Equine Piroplasmosis: Emerging Threat to the Horse Industry Lauren Lewis1 and Pete D. Teel2 Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 1Senior Biomedical Science and Entomology Double major, 2Professor and Associate Department Head 1
2 Equine Piroplasmosis (EP) : Acute tick-borne disease of Equids (horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras) >50% mortality in naïve animals Difficult to diagnose Recent increase in serologically positive US horses Effects breeding, working, and performance horses Major constraint to interstate and international movement of horses
Infected red blood cells Uninfected Infected Normal red blood cells
6 Negative Effects of EP: Travel Restrictions Mandatory Serological Testing Quarantine Loss of non endemic status
7 Diagnosis: Clinical Signs Variable and nonspecific EP should be suspected in horses with anemia, jaundice and fever T. equicauses more severe disease than B. caballi Incubation period is 12 to 19 days when caused by T. equiand 10 to 30 days when caused by B. caballi EP is a reportable disease; suspect cases should be reported to state & federal authorities
8 Prevention and Control Prevention with acaricide applications to animals prior to exposure, and post-exposure if needed Vegetation free zones Avoidance of Tick infested areas Post exposure tick checks Pre-purchase evaluations & testing
9 Tick Inspections for Equines Preferred Tick Feeding Sites Ears Nasal openings Mane Tail Perianal area Genital area Leg auxilaries
Use as guide for tick treatment
10 Acaricide Applications for Equines Several classes of acaricides available Formulations include Sprays Pour-ons and Spot-ons Wipe-ons Dusts Protective covers impregnated w/acaricides
Use all materials with caution; read the labels and follow instructions carefully.
See http://tickapp.tamu.edu for further information and suggestions.
11 Resources Available “Iowa State Center for Food Security & Public Health Brochure”http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/equine_piroplasmosis.pdf “Gray Book on Foreign Animal Diseases”p. 147 “Babesiosis”http://www.aphis.usda.gov/emergency_response/downloads/nahems/fad.pdf “USDA Website” http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/piroplasmosis/ “Equine Babesiosis-Review” http://www.vet.uga.edu/VPP/clerk/edwards/index.php “The TickApp”, a mobile smart phone app for ticks of Texas and the Southern Region http://tickapp.tamu.edu USDA suggestions for “Protecting your horses” http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/piroplasmosis/downloads/ep_protect_your_horses_en_sp.pdf A Literature Review of Equine Piroplasmosis http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/piroplasmosis/downloads/ep_literature_review_september_2010.pdf Equine Piroplasmosis and the World Equestrian Games http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/piroplasmosis/downloads/ep_2010_weg_wp.pdf USDA, APHIS Factsheet http://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_health/content/printable_version/fs_equine_piro.pdf