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Fazd heartwater power point module final sept 2011
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  • 1. Heartwater: Risk to US Livestock and Wildlife
    Christopher Hensley and Pete D. Teel
    Senior Forensic and Investigative Sciences & Psychology Double Major, 2012
    And Professor and Associate Department Head
    Department of Entomology
    Texas A&M University
    1
  • 2. 2
    Overview
    General Information
    Issue& Threat
    Cattle Egret
    Geographic Distribution
    Impact
    Conclusions
  • 3. 3
    Heartwater: General Information
    African tick borne disease
    • Affects ruminants (broad range of species)
    • 4. Not in US, but in Caribbean
    Pathogen
    • Ehrlichiaruminantium
    • 5. (Formerly Cowdria)
    Tick Vectors
    • Genus Amblyomma
    (12 species recognized)
  • 6. 4
    Genus Amblyomma
    • A. variegatum
    Tropical Bont Tick
    Spread to 14 Caribbean Islands
    Other principle African vector species not in Western Hemisphere
    A. hebraeum
    A. gemma
  • 7. 5
    Issue & Threat
    Risk of Heartwater to North America
    Presence of primary vector and pathogen in Caribbean
    Discovery of native tick to be efficient experimental vector
    Role of cattle egrets as host
    and transport of
    immature ticks
    Supportive climate
    Diversity of livestock and
    Wildlife hosts in US
  • 8. Potential Native Tick Vector
    The Gulf Coast tick, Amblyommamaculatum
    Laboratory studies using a goat – tick model
    Findings show A. maculatumvery capable of acquiring E. ruminantiumfrom sub-clinical, infected goats. (See Mahan et al. 2000)
    Summation: A substantial risk as vector.
    Vector capacity under field conditions not yet tested.
    6
  • 9. 7
    Cattle Egret: Host & Transport
    Caribbean introductions1940-50’s
    Now widespread in Western Hemisphere
    Nest throughoutCaribbean
    Host to immature Amblyomma ticks
  • 10. 8
    Cattle Egret: Migratory Risk
    Migrate across Americas
    Involved in inter-island travel
    Caribbean birds found in Florida Keys
  • 11. 9
    Geographic Distribution
    Heartwater and Amblyomma vectors are widespread in Africa south of the Sahara
    Caribbean introduction and spread
    First reported 1830s (limited to 3 islands)
    Tick expansion 1970s-1980s to 14 islands
  • 12. 10
    Geographic Distribution
    Potential spread
    North and South American mainlands
    Southeastern US at high risk
    Close proximity
    Suitable climate
    Livestock density
    Native and Exotic deer
  • 13. 11
    Impact
    Highly fatal
    Economic risks
    high cost for containment and elimination
    No drugs or vaccines
    Surveillance testing
    Quarantine
  • 14. 12
    Conclusions
    Vigilanceto changes in Caribbean
    Support efforts to Caribbean containment
    Active surveillance of ticks from Texas to Florida and Georgia into National Tick Surveillance Program (USDA, APHIS, VS)
    Contingency response at state & federal levels
    Educate owners and veterinary professionals
  • 15. 13
    Resources Available
    • http://www.anapsid.org/heartwater.html
    • 16. http://www.avianweb.com/cattleegrets.html
    • 17. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/disease.php?name=heartwater
    • 18. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/factsheets.php
    • 19. http://www.epi.ufl.edu/?q=node/34
    • 20. http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/34610
    • 21. http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vetext/INF-DA/INF-DA_HEARTWATER.HTML