Introduction   Acknowledgements References T.B. Hairgrove, D.V.M.  and  P.D. Teel, Ph.D. Funding provided by National Cent...
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Anaplasmosis Poster

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Anaplasmosis Poster

  1. 1. Introduction Acknowledgements References T.B. Hairgrove, D.V.M. and P.D. Teel, Ph.D. Funding provided by National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense Anaplasmosis: Zoonotic Disease of Regional Concern B. Flores and R. L. Stanko Department of Animal, Rangeland, and Wildlife Sciences Texas A&M University-Kingsville Signs and Symptoms Diagnostic Tests Treatment <ul><li>Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by several species of bacteria of the genus Anaplasma which in transferred from host to host via the bite of a tick (ADLF, 2010 ). The focus of this study is on the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic pathogen that affects livestock, and both companion and wild animals such as cattle, deer, horses, llamas, and mice (Ogden et al., 1998). Furthermore, an emphasis is made on the presence of this pathogen in livestock species in the United States. Presence of this pathogen in U.S. livestock herds has been attributed to the tick vectors lxodes scapularis (Figure 1) as well as Ixodes pacificus ( Maurin et al., 2003). Anaplasmosis diseases caused by A. phagocytophilum are </li></ul><ul><li>Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Equine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Tick-borne Fever which affects ruminants such as sheep and cattle </li></ul><ul><li>ALDF. 2010. Other Tick-Borne Diseases. American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. Available: http://www.aldf.com/Anaplasmosis.shtml. Accessed: March 9, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>CFSPH. 2005. Ehrlichiosis. Center for Food Security and Public Health. Available: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/ehrlichiosis.pdf. Accessed: February 8, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>LOPH-IDES. 2009. Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis. Louisiana Office of Public Health-Infectious Disease Epidemiology Section. Available: http://www.dhh.louisiana.gov/offices/miscdocs/docs-249/Manual/EhrlichiosisManual.pdf. Accessed: March 9, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Maurin, M., J.S. Bakken and J.S. Dulmer. 2003. Antibiotic susceptibilitir4es o Anaplasma ( Ehrlichia ) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 47: 413-415. </li></ul><ul><li>Ogden, N.H., Z. Woldehiwet and C.A. Hart. 1998. Granulocytic ehrlichiosis: an emerging or rediscovered tick-borne disease? Journal of Medical Microbiology. 47: 475-482. </li></ul><ul><li>Tate, C.M., D.G. Mead, M.P. Luttrell, E.W. Hawerth, V.G. Dugan. U.G. Munderloh and W.R. Davidson. 2005. Experimental infection of white tail deer with Anaplasma phagocytophilum etiologic agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 43:3595-3601. </li></ul><ul><li>Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (CFSPH, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Common Severe symptoms include </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Malaise </li></ul><ul><li>Chills, </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle aches </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (CFSPH, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Ataxia </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Icterus </li></ul><ul><li>Petechiation </li></ul><ul><li>Tick-borne Fever (CFSPH, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle Sheep Deer </li></ul><ul><li>Depression, </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia, </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased milk production </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory dryness </li></ul><ul><li>Abortions </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced semen quality </li></ul><ul><li>The performance of an Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA) assay to detect antibodies against A. phagocytophilum . </li></ul><ul><li>The use of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay to detect A. phagocytophilum DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>The detection of A. phagocytophilum in blood leukocytes when stained and viewed under a microscope (Figure 2). </li></ul>(LOPH-IDES, 2009) A. phagocytophilum infection may be treated with the antibiotic doxycycline (LOPH-IDES, 2009). Research has also shown that rifampin may be an effective alternative for pregnant women since doxycycline may cause bone toxicity for the unborn child (Maurin et al., 2003). Prevention <ul><li>Prevent or Minimize Exposure to Ticks </li></ul><ul><li>Wear protective clothing when hunting or when in habitats where ticks are prevalent </li></ul><ul><li>Use tick preventative products on livestock, companion animals, and around buildings/facilities where these animals are kept </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock and pets may be treated with Acaricides (Figure 4) </li></ul>(CFSPH, 2005) <ul><li>Conjunctivitis </li></ul><ul><li>Joint pain </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Rash in some cases </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Photophobia </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney failure </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><li>distress </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunistic Infections </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhages </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiomyopathy </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple organ failure </li></ul><ul><li>Meningoencephalitis </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Coma </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctance to move </li></ul><ul><li>distal limb </li></ul><ul><li>Edema </li></ul><ul><li>Transient ventricular </li></ul><ul><li>arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Listlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul><ul><li>Increased respiratory rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increased pulse rate </li></ul><ul><li>Abortion </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced semen quality </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased feed intake </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctance to move </li></ul><ul><li>(Tate et al., 2005) </li></ul>Ixodes scapularis Adult Female Adult Male Nymph A. phagocytophilum morula ( cell grouping) Neutrophil (white blood cell) red blood cell Figure 3. Photograph of a tick infested deer in Millburn Township, NJ Millburn Township Deer Management Task Force http://twp.millburn.nj.us/View-document/65-Deer-Task-Force Wright-Giemsa blood smear/stain 1000X magnification Figure 4. An example of a commercially available acaricide for use in livestock and companion animals. Figure 5. Equine Doxycycline Oral Suspension Rood Riddle Veterinary Pharmacy http://www.rrvp.com Figure 1. Size and appearance of adult female and male, and nymph lxodes scapularis . (by Taina Litwak, CMI, CDC) Figure 2. Human blood cells stained with Wright-Giemsa at 1000x magnification. Normal red blood cells and a neutrophil carrying a A. phogocytophilum morula. Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine. http://www.vetmed.auburn.edu/anaplasmosis_canine/feline (CFSH, 2005)
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