What is Anaplasmosis?(CFSPH, 2005)<br />A disease caused by bacteria of the genus Anaplasma<br />Zoonotic species is Anaplasmaphagocytophilum<br />This includes organisms previously thought to be separate species, including:<br />Ehrlichiaequi<br />Ehrlichiaphagocytophila<br />“the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis” <br />
Anaplasmaphagocytophilum<br />A. phagocytophilummorula( cell grouping)<br />Neutrophil<br />(white blood cell)<br />Red blood cell<br />Wright-Giemsa blood smear/stain<br />1000X magnification<br /> Human blood cells stained with Wright-Giemsa at 1000x magnification. Normal red blood cells and a neutrophil carrying a A. phogocytophilummorula.<br />Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine. <br />http://www.vetmed.auburn.edu/anaplasmosis_canine/feline<br />
Areas Affected(Rikihisa, 2010)<br />Asia<br />Europe<br />United States of America<br />
Species Affected (Ogden et al., 1998) and (CFSPH, 2005)<br />Bison<br />Cats<br />Cattle<br />Deer<br />Dogs<br />Elk<br />Goats<br />Horses<br />Humans<br />Llamas<br />Primates<br />Rodents<br />Sheep<br />
Vector: Ticks(CFSPH, 2005) and (Dulmer et al., 2005)<br />In the United States<br />Ixodesscapularis<br />Ixodespacificus<br />In Europe<br />Ixodesrincus<br />Possibly in Asia<br />Ixodespersulcatus<br />Size and appearance of adult female and male, nymph and larva of lxodesscapularis. (by TainaLitwak, CMI, CDC)<br />Female Ixodesrincusfound in Finland. Photo by JarmoHolopainen<br />http://www.pbase.com/image/16565682 <br />
Regional Distribution of I. scapularisin the U.S. CDC 2011.<br />
Regional Distribution of I. pacificus in the U.S.CDC 2011.<br />
Tick HabitatLDA 2009<br />Wooded areas<br />Under plant cover in yards<br />Tall grasses and brush<br />Border regions where yards/fields/woods meet<br />In areas where small mammals live, such as wood piles <br />
Tick AttackCDC 2011<br />Ticks rest on the tips of plants and shrubs and climb onto potential hosts that come in contact with them.<br />Some ticks assume a position know as “questing” while waiting for a host.<br />QuestingI. scapularis<br />CDC. James Gathanay, William Nicholson<br />
Reduced reproductive efficiency due to reduced semen quality</li></ul>Cattle: a livestock species susceptible to infection by A. phagocytophilum infection.<br />http://agriculturalservices.org/cattle/anaplasmosis.htm<br />
Icterus</li></ul>Video of a horse with Anaplasmosis. Horse is catheterized for intravenous antibiotic treatment. Note the movement of the horse.<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOxyDewtxK0&NR=1<br />
Reduced semen quality</li></ul>Sheep: a livestock species susceptible to infection by A. phagocytophilum infection.<br />http://www.vetsweb.com/news/characterization-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-and-a-ovis-infection-1074.html<br />
Signs-Deer(Tate et al., 2005)<br /><ul><li>Decreased feed intake
Reluctance to move</li></ul>Photograph of a tick infested deer in Millburn Township, NJ<br />Millburn Township Deer Management Task Force. <br />http://twp.millburn.nj.us/View-document/65-Deer-Task-Force<br />
Signs-Cats(Billeter et al., 2007)<br />Fever <br />Thrombocytopenia<br />Hyperglobulinemia<br />Lethargy<br />Anorexia<br />Weight loss<br /> Vomiting<br />Polyarthritis<br />Lameness<br />Ocular discharge<br />Cats: a companion animal species susceptible to infection by A. phagocytophilum infection.<br />Photo Credit: nikki from Fotolia.com <br />http://www.ehow.com/how_7654927_remove-soft-tick-cat.html<br />
Signs-Dogs(Bexfield et al., 2005) and (Alleman and Wamsley, 2008)<br />Less Common<br /><ul><li>Vomiting
Signs-Dogs(Bexfield et al., 2005)<br />Dog infected with A. phagocytophilum. Manifestation of a scleral hemorrhage was observed as a result of hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia.<br />(Bexfield et al., 2005)<br />Video of a veterinarian discussing various aspects of tick-borne disease in companion animals, including zoonotic disease transmission. <br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3G_1xk-JQs&feature=related<br />
Seizures and Coma</li></ul>Video of Young Woman diagnosed with Lyme Disease and A. phagocytophilum co-infection.<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTHARhGwiEY<br />Video of a doctor discussing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGE), A. phagocytophiluminfection.<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxhTvU8-FvY&feature=related<br />
Diagnostic Tests(LOPH-IDES, 2009)<br /><ul><li>The performance of an Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA) assay to detect antibodies against A. phagocytophilum.
The detection of antibodies in response to A. phagocytophilum infection through the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
The use of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay to detect A. phagocytophilum DNA. </li></ul>The detection of A. phagocytophilumin blood leukocytes when stained and viewed under a microscope. <br />In-clinic SNAP® 4Dx® blood test for dogs and horses.<br />In-clinic Snap 4Dx blood test for dogs.<br />http://www.idexx.com/view/xhtml/en_us/corporate/news/press-releases/20070119pr.jsf<br />
Prevention(CFSH, 2005) and (CDC, 2010).<br />Exposure to ticks should be minimized and prevented whenever possible.<br />Use pesticides to reduce ticks near buildings<br />Check companion animals for ticks regularly<br />Humans can use DEET insect repellants and permethrin products to treat clothing and gear<br />Livestock and pets may be treated with acaricides<br />Avoid tick habitat when possible<br />An example of a commercially available DEET insect repellant. <br />milanomedical.com<br />An example of a commercially available acaricide for use in livestock and companion animals.<br />http://www.ultravetis.com/?page_id=51<br />
Treatment(UWM, 2000) and (LOPH-IDES, 2009) <br />A. phagocytophiluminfection is treated with tetracycline antibiotics.<br />For use in livestock, oxytetracycline is recommended.<br />In humans, the antibiotic of choice is doxycycline.<br />Due to negative side-effects of tetracyclines in pregnant women, the antibiotic rifampin can be used as an alternative treatment.<br />An example of commercially available oxytetracycline antibiotic which will be administered intravenously.<br />http://www.bestvetstore.com/search/oxytetracycline+veterinary/<br />
Why do we care about Anaplasmosis?<br />Zoonotic disease puts livestock handlers and owners of companion animals at risk of infection<br />Infection of wildlife species is less easily identified and these infected individuals can spread A. phagocytophilumcarrying ticks into areas where they can infect livestock, pets, and humans <br />Negative economic impact due to reduction of reproductive efficiency in livestock<br />
Acknowledgements<br />T.B. Hairgrove, D.V.M. and P.D. Teel, Ph.D.<br />Funding provided by National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense<br />
References<br />ALDF. 2010. Other Tick-Borne Diseases. American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. Available: http://www.aldf.com/ Anaplasmosis.shtml. Accessed: March 9, 2011.<br />Alleman, A.R. and H.L. Wamsley. 2008. An update on anaplasmosis in dogs. Available: http://veterinarymedicine.dvm360.com/vetmed/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=506867&sk=&date=&&pageID=1. Accessed: May 3, 2011.<br />Bexfield, N.E., E.J. Villiers, and M.E. Herrtage. 2005. Immune-mediated haemolyticanaemia and thrombocytopenia associated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a dog. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 46:543-548.<br />Billeter, S.A., J.A. Spencer, B. Griffin, C.C. Dykstra, B.L. Blagburn. 2007. Prevalence of Anaplasmaphagocytophilum in domestic felines in the United States.Veterinary Parasitology. 147:194-198.<br />CDC. 2011. Ticks. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/ticks/. Accessed: April 28, 2011. <br />CFSPH. 2005. Ehrlichiosis. Center for Food Security and Public Health. Available: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/ehrlichiosis.pdf. Accessed: February 8, 2011. <br />Dulmer, J.S., K. Choi, J.C. Garcia-Garcia, N.S. Barat, D.G. Scorpio, J.W. Garyu, D.J. Grab, and J.S. Bakken. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging infectious Diseases. 11:1828-1834. <br />IDEXX Laboratories. 2007. New Canine SNAP® 4Dx® Diagnostic Test Available. IDEXX Laboratories. Available: http://www.idexx.com/view/xhtml/en_us/corporate/news/ press-releases/20070119pr.jsf. Accessed: May 2, 2011. <br />
References<br />LDA. 2009. Tick Habitat. Lyme Disease Association. Available: http://www.lymediseaseassociation.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=269&Itemid=183. Accessed: September 13, 2011.<br />LOPH-IDES. 2009. Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis. Louisiana Office of Public Health-Infectious Disease Epidemiology Section. Available: http://www.dhh.louisiana. gov/offices/miscdocs/docs-249/Manual/EhrlichiosisManual.pdf. Accessed: March 9, 2011.<br />Maurin, M., J.S. Bakken and J.S. Dulmer. 2003. Antibiotic susceptibilitir4es o Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. Antimicrobial Agentsand Chemotherapy. 47: 413-415.<br />Ogden, N.H., Z. Woldehiwet and C.A. Hart. 1998. Granulocytic ehrlichiosis: an emerging or rediscovered tick-borne disease? Journal of Medical Microbiology. 47: 475-482.<br />Rikihisa, Yasuko. 2010. Anaplasmaphagocytophilum and Ehrlichiachaffeensis: subversive manipulators of host cells. Microbiology. 8: 328-339.<br />Tate, C.M., D.G. Mead, M.P. Luttrell, E.W. Hawerth, V.G. Dugan. U.G. Munderloh and W.R. Davidson. 2005. Experimental infection of white tail deer with Anaplasmaphagocytophilum etiologic agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 43:3595-3601. <br />UWM. 2000. Anaplasmaphagocytophila(Ehrlichiaequi)in horses. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Available: http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/pbs/zoonoses/ Ehrlichia/ehrlequihorses.html. Accessed: May 2, 2011. <br />
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