Heartwater: Risk to US Livestock and Wildlife<br />Christopher Hensley and Pete D. Teel<br />Senior Forensic and Investiga...
2<br />Overview<br />General Information<br />Issue& Threat<br />Cattle Egret<br />Geographic Distribution<br />Impact<br ...
3<br />Heartwater: General Information<br />African tick borne disease<br /><ul><li>Affects ruminants (broad range of spec...
Not in US, but in Caribbean</li></ul>Pathogen<br /><ul><li>Ehrlichiaruminantium
(Formerly Cowdria)</li></ul>Tick Vectors<br /><ul><li>Genus Amblyomma</li></ul>	(12 species recognized)<br />
4<br />Genus Amblyomma<br /><ul><li>A. variegatum</li></ul>Tropical Bont Tick<br />Spread to 14 Caribbean Islands<br />Oth...
5<br />Issue & Threat<br />Risk of Heartwater to North America<br />Presence of primary vector and pathogen in Caribbean<b...
Potential Native Tick Vector<br />The Gulf Coast tick, Amblyommamaculatum<br />Laboratory studies using a goat – tick mode...
7<br />Cattle Egret: Host & Transport<br />Caribbean introductions1940-50’s<br />Now widespread in Western Hemisphere<br /...
8<br />Cattle Egret: Migratory Risk<br />Migrate across Americas<br />Involved in inter-island travel<br />Caribbean birds...
9<br />Geographic Distribution<br />Heartwater and Amblyomma vectors are widespread in Africa south of the Sahara<br />Car...
10<br />Geographic Distribution<br />Potential spread<br />North and South American mainlands<br />Southeastern US at high...
11<br />Impact<br />Highly fatal<br />Economic risks<br />high cost for containment and elimination<br />No drugs or vacci...
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Fazd heartwater power point module final sept 2011

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Fazd heartwater power point module final sept 2011

  1. 1. Heartwater: Risk to US Livestock and Wildlife<br />Christopher Hensley and Pete D. Teel<br />Senior Forensic and Investigative Sciences & Psychology Double Major, 2012<br />And Professor and Associate Department Head<br />Department of Entomology<br />Texas A&M University<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Overview<br />General Information<br />Issue& Threat<br />Cattle Egret<br />Geographic Distribution<br />Impact<br />Conclusions<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Heartwater: General Information<br />African tick borne disease<br /><ul><li>Affects ruminants (broad range of species)
  4. 4. Not in US, but in Caribbean</li></ul>Pathogen<br /><ul><li>Ehrlichiaruminantium
  5. 5. (Formerly Cowdria)</li></ul>Tick Vectors<br /><ul><li>Genus Amblyomma</li></ul> (12 species recognized)<br />
  6. 6. 4<br />Genus Amblyomma<br /><ul><li>A. variegatum</li></ul>Tropical Bont Tick<br />Spread to 14 Caribbean Islands<br />Other principle African vector species not in Western Hemisphere<br />A. hebraeum<br />A. gemma<br />
  7. 7. 5<br />Issue & Threat<br />Risk of Heartwater to North America<br />Presence of primary vector and pathogen in Caribbean<br />Discovery of native tick to be efficient experimental vector<br />Role of cattle egrets as host <br />and transport of <br />immature ticks<br />Supportive climate <br />Diversity of livestock and<br /> Wildlife hosts in US<br />
  8. 8. Potential Native Tick Vector<br />The Gulf Coast tick, Amblyommamaculatum<br />Laboratory studies using a goat – tick model<br />Findings show A. maculatumvery capable of acquiring E. ruminantiumfrom sub-clinical, infected goats. (See Mahan et al. 2000)<br />Summation: A substantial risk as vector.<br />Vector capacity under field conditions not yet tested.<br />6<br />
  9. 9. 7<br />Cattle Egret: Host & Transport<br />Caribbean introductions1940-50’s<br />Now widespread in Western Hemisphere<br />Nest throughoutCaribbean<br />Host to immature Amblyomma ticks<br />
  10. 10. 8<br />Cattle Egret: Migratory Risk<br />Migrate across Americas<br />Involved in inter-island travel<br />Caribbean birds found in Florida Keys<br />
  11. 11. 9<br />Geographic Distribution<br />Heartwater and Amblyomma vectors are widespread in Africa south of the Sahara<br />Caribbean introduction and spread<br />First reported 1830s (limited to 3 islands)<br />Tick expansion 1970s-1980s to 14 islands<br />
  12. 12. 10<br />Geographic Distribution<br />Potential spread<br />North and South American mainlands<br />Southeastern US at high risk<br />Close proximity<br />Suitable climate<br />Livestock density<br />Native and Exotic deer<br />
  13. 13. 11<br />Impact<br />Highly fatal<br />Economic risks<br />high cost for containment and elimination<br />No drugs or vaccines<br />Surveillance testing<br />Quarantine<br />
  14. 14. 12<br />Conclusions<br />Vigilanceto changes in Caribbean<br />Support efforts to Caribbean containment<br />Active surveillance of ticks from Texas to Florida and Georgia into National Tick Surveillance Program (USDA, APHIS, VS)<br />Contingency response at state & federal levels <br />Educate owners and veterinary professionals<br />
  15. 15. 13<br />Resources Available<br /><ul><li>http://www.anapsid.org/heartwater.html
  16. 16. http://www.avianweb.com/cattleegrets.html
  17. 17. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/disease.php?name=heartwater
  18. 18. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/factsheets.php
  19. 19. http://www.epi.ufl.edu/?q=node/34
  20. 20. http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/34610
  21. 21. http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vetext/INF-DA/INF-DA_HEARTWATER.HTML</li>

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