            ...
Chapter 1.2, Depression: Materials and Methods           Natural and Artificial SOM        NATURAL                   ARTIF...
Chapter 1.2, Depression: Materials and Methods                 SOM and Depression    Let’s try to map “Depression” and “Co...
1.3 RESULTS:A dignostic tool
Chapter 1.3, Depression: Results                  1) Bio-markers               At least in this experiment:Arachidonic Aci...
Chapter 1.3, Depression: Results               2) Border-line area                  In this experiment:                   ...
1.4 DISCUSSION
Chapter 1.4, Depression: Discussion                 Studying ADAM                ADAM found that:                    AA, P...
Chapter 1.4, Depression: Discussion                     The level of saturation   As a measure of saturation level, we int...
Chapter 1.4, Depression: Discussion         Let’s plot B2 Values in ADAM.                                    Grafico a Lin...
Chapter 1.4, Depression: Discussion                    Conclusion                                    20                   ...
Chapter 1.4, Depression: Discussion               CHAPTER 1 - ConclusionAt least in the population investigated:    1) ANN...
CHAPTER 2THE G PROTEIN
Chapter 2: the G Protein       Let’s start from the “G PROTEIN”      “cell membrane proteins that are coupled             ...
Chapter 2: the G Protein                     G PROTEIN dynamics                           (toy model)  LIGAND             ...
Chapter 2: the G Protein                           cAMP signaling pathway                                             (toy...
Chapter 2: the G Protein                          Gα subunit activation: conditions         LIGAND                        ...
Chapter 2: the G Protein                                               The Lipid Raft                             Lipid ra...
Chapter 2: the G Protein                        from Brain… …to Platelet        “Raft localization of Gsα   in human perip...
Chapter 2: the G Protein                        The Hypothesis                    DEPRESSION                     DIAGNOSIS...
Chapter 2: the G Protein                              The Hypothesis                         G Protein                    ...
Chapter 2: the G Protein                               What a coincidence!?      “G proteins could be targeted to raft dom...
Chapter 2: the G Protein                                           MOREOVER        “…an extensive body of scientific evide...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                           Summarizing Chapter 1 and 2:According to Cocchi & Tonello (*), FAs (Ara...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                  Summarizing Chapter 1 and 2:According to Rasenick (*), G Protein dynamic is stro...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                  Summarizing…    Just call FAs and/or G Protein: “Cell Membrane”      FATTY      ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                            SummarizingAccording to Cocchi & Tonello, FAs (Arachidonic, Palmitic a...
CHAPTER 3CONSCIOUSNESS
Chapter 3: Consciousness                    Consciousness: quantum models     There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                    Consciousness: quantum models     There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness       The Orch OR model: introduction             In the mid 90s, Roger Penrose and Stuart       ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness         From Cytoskeleton to Tubulin                     The Cytoskeleton is made up of          ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness           The Orch OR model: tubulin              According to the Orch OR model,     Tubulin is ...
Chapter 3: ConsciousnessCytoskeleton, Tubulin, Microtubules and Fatty Acids       Cytoskeleton, Microtubules and Tubulin d...
Chapter 3: ConsciousnessCytoskeleton, Tubulin, Microtubules and G Protein      Cytoskeleton, Microtubules and Tubulin dyna...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                           Summarizing…       Cell Membrane is linked to the “Orch. OR” model     ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                    Consciousness: quantum models     There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                    Consciousness: quantum models     There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness         Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD)             Many important authors are working on...    ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness      Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD)             According to the TBD model:  The neuronal      ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness       Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD)               According to the TBD model:  The neuronal  c...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                          Summarizing…            Cell Membrane is linked to the “TBD” model      ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness           Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD)        Actually, other points of contact are present, ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness           Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD)                              According to Vitiello: Gl...
Chapter 3: Consciousness          Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD)           …and Glial cells are closely realted to FAs  ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                    Consciousness: quantum models     There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                    Consciousness: quantum models     There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                       Bernroider Ion Channels  Bernroider’s conception of quantum brain function ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                        Bernroider Ion ChannelsIn particular, in the ”paddle-model”, the transitio...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                    Consciousness: quantum models     There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                    Consciousness: quantum models     There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                                     Stapp’s model Many other mind-brain quantum theories show con...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                    Consciousness: quantum models     There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the ...
CHAPTER 4CONCLUSION
Chapter 4: Conclusion                                  From Consciousness..So, Cell Membrane is linked to any quantum mode...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                                  From Consciousness..So, Cell Membrane is linked to any quantum mode...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                   …to Psychiatry   …but Cell Membrane is linked to Psychiatry, as well…      CELL   ...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                   From Consciousness... To Psychiatry                                    So…   The “...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                        Cell membrane: is it a bridge                     from Consciousness to Psych...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                                 CONCLUSION                                L                         ...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                  CONCLUSION                  L                 ECONSCIOUSNE              CELL       ...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                                      CONCLUSION                                      L              ...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                  CONCLUSION                  L                 ECONSCIOUSNE              CELL       ...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                  CONCLUSION                  L                 ECONSCIOUSNE              CELL       ...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                  CONCLUSION                  L                 ECONSCIOUSNE               CELL      ...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                   CONCLUSION                   L                ECONSCIOUSNE              CELL      ...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                 CONCLUSION For example:              WHAT ARE WE                            MEASU...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                 CONCLUSION        …maybe, just ……THE LONG SHADOW    OVER THE SOUL!                  ...
Slides not shownIn the first experiment shown, populations investigated are                     different in age…
Remark                           Populations are different!        Works have been done without takeing fully into account...
Chapter 3: Consciousness                 CONCLUSION For example:                           WHAT ARE WE       LOW       RIS...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                 CONCLUSION For example:                        ARE WE MEASURING,       LOW       RIS...
Chapter 4: Conclusion                 CONCLUSION For example:           WE DON’T KNOW IF                           IT’S AB...
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Lucio Tonello

  1. 1. Fano, March 29th 2012 PSYCHIATRY AND QUANTUM CONSCIOUSNESS: A POSSIBLE LINK? Massimo COCCHI and Lucio TONELLO FACULTY OF HUMAN SCIENCES LUdeS University, Lugano, CH & “P. Sotgiu” INSTITUTE Institute for Research in Quantitative & Quantum Psychiatry & Cardiology
  2. 2. Summary SUMMARY• CHAPTER 1: DEPRESSION Fatty Acids profile and Major Depression• CHAPTER 2: G PROTEIN The G Protein Dynamics and Depression• CHAPTER 3: CONSCIOUSNESS Quantum Consciousness Models, Fatty Acids and G ProteinD• CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION
  3. 3. CHAPTER 1DEPRESSION
  4. 4. 1.1 INTRODUCTION The first experiment
  5. 5. Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction Data Base C 14:0 C 16:0 C 16:1 C 17:1 C 18:0 C 18:1n91) DATA BASE “Control” (n = 60) C 18:1n7 (22 females and 38 males, mean age: 33.97, SD: ± 12.40) C 18:2n6 19 C 18:3n3 Variables C 20:3n3 C 20:4 in C 22:4 Platelets2) DATA BASE “Depression” (n = 84) C 22:5 Membran (51 females and 33 males, mean age: 60.21, SD: ± 12.27) C 22:6n3 e %SAT %MON %PUFA Q10 tot Vit E
  6. 6. Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction Searching for differences VARIABLE p C20:4 < 0.01 C18:2 < 0.01 C16:0 < 0.01 19 Variables C17:1 < 0.01 C22:6 < 0.01 C18:0 < 0.01 VitE < 0.01 C16:1 < 0.05 C22:5 n.s. C14:0 n.s. C18:3 n.s. C20:3 n.s. 8 Variables C22:4 n.s. (p< .05) ... ... 1-way ANOVA
  7. 7. Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction Statistical Analysis Many statistical tools have been used: … … Cluster Analisys Discriminant Analysis Classification Trees … … An interesting result has been reached using:
  8. 8. Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction Artificial Neural Network (ANN) ANNs are Mathematical Models representing what happens in the C.N.S., on the physical and/or physiological level. ANNs are suitable for NON-LINEAR, or best, COMPLEX PROBLEMS (mathematical meaning)
  9. 9. Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction ANN analysis 8 Variables Many kind of ANNs has been performed. The Self Organizing Map (SOM), in particular, led to important results. 3 Variables
  10. 10. Chapter 1.1, Depression: Introduction ANN analysis In fact, the SOM can map MD subjects and controls, discriminating them in an interesting way, just using: C16:0 – Palmitic Acid C18:2 – Linoleic Acid C20:4 – Arachidonic Acid Let’s see: what is a SOM and how does it work?
  11. 11. 1.2 MATERIALS and METHODS: The SOM
  12. 12. Chapter 1.2, Depression: Materials and Methods Self Organizing Map (SOM) (Malsburg, 1973; Kohonen,1982) “Sensory inputs are mapped in sensory cortex” Let’s think about: The Somatosensory Cortex
  13. 13. Chapter 1.2, Depression: Materials and Methods Visual cortex For cells in visual area 1 of the mammalian brain, (Hubel &Weisel,1962) using microelectrode studies with cats. (...now using imaging tech.) Keyword: neighbourhood
  14. 14. Chapter 1.2, Depression: Materials and Methods Visual cortex SIMILAR NEAR OBJECTS DIFFERENT FAR OBJECTS Keyword: neighbourhood
  15. 15. Chapter 1.2, Depression: Materials and Methods Natural and Artificial SOM NATURAL ARTIFICIAL SENSORY CORTEX SENSORY CORTEX NATURAL ARTIFICIAL SENSORY INPUT SENSORY INPUT
  16. 16. Chapter 1.2, Depression: Materials and Methods SOM and Depression Let’s try to map “Depression” and “Control” subjects! For each Subject: we will tell the ANN just Fatty Acids composition; we will not tell what is the clinical diagnosis! ANN Name: Enhanced SOM (E. Kohonen ANN) Algorithm: AB Mexican Hat Training Set: 144 Subjects Software: SOM V
  17. 17. 1.3 RESULTS:A dignostic tool
  18. 18. Chapter 1.3, Depression: Results 1) Bio-markers At least in this experiment:Arachidonic Acid (C20:4 ) Palmitic Acid (C16:0 ) Linoleic Acid (C18:2 ) (PLATLET MEMBRANE) MEMBRANECAN DISCRIMINATE DEPRESSION AND HAVE DIAGNOSTIC POWER
  19. 19. Chapter 1.3, Depression: Results 2) Border-line area In this experiment: LOW RISK NOThere is a BORDER-LINE area! RISK DEPRESSION HIGH RISK
  20. 20. 1.4 DISCUSSION
  21. 21. Chapter 1.4, Depression: Discussion Studying ADAM ADAM found that: AA, PA, LA Seem to be the main actors in MD Let’s try to study them! What about the level of saturation, the “viscosity”, “mobilty” of the cell membrane?
  22. 22. Chapter 1.4, Depression: Discussion The level of saturation As a measure of saturation level, we introduced the B2 index: 3 mpiB2 = ∑ ( Ai ) i 1 Name Palmitic A. C 16:0 i =1 mwi 2 3 Linoleic A. Arachidonic A. C 18:2 C 20:4Where:Ai = percentage of i-th Fatty Acidmwi = molecular weight of i-th Fatty Acidmpi = melting point of i-th Fatty Acid B2 ≈ +0.25PA -0.02LA -0.16AA
  23. 23. Chapter 1.4, Depression: Discussion Let’s plot B2 Values in ADAM. Grafico a Linee di Livello 3D (pesi 6v*402c) B2 = Minimi Quadrati Pesati con Distanze B2 20 18 16 14 12 Y 10 8 6 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 0 -1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -2 XB2 seems to be consistent with Depression trend!
  24. 24. Chapter 1.4, Depression: Discussion Conclusion 20 B2 = Minimi Quadrati Pesati con Distanze B2 Grafico a Linee di Livello 3D (pesi 6v*402c) 18 16 14 12 Y 10 8 6 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 0 -1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -2 X B2 index suggests:DEPRESSION DIAGNOSIS SEEMS TO BE LINKED TO THE LEVEL OFSATURATION (viscosity, mobility?) OF THE PLATELET MEMBRANE.
  25. 25. Chapter 1.4, Depression: Discussion CHAPTER 1 - ConclusionAt least in the population investigated: 1) ANN (see ADAM) can express a diagnosis of Depression using AA, LA and PA. 2) These 3 Fatty Acids seem to rule the world of Depression in Platelets, according to the level of saturation-unsaturation (“viscosity”, “mobility” ?) they lead to.
  26. 26. CHAPTER 2THE G PROTEIN
  27. 27. Chapter 2: the G Protein Let’s start from the “G PROTEIN” “cell membrane proteins that are coupled to cell surface receptors...” β γ α G Protein seems to be involved in PsychiatricPathologies such as Mood Disorders and Depression WHY?
  28. 28. Chapter 2: the G Protein G PROTEIN dynamics (toy model) LIGAND 1) LIGAND reaches the receptor β γ α α β γ 2) GTP reaches the ProteinGTP β γ 3) Activation of Gα subunit α
  29. 29. Chapter 2: the G Protein cAMP signaling pathway (toy model) β γ Adenylyl α + cyclase cAMP … International scientific literature reports abnormalities in the cAMP signaling cascade of the human brain in suicide and depressive subjects for over two decades(Cowburn et al., 1994; Pacheco et al., 1996; Dowlatshahi et al., 1999; Stewart et al., 2001; Dwivedi et al., 2002, 2004; Pandey et al., 2005). This could be a possible link!
  30. 30. Chapter 2: the G Protein Gα subunit activation: conditions LIGAND Gα subunit activation depends on: α β γ 2) Presence of Ligand GTP 3) Presence of GTP According to M. Rasenick (*) there is a THIRD CONDITION: The position of Gα (Gsα in particular) within the LIPID RAFT MICRODOMAIN(*) Donati et al. Depression, Gs, and Lipid Rafts. J. Neurosci., March 19, 2008. 28(12):3042–3050
  31. 31. Chapter 2: the G Protein The Lipid Raft Lipid rafts are: “specialized structures on the plasma membrane that have an altered lipid composition as well as links to the cytoskeleton”. G Protein γ α β Lipid Raft microdomain Cell membrane lipid bilayer So… Raft localization of GSα serves as biomarker for neurological and psychiatric diseases.Allen JA, Halverson-Tamboli RA,Rasenick MM. Lipid raft microdomains and neurotransmitter signalling. Reviews, Nature, Vol 8, Feb 2007.
  32. 32. Chapter 2: the G Protein from Brain… …to Platelet “Raft localization of Gsα in human peripheral tissue [maybe platelet(*)] may thus serve as a biomarker for depression”Donati et al. Depression, Gs, and Lipid Rafts. J. Neurosci., March 19, 2008. 28(12):3042–3050 (*)“Studies using human platelets suggest that…”(Mooney et al., 1988, 1998; Garcia-Sevilla et al., 1990; Pandey et al., 1990a,b; Menninger and Tabakoff, 1997; Menninger et al., 2000; Hoffman et al., 2002; Hines and Tabakoff, 2005).
  33. 33. Chapter 2: the G Protein The Hypothesis DEPRESSION DIAGNOSIS Rasenick evaluates: Cocchi and Tonello evaluate: Gsα within the Lipid Raft Platelet Membrane fatty acidMicrodomain (structures with composition and its level ofaltered lipid composition thus saturation, thus “viscosity”,“viscosity”) within a brain cell through B2. membrane and in platelet. ARE THESE APPROACHES DIFFERENT MEASURES OF THE SAME THING?
  34. 34. Chapter 2: the G Protein The Hypothesis G Protein γ α β Lipid Raft microdomain Cell membrane lipid bilayerIs Cocchi & Tonello’s work an indirect measure of the G Protein status as well as Rasenick’s?Cocchi & Tonello: Rasenick: Cell membrane G Proteinplatelet membrane Cell membrane lipid composition STATUS Raft domain
  35. 35. Chapter 2: the G Protein What a coincidence!? “G proteins could be targeted to raft domains by several mechanisms. The most plausible mechanism is that Gα subunits are subject to palmitoylation…”Allen JA, Halverson-Tamboli RA,Rasenick MM. Lipid raft microdomains and neurotransmitter signalling. Reviews, Nature, Vol 8, Feb 2007. Palmitoylation: the covalent attachment of fatty acids, such as Palmitic Acid, to cysteine residues of membrane proteins. Palmitic Acid is one of the 3 fatty acids (together with Arachidonic and Linoleic) used by ADAM as marker. Palmitic Acid has a key role both in raft domain dynamics and in ADAM working!
  36. 36. Chapter 2: the G Protein MOREOVER “…an extensive body of scientific evidence suggest that PUFAs affect cellular functions by modulating the structure and function of specific lipid domains, such as lipid rafts, within the plasma membrane(1). A number of recent in vitro studies using model membranes and cell culture systems have demonstrated that PUFAs can greatly reduce raft formation and can displace signalling proteins (2,3)” Sottocornola E, Berra B, Progress in Nutrition Vol. 10, N. 4, 210-213,20081)Chen W, Jump DB, Essekman WJ, Busik JV. Inibition of cytokine signalling in human retinal endothelial cells throughmodification of caveolae/lipid rafts by decosaexaenoic acid. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis Sci 2007; 48: 18-262) Stulnig TM, Berger M, Sigmund T, Raederstorff D, Stockinger H, Walhausl W. Polyunseturated Faty Acids inhibit Tcell signal transduction by modification of detergent-insoluble membrane domains. J Cell Biol 1998; 143: 637-443) Stulnig TM, Huber J, Leitinger N. Polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid displaces proteins from membrane rafts byaltering raft lipid composition. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 37335-40
  37. 37. Chapter 3: Consciousness Summarizing Chapter 1 and 2:According to Cocchi & Tonello (*), FAs (Arachidonic, Palmitic and Linoleic Acid in particular) are strongly linked to MD, Suicide, Mood Disorder and so on. FATTY E MAJOR DEPRESSION, ACIDS ETC. * Cocchi M and Tonello L. Biological, Biochemical and Mathematical considerations about the use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the study of the connection between Platelet Fatty Acids and Major Depression. J Biol Res 2006; LXXXI, 82-87. Cocchi M and Tonello L. Platelets, Fatty Acids, Depression and Cardiovascular Ischemic Pathology. Progress in Nutrition 2007; 9 (2): 94-104. Cocchi M and Tonello L. Depressione Maggiore e Patologia Cardiovascolare Ischemica. Un Network fra piastrine, cuore e cervello. Reti Neurali Artificiali, potenzialità predittiva di alcuni acidi grassi della membrana piastrinica. Bologna; CLUEB. 2007. Cocchi M, Tonello L, Tsaluchidu S, Puri BK. The use of artificial neural networks to study fatty acids in neuropsychiatric disorders. BMC Psychiatry 2008; 8 (Suppl 1):S3. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-S1-S3. Cocchi M, Tonello L, De Lucia A, Amato P. Platelet and Brain Fatty Acids: a model for the classifcation of the animals? Part 1. International Journal of Anthropology 2009; 24(1) :69-76. Cocchi M, Tonello L, Cappello G et al., Biochemical Markers in Major Depression as interface between Neuronal Network and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). J Biol Res 2006; 81: 77-81.
  38. 38. Chapter 3: Consciousness Summarizing Chapter 1 and 2:According to Rasenick (*), G Protein dynamic is strongly linked to MD, Suicide, Mood Disorder and so on. G Protein E MAJOR DEPRESSION, ETC. * Allen JA, Halverson-Tamboli RA, Rasenick MM. Lipid raft microdomains and neurotransmitter signalling. Nature 2007; 8: 128-40. Donati RJ, Dwivedi Y, Roberts RC, Conley RR, Pandey GN, Rasenick MM. Postmortem brain tissue of depressed suicides reveals increased Gs alpha localization in lipid raft domains where it is less likely to activate adenylyl cyclase. J Neurosci 2008; 28(12):3042-50.
  39. 39. Chapter 3: Consciousness Summarizing… Just call FAs and/or G Protein: “Cell Membrane” FATTY E ACIDS MAJOR H DEPRESSION, ETC. G Protein E
  40. 40. Chapter 3: Consciousness SummarizingAccording to Cocchi & Tonello, FAs (Arachidonic, Palmitic and Linoleic Acid)According to Rasenick, G Protein Dynamics are strongly linked to Depression, Mood Disorder, Suicide CELL E MAJOR DEPRESSION, MEMBRANE ETC.
  41. 41. CHAPTER 3CONSCIOUSNESS
  42. 42. Chapter 3: Consciousness Consciousness: quantum models There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the most notable are: The “Orch OR” Model OR (Hameroff S, 1996, 98;Penrose R, 1994) Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD(Globus, 2003; 2009; Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001) Bernroider “Ion Channels”(Bernroider, 1999; 2003; 2004; 2005; Summhammer, 2007) Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc. (Stapp, 2005; etc.)
  43. 43. Chapter 3: Consciousness Consciousness: quantum models There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the most notable are: The “Orch OR” Model OR (Hameroff S, 1996, 98;Penrose R, 1994) Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD(Globus, 2003; 2009; Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001) Bernroider “Ion Channels”(Bernroider, 1999; 2003; 2004; 2005; Summhammer, 2007) Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc. (Stapp, 2005; etc.)
  44. 44. Chapter 3: Consciousness The Orch OR model: introduction In the mid 90s, Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff present the “Orch OR” model. Hameroff, S.R., & Penrose, R., (1996) Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: A model for consciousness. In: Toward a Science of Consciousness - The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. (Hameroff, S.R., Kaszniak, and Scott, A.C., eds.), pp. 507-540, MIT Press. Also published in Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (1996) 40:453-480. Hameroff, S.R., & Penrose, R. (1996) Conscious events as orchestrated spacetime selections. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3(1):36‑53 Some topics: Let’s consider the Cytoskeleton: a web of protein polymers inside the neuron. Schematic of central region of neuron (distal axon and dendrites not shown) showing parallel arrayed microtubules interconnected by MAPs.
  45. 45. Chapter 3: Consciousness From Cytoskeleton to Tubulin The Cytoskeleton is made up of microtubules interconnected by MAPs. Microtubules are structure of Tubulin subunits, a 8 nanometer dimer.
  46. 46. Chapter 3: Consciousness The Orch OR model: tubulin According to the Orch OR model, Tubulin is the fundamental brick of consciousness. The conscious event would be the effect of complex quantum computations involving Tubulin and Microtubules as main actors
  47. 47. Chapter 3: ConsciousnessCytoskeleton, Tubulin, Microtubules and Fatty Acids Cytoskeleton, Microtubules and Tubulin dynamics are strongly linked to Fatty Acids dynamics (*). Cytoskeleton Microtubules L FATTY ACIDS Tubulin * Han X, Smith NL, Sil D, Holowka DA, McLafferty FW, Baird BA. IgE receptor-mediated alteration of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions revealed by mass spectrometric analysis of detergent-resistant membranes. Biochemistry 2009; 48(27):6540-50. Bok E, Hryniewicz-Jankowska A, Sikorski AF. The interactions of actin cell and membrane skeleton proteins with lipids. Postepy Biochem 2009; 55(2):207-22.
  48. 48. Chapter 3: ConsciousnessCytoskeleton, Tubulin, Microtubules and G Protein Cytoskeleton, Microtubules and Tubulin dynamics are strongly linked to G Protein dynamics (*). Cytoskeleton Microtubules L G Protein Tubulin * Layden BT, Saengsawang W, Donati RJ, Yang S, Mulhearn DC, Johnson ME, Rasenick MM. Structural model of a complex between the heterotrimeric G protein, Gsalpha, and tubulin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 Jun;1783(6):964-73. Epub 2008 Mar 4. Sukla Roychowdhury, Dulal Panda, Leslie Wilson, and Mark M. Rasenick. G Protein Subunits Activate Tubulin GTPase and Modulate Microtubule Polymerization Dynamics J Biol Chem, Vol. 274, Issue 19, 13485-13490, May 7, 1999
  49. 49. Chapter 3: Consciousness Summarizing… Cell Membrane is linked to the “Orch. OR” model OR The “Orch OR” OR Model Cytoskeleton Microtubules L CELL MEMBRANE Tubulin (Hameroff S, 1996, 98; Penrose R, 1994)
  50. 50. Chapter 3: Consciousness Consciousness: quantum models There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the most notable are: The “Orch OR” Model OR CELL (Hameroff S, 1996, 98;Penrose R, 1994) MEMBRANE Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD(Globus, 2003; 2009; Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001) Bernroider “Ion Channels”(Bernroider, 1999; 2003; 2004; 2005; Summhammer, 2007) Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc. (Stapp, 2005; etc.)
  51. 51. Chapter 3: Consciousness Consciousness: quantum models There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the most notable are: The “Orch OR” Model OR CELL (Hameroff S, 1996, 98;Penrose R, 1994) MEMBRANE Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD(Globus, 2003; 2009; Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001) Bernroider “Ion Channels”(Bernroider, 1999; 2003; 2004; 2005; Summhammer, 2007) Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc. (Stapp, 2005; etc.)
  52. 52. Chapter 3: Consciousness Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) Many important authors are working on... …in the words of Globus (*): TBD has its roots in the “Quantum Electrodynamics of the brain’s water dipole field inside the microtubules” microtubules * Globus G. Toward a quantum psychiatry: hallucination, thought insertion and DSM. NeuroQuantology 2010; 8(1): 1-12.
  53. 53. Chapter 3: Consciousness Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) According to the TBD model: The neuronal a coherent cytoskeleton water dipole INTERACTS WITH field
  54. 54. Chapter 3: Consciousness Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) According to the TBD model: The neuronal cytoskeleton It has a leading role! So, the same considerations discussed above, linking microtubules within the Orch OR model and membrane FAs, can easily be extended to TBD! TBD
  55. 55. Chapter 3: Consciousness Summarizing… Cell Membrane is linked to the “TBD” model TBD The “TBD” TBD Model Cytoskeleton Microtubules L CELL MEMBRANE (Globus, 2003; 2009; Tubulin Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001)
  56. 56. Chapter 3: Consciousness Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) Actually, other points of contact are present, e.g.: According to Vitiello (*), the brain can be modelled as a mixed system involving two separate but interacting levels THE MEMORY ELECTROCHEMICAL LEVEL ACTIVITY INTERACTQUANTUM DYNAMICAL CLASSICAL LEVEL * G Vitiello G. Quantum dissipation and information: a route to consciousness modeling. NeuroQuantology 2003; 2: 266-279.
  57. 57. Chapter 3: Consciousness Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) According to Vitiello: Glial cells… may constitute a link between the two levels THE MEMORY GLIAL ELECTROCHEMICAL LEVEL CELLS ACTIVITY INTERACTQUANTUM DYNAMICAL CLASSICAL LEVEL * G Vitiello G. Quantum dissipation and information: a route to consciousness modeling. NeuroQuantology 2003; 2: 266-279.
  58. 58. Chapter 3: Consciousness Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) …and Glial cells are closely realted to FAs GLIAL FATTY closely related CELLS ACIDS For example: astrocytes, are deeply involved in arachidonic acid production. The “TBD” TBD Glial CELL Model Cells MEMBRANE (Globus, 2003; 2009; Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001)
  59. 59. Chapter 3: Consciousness Consciousness: quantum models There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the most notable are: The “Orch OR” Model OR CELL (Hameroff S, 1996, 98;Penrose R, 1994) MEMBRANE Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD CELL(Globus, 2003; 2009; Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001) MEMBRANE Bernroider “Ion Channels”(Bernroider, 1999; 2003; 2004; 2005; Summhammer, 2007) Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc. (Stapp, 2005; etc.)
  60. 60. Chapter 3: Consciousness Consciousness: quantum models There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the most notable are: The “Orch OR” Model OR CELL (Hameroff S, 1996, 98;Penrose R, 1994) MEMBRANE Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD CELL(Globus, 2003; 2009; Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001) MEMBRANE Bernroider “Ion Channels”(Bernroider, 1999; 2003; 2004; 2005; Summhammer, 2007) Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc. (Stapp, 2005; etc.)
  61. 61. Chapter 3: Consciousness Bernroider Ion Channels Bernroider’s conception of quantum brain function is built upon voltage controlled ion channels the classical view on gating has to be changed with respect to the high-resolution structure elucidated by MacKinnon’s group (Zhou, 2001; Morais-Cabral, 2001; Jiang, 2003) * Bernroider G. and Roy S. Quantum entanglement of K ions, multiple channel states and the role of noise in the brain. SPIE 2005; 5841 (29):205-14..
  62. 62. Chapter 3: Consciousness Bernroider Ion ChannelsIn particular, in the ”paddle-model”, the transition moment paddle-model couples with the neighbouring lipids of the channel proteinThis view is gaining strong support from an increasing number of studies demonstrating that protein surrounding lipids engage in the control of voltage gated Kv channels (*) * Oliver D, Lien C-C, Soom M, Baukrowitz T, Jonas P, Fakler B. Functional conversion between A-type and delayed rectifier K+ channels by membrane lipids. Science 2004; 304, 265-270.
  63. 63. Chapter 3: Consciousness Consciousness: quantum models There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the most notable are: The “Orch OR” Model OR CELL (Hameroff S, 1996, 98;Penrose R, 1994) MEMBRANE Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD CELL(Globus, 2003; 2009; Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001) MEMBRANE Bernroider “Ion Channels” CELL(Bernroider, 1999; 2003; 2004; 2005; Summhammer, 2007) MEMBRANE Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc. (Stapp, 2005; etc.)
  64. 64. Chapter 3: Consciousness Consciousness: quantum models There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the most notable are: The “Orch OR” Model OR CELL (Hameroff S, 1996, 98;Penrose R, 1994) MEMBRANE Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD CELL(Globus, 2003; 2009; Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001) MEMBRANE Bernroider “Ion Channels” CELL(Bernroider, 1999; 2003; 2004; 2005; Summhammer, 2007) MEMBRANE Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc. (Stapp, 2005; etc.)
  65. 65. Chapter 3: Consciousness Stapp’s model Many other mind-brain quantum theories show connections, coupling, and direct or indirect links to FAs. As an example: Stapp’s model of consciousness (*) consider it as quantum Zeno effect locating quantum dynamics within the Ca2+ ion channel This model clearly relates to membrane FAs, in particular Arachidonic Acid Roberts-Crowley ML, Mitra-Ganguli T, Liu L, Rittenhouse AR. Regulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by lipids. Cell Calcium 2009; 45(6):589-60. * Stapp HP. Quantum interactive dualism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2005; 12(11):43–58.
  66. 66. Chapter 3: Consciousness Consciousness: quantum models There exist many quantum models. Maybe, the most notable are: The “Orch OR” Model OR CELL (Hameroff S, 1996, 98;Penrose R, 1994) MEMBRANE Thermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD CELL(Globus, 2003; 2009; Jibu and Yasue, 1995; Vitiello, 2001) MEMBRANE Bernroider “Ion Channels” CELL(Bernroider, 1999; 2003; 2004; 2005; Summhammer, 2007) MEMBRANE Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc. CELL (Stapp, 2005; etc.) MEMBRANE
  67. 67. CHAPTER 4CONCLUSION
  68. 68. Chapter 4: Conclusion From Consciousness..So, Cell Membrane is linked to any quantum model of consciousness… The “Orch OR” Model OR LThermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD CELL MEMBRANEBernroider “Ion Channels”Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc.
  69. 69. Chapter 4: Conclusion From Consciousness..So, Cell Membrane is linked to any quantum model of consciousness… The “Orch OR” Model OR LThermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD CELL MEMBRANEBernroider “Ion Channels”Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc.CONSCIOUSNE SS
  70. 70. Chapter 4: Conclusion …to Psychiatry …but Cell Membrane is linked to Psychiatry, as well… CELL E MAJOR DEPRESSION, MEMBRANE ETC. PSYCHIATRY
  71. 71. Chapter 4: Conclusion From Consciousness... To Psychiatry So… The “Orch OR” Model ORThermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD MAJOR CELL DEPRESSION, MEMBRANEBernroider “Ion Channels” ETC.Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc.CONSCIOUSNE PSYCHIATRY SS
  72. 72. Chapter 4: Conclusion Cell membrane: is it a bridge from Consciousness to Psychiatry? The “Orch OR” Model ORThermofield Brain Dynamics (TBD) TBD MAJOR CELL DEPRESSION, MEMBRANEBernroider “Ion Channels” ETC.Other clues: Stapp’s idea, etc.CONSCIOUSNE PSYCHIATRY SS Tonello L. and Cocchi M. The Cell Membrane: is it a bridge from psychiatry to quantum consciousness? NeuroQuantology. March 2010. Vol 8. Issue 1. Page 54‐60.
  73. 73. Chapter 4: Conclusion CONCLUSION L ECONSCIOUSNE CELL PSYCHIATRY MEMBRANE SS Rasenick refers different G Protein status in Depressive Suicidal versus Not-Suicidal dead Subjects. Donati et al. Depression, Gs, and Lipid Rafts. J. Neurosci., March 19, 2008. 28(12):3042–3050 .. and G Protein Dynamics is closely related to consciousness models (at least the main)
  74. 74. Chapter 4: Conclusion CONCLUSION L ECONSCIOUSNE CELL PSYCHIATRY MEMBRANE SS IS A SUICIDAL, AT LEAST IN THE MOMENT HE IS KILLING HIMSELF, A SUBJECT IN AN ALTERED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS?
  75. 75. Chapter 4: Conclusion CONCLUSION L ECONSCIOUSNE CELL PSYCHIATRY MEMBRANE SS Cocchi and Tonello refer different FAs profiles in Depressive versus Healthy Subjects. Cocchi M and Tonello L. Platelets, Fatty Acids, Depression and Cardiovascular Ischemic Pathology. Progress in Nutrition 2007; 9 (2): 94-104. .. and FAs profiles are closely related to consciousness models (at least the main)
  76. 76. Chapter 4: Conclusion CONCLUSION L ECONSCIOUSNE CELL PSYCHIATRY MEMBRANE SS IS A DEPRESSIVE, A SUBJECT IN AN ALTERED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS?
  77. 77. Chapter 4: Conclusion CONCLUSION L ECONSCIOUSNE CELL PSYCHIATRY MEMBRANE SS May we consider Psychiatry as the study of altered states of consciousness? If so, consciousness models can help psychiatry and psyichiatry can help consciousness models
  78. 78. Chapter 4: Conclusion CONCLUSION L ECONSCIOUSNE CELL PSYCHIATRY MEMBRANE SS If so… If we have a tool providing a measure of the depressed state, not in a dichotomous manner (simply present or not present) but in a continuous fashion, then will we thereby be able to “measure consciousness”?
  79. 79. Chapter 4: Conclusion CONCLUSION L ECONSCIOUSNE CELL PSYCHIATRY MEMBRANE SS For example: LOW RISK It’s a tool for depression NO RISK DEPRESSION diagnosis, in a continuous HIGH fashion RISK
  80. 80. Chapter 3: Consciousness CONCLUSION For example: WHAT ARE WE MEASURING LOW RISK HERE? NORISK DEPRESSION HIGH The Depressive state, RISK Consciousness?
  81. 81. Chapter 4: Conclusion CONCLUSION …maybe, just ……THE LONG SHADOW OVER THE SOUL! Thank you!
  82. 82. Slides not shownIn the first experiment shown, populations investigated are different in age…
  83. 83. Remark Populations are different! Works have been done without takeing fully into account Gender, Age and Medications! Somtimes they are different (between populations). Why?• Authors are searching STRONG BIOMARKERS, a STRONG EVIDENCE in any case stronger than other variables like Gender, Sex and Medications.• Literature about Serotonin uptake and release refers that Platelet changes “could not be explained by age, sex, or medication variables” in schizophrenia and affective disorders (*).• Validation on groups with the same Age, Gender and Medications will be done, anyway, secondly.(*) Stahl SM, Woo DJ, Mefford IN, Berger PA, Ciaranello RD. Hyperserotonemia and platelet serotonin uptake andrelease in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1983 Jan;140(1):26-30.
  84. 84. Chapter 3: Consciousness CONCLUSION For example: WHAT ARE WE LOW RISK MEASURING NO HERE?RISK DEPRESSION HIGH RISK WHAT’S THE UNIT?
  85. 85. Chapter 4: Conclusion CONCLUSION For example: ARE WE MEASURING, LOW RISK SOMEHOW, NO CONSCIOUSNESS?RISK DEPRESSION HIGH RISK IS IT BLOOD THE “MIRROR OF SOUL”?
  86. 86. Chapter 4: Conclusion CONCLUSION For example: WE DON’T KNOW IF IT’S ABLE TO LOW MEASURE OUR SOUL. RISK NORISK DEPRESSION HIGH WHAT WE HOPE IS RISK THAT IT COULD HELP TO MEASURE…
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