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Fazd equine piroplasmosis
Fazd equine piroplasmosis
Fazd equine piroplasmosis
Fazd equine piroplasmosis
Fazd equine piroplasmosis
Fazd equine piroplasmosis
Fazd equine piroplasmosis
Fazd equine piroplasmosis
Fazd equine piroplasmosis
Fazd equine piroplasmosis
Fazd equine piroplasmosis
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    • 1. Equine Piroplasmosis: Emerging Threat to the Horse Industry
      Lauren Lewis1 and Pete D. Teel2
      Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
      1Senior Biomedical Science and Entomology Double major, 2Professor and Associate Department Head
      1
    • 2. 2
      Equine Piroplasmosis (EP) :
      Acute tick-borne disease of Equids (horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras)
      >50% mortality in naïve animals
      Difficult to diagnose
      Recent increase in serologically positive US horses
      Effects breeding, working, and performance horses
      Major constraint to interstate and international movement of horses
    • 3. 3
      Geographic Distribution
      • US
      • 4. Not endemic in the US
      • 5. Eradicated from the US by the 1980s
      • 6. In 2008, an outbreak occurred in Florida
      • 7. Global
      • 8. Endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions including parts of Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean and Europe
      • 9. Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan are considered EP free
    • 4
      Problem: U.S. threatened by occurrences of EP outbreaks
    • 10. 5
      Transmission
      • Pathogens transmitted by ticks
      • 11. Babesiacaballi
      • 12. Transovarialtransmision
      • 13. Theileriaequi(formerly Babesiaequi)
      • 14. Transovarial transmission uncertain or absent
      • 15. Intrastadial transmission
      Known US Tick Vectors
      • Dermacentornitens
      Experimental US Tick Vectors:
      • Amblyommaamericanum
      • 16. Dermacentoralbipictus
      • 17. D. variabilis
      • 18. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus
      Known Global Tick Vectors:
      Infected red blood cells
      Uninfected
      Infected
      Normal red blood cells
    • 21. 6
      Negative Effects of EP:
      Travel Restrictions
      Mandatory Serological Testing
      Quarantine
      Loss of non endemic status
    • 22. 7
      Diagnosis: Clinical Signs
      Variable and nonspecific
      EP should be suspected in horses with anemia, jaundice and fever
      T. equicauses more severe disease than B. caballi
      Incubation period is 12 to 19 days when caused by T. equiand 10 to 30 days when caused by B. caballi
      EP is a reportable disease; suspect cases should be reported to state & federal authorities
    • 23. 8
      Prevention and Control
      Prevention with acaricide applications
      to animals prior to exposure, and post-exposure if needed
      Vegetation free zones
      Avoidance of Tick infested areas
      Post exposure tick checks
      Pre-purchase evaluations & testing
    • 24. 9
      Tick Inspections for Equines
      Preferred Tick Feeding Sites
      Ears
      Nasal openings
      Mane
      Tail
      Perianal area
      Genital area
      Leg auxilaries
      • Use as guide for tick treatment
    • 10
      Acaricide Applications for Equines
      Several classes of acaricides available
      Formulations include
      Sprays
      Pour-ons and Spot-ons
      Wipe-ons
      Dusts
      Protective covers impregnated w/acaricides
      • Use all materials with caution; read the labels and follow instructions carefully.
      • 25. Focus attention on preferred feeding sites
      • 26. See http://tickapp.tamu.edu for further information and suggestions.
    • 11
      Resources Available
       “Iowa State Center for Food Security & Public Health Brochure”http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/equine_piroplasmosis.pdf
      “Gray Book on Foreign Animal Diseases”p. 147 “Babesiosis”http://www.aphis.usda.gov/emergency_response/downloads/nahems/fad.pdf
      “USDA Website”
      http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/piroplasmosis/
      “Equine Babesiosis-Review”
      http://www.vet.uga.edu/VPP/clerk/edwards/index.php
      “The TickApp”, a mobile smart phone app for ticks of Texas and the Southern Region
      http://tickapp.tamu.edu
      USDA suggestions for “Protecting your horses”
      http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/piroplasmosis/downloads/ep_protect_your_horses_en_sp.pdf
      A Literature Review of Equine Piroplasmosis
      http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/piroplasmosis/downloads/ep_literature_review_september_2010.pdf
      Equine Piroplasmosis and the World Equestrian Games
      http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/piroplasmosis/downloads/ep_2010_weg_wp.pdf
      USDA, APHIS Factsheet
      http://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_health/content/printable_version/fs_equine_piro.pdf

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