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Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul
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Fazd bovine babesiosis final slideshow 29 jul

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  • 1. Bovine Babesiosis: Overview and Current Issues<br />Jose S. Portugal III1 and Pete D. Teel2<br />1Senior, Entomology Major and, 2Professor and Associate Department Head<br />Department of Entomology, Texas A&amp;M University, College Station, TX<br />1<br />
  • 2. 2<br />Bovine Babesiosis Common Names<br />Tick Fever<br />Cattle Fever<br />Texas Fever<br />Redwater<br />Piroplasmosis<br />
  • 3. 3<br />History and General Information<br />Historic Perspective<br /><ul><li>1893 first recognized arthropod vector
  • 4. Spread over 14 southern states and California
  • 5. Major cause for the demise of early cattle drives
  • 6. Retarded economic development of cattle industry
  • 7. Tick Eradication Programs initiated 1906
  • 8. Declared successful by the USDA in 1943
  • 9. Threat continues from cattle and ticks in Mexico</li></ul>Impact of Pathogen <br /><ul><li>Estimated costs of out break in American herds in the billions annually
  • 10. A mortality rate exceeds 50% in naïve cattle of European breeding (Bostaurus)</li></li></ul><li>4<br />History and General Information<br />(cont.)<br />Pathogen Information<br /><ul><li>Intra-erythrocytic Protozoan
  • 11. Red blood cell destruction leads to anemia &amp; death
  • 12. No effective vaccines
  • 13. No anti-babesial drugs approved for use in US
  • 14. Babesiabigeminaand B. bovisare principle pathogens in Western Hemisphere</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Principle Tick Vectors<br />Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, known as the Southern or tropical cattle tick<br />Rhipicephalus(Boophilus) annulatus, known as the cattle tick<br />
  • 15. 6<br />Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus<br />Prefers tropical and sub-tropical environment<br /><ul><li>Regions with high rainfall ideal</li></ul>Distribution pan-tropical<br /><ul><li>Mexico/Central America
  • 16. South America
  • 17. Southern Asia
  • 18. Australia
  • 19. Brazil
  • 20. Indian Subcontinent
  • 21. Parts of Africa</li></ul>Identified in quarantine zones on Texas/Mexico border typically east of Laredo as well as on the California/Mexico border<br />
  • 22. 7<br />Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus<br />Associated with temporate to sub-tropical climates <br />Global distribution includes<br /><ul><li>Mexico/Central/South America
  • 23. Middle East
  • 24. Mediterranean Area
  • 25. Southern Asia</li></ul>Identified in quarantine zones on <br />US/Mexico border typically west of Laredo<br />
  • 26. 8<br />One Host Tick Biology<br /><ul><li>Larvae, nymphs and adult ticks feed, molt, and mate on one host
  • 27. The on-host sequence requires 20-25 days
  • 28. Engorged female ticks drop to ground to lay eggs and produce 6-legged larvae
  • 29. The off-host sequence may last 6-9 months without a subsequent host
  • 30. Multiple generations of ticks are produced each year.</li></li></ul><li>9<br />Pathogens of Bovine Babesiosis<br />Babesiabigemina<br />Babesiabovis<br />
  • 31. 10<br />Transmission<br />Sporozoites pass to cattle from infected ticks through blood feeding &amp; enter red blood cells<br />Reproduce asexually rupturing red blood cells upon release of merozoites<br />Re-enter gut of subsequent ticks through feeding process<br />Reproduce sexually within tick<br />Infect developing eggs of next tick generation<br />
  • 32. 11<br />Extended Risk-Native and Exotic Ungulates<br />Native<br />Cattle<br />Buffalo<br />White-tailed Deer<br />Horses<br />Exotic<br />European red deer<br />Nilgai Antelope <br />Possible Babesia reservoir<br />
  • 33. 12<br />Physical Symptoms<br />Hemoglobinuria<br />Fever<br />Malaise<br />Confusion<br />Icterus/Jaundice<br />Weight loss<br />Depression<br />Lack of coordination<br />
  • 34. 13<br />Laboratory and Genetic Testing<br />Microscopy<br /><ul><li>Wright-Giemsa stain
  • 35. &gt;1 parasite in 106 RBC’s</li></ul>PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)<br /><ul><li>Via ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay)
  • 36. Detects presence of antigen only
  • 37. Confirms exposure not infection</li></ul>IFA (Indirect Fluorescent Antibody)<br /><ul><li>Detects antibodies due to exposure
  • 38. Not specific
  • 39. Requires high antibody titer</li></ul>In-vitro Cultures and Latex Agglutination<br /><ul><li>Still in testing phases</li></li></ul><li>14<br />Eradication, Prevention and Control<br />Tick Eradication<br /><ul><li>US Policy to prevent transmission
  • 40. Tick surveillance and detection by physical scratching of animals
  • 41. Quarantine infested areas
  • 42. Treat infested animals in Acaracide dips on 14 day cycle
  • 43. Regulate animal movement
  • 44. Establish international Buffer Zone along Texas/Mexico Border </li></li></ul><li>15<br />Eradication, Prevention and Control<br />(cont.)<br />Disease Control<br /><ul><li>Policy practiced by Mexico, Brazil, Australia and most other countries
  • 45. Develop endemic stability
  • 46. Utilize supportive therapy to aid the recovery of infected animals
  • 47. Directly or indirectly induce immunity in cattle through exposure
  • 48. Minimize economic and animal health impacts of disease</li></li></ul><li>16<br />Additional Methods Explored to Combat Fever Ticks<br />Countries such as Mexico and Australia have begun to target the Fever Tick vector<br />Experimentation with “Tick Vaccines”<br /><ul><li>GAVAC
  • 49. tickGARD</li></ul>Ivermectin treated corn feeders and protein blocks to treat wildlife<br />
  • 50. 17<br />Recent Issues Dealing With Bovine Babesiosis<br />Acaricideresistance increasing<br />Ungulate reservoirs intermingling with cattle<br />Eradication vs. Disease Control incompatibility<br />Rapid transport of cattle between regions<br />Increased demand for beef and dairy<br />Lack of funding<br />
  • 51. 18<br />Sources and Additional Information <br />http://www.tahc.state.tx.us/animal_health/fevertick/fevertick.html<br />http://nsu.aphis.usda.gov/inventory/activity.faces?INVENTORY_NUMBER=89<br />http://vetpda.ucdavis.edu/parasitolog/Parasite.cfm?ID=196<br />http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/metropolitan/4696674.html<br />http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/archives/NSEP/babesia/ENG/epidemiology.htm<br />http://ddr.nal.usda.gov/bitstream/10113/10189/1/IND43901455.pdf<br />http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/bovine_babesiosis.pdf<br />http://www.tahc.state.tx.us/animal_health/fevertick/FeverTickProgram.pdf<br />http://www.animalagriculture.org/Information/Publications/Cattle/2007/Spring.pdf<br />http://www.conasamexico.org.mx/conasaplanestratgarrap.pdf<br />http://www.nrrbs.com.au/animalhealthivomec.htm<br />http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/tmot1/bosetrag.htm<br />http://wiienvis.nic.in/ungulatesofindia/meghalaya.htm<br />http://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_health/content/printable_version/cattle_fever_ticks.pdf<br />http://lib.bioinfo.pl/paper:17186273<br />http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs-tx/tick.htm<br />

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