First slide First of all I acknowledge Pfizer Animal Health and specially the organizers of this Symposium to provide me this opportunity to share the Brazilian experience on immunological castration of pigs. Abstract Physical and immunological castrations are highly effective in managing taint to levels acceptable to consumers. When used as an alternative to physical castration, Improvact® process, frequently referred to as immunological castration, not only controls boar taint but also offers producers the opportunity to raise the more energy efficient, leaner boar and operate in a more humane and environmentally sustainable manner. Thus immunological castration is a potential technology to help t he global swine industry to provide the public a high quality desirable product in an economically feasible manner . This paper summarizes the current research and technical information on immunological castration focusing the aspects related to carcass composition.
Slide 7. O que e um animal NANI? The effect of the producer is not only limited to p re-slaughter losses associated to pigs that die during transport or in lairage, but also of those that arrive at the plant unable to walk normally if at all (Ritter et al., 2007).
Slide 8. Incidencia de cerdos cansados Recently, Fitzgerald et al. (2008) reported that the poor farm conditions can increase the incidence of fatigued pigs on arrival at the plant by 0.7 %. The largest proportion of these animals is referred to as non-ambulatory, non-injured (NANI) pigs. NANI pigs are a problem for producers and processors. In US plants approximately 1 % of pigs has been characterized as downers (NANI and non-ambulatory-injured, NAI, pigs; Carr et al., 2005). With approximately 100 million pigs being slaughtered annually in the United States (USDA, 2006), animal losses (downers and DOA) would cost pork producers more than 16 million dollars/year. Almost 5,000 pigs out of a total of 3,433,823 inspected pigs were observed to be non-ambulatory on arrival at the packing plant in a Canadian survey (Canada Gazette, 2004). Sixty percent of these pigs resulted in carcasses that had to be at least partially condemned. The major cause of this full or partial condemnation is due to unacceptable amount of residual blood in the carcass due to poor bleeding (Faucitano and Geverink, 2008). The responsibility for these losses was equally shared between the producer and the transporter.
Slide 10. Produtor de cerdo. Dr. Grandin estimates that approximately 50% of the variation in pork quality is due to producer-controlled factors, such as the genetics of the pig and pre-delivery handling.
Slide 10. Produtor de cerdo. Dr. Grandin estimates that approximately 50% of the variation in pork quality is due to producer-controlled factors, such as the genetics of the pig and pre-delivery handling.
Slide 11. Frigorifico. The other 50% of pork quality variation is due to packer-controlled factors including both pre-slaughter handling of pigs and post-slaughter handling of carcasses.
Slide 13.Preparacao dos cerdos antes do embarque. Ate
Slide 16. These recommendations have different goals, which range from prevention of travel sickness, especially in the case of poor road conditions and excessive truck vibrations, and reduction of animal losses (Warriss, 1996; Guàrdia et al., 1996; Viau and Champagne, 1998) to the reduction of carcass yield losses and food safety risks (Viau and Champagne, 1998; Chevillon et al., 2006). With the possible exception of restricting pigs from water for a few hours before transport in order to avoid motion sickness (Randall and Bradshaw, 1998), water must be provided to animals both before and following transportation (AAFC, 1993). However, there is evidence that during transport even thirsty pigs drink very little when the vehicle is moving (Lambooij et al., 1985). Water should therefore be offered during stops, especially when the temperature is above 20°C, and not later than 8 hours after the start of the journey (Brown et al., 1999; SCAHAW, 2002).
Slide 17. Furthermore, feeding pigs until the time of transport may be very costly because feed consumed by pigs takes 4 h to 8 h to be absorbed in the small intestine after ingestion and most nutrients enter the blood 9 h after intake; thus, feed provided to pigs in the last 10 h will not be converted to carcass gain and is wasted from a processing standpoint (Warriss, 1985).
Slide 18. LONGOS PERÍODOS DE JEJUM, ENTRETANTO, SEMPRE IMPLICAM PERDA DE PESO VARIANDO ENTRE 0,12 A 0,20 %/HORA E SÃO INICIALMENTE CAUSADAS PELA EXCREÇÃO DE FEZES E URINA. PERDAS DE PESO NA CARCAÇA COMEÇA ENTRE 9 E 18 HORAS APÓS A ÚLTIMA ALIMENTAÇÃO E DEPENDENDO DO FATOR ESTRESSANTE ADICIONAL, ESSAS PERDAS VARIAM ENTRE 0,06 À 0,14%/HORA DURANTE O PERÍODO DE 48 HORAS DE JEJUM (WARRIS, 1993). A RESERVA DO GLICOGÊNIO MUSCULAR É REDUZIDA EM 10% DO NÍVEL CONSIDERADO NORMAL PARA O JEJUM CORRESPONDENTE A 21 HORAS. DESSA FORMA WARRIS & BEVIS (1987) RECOMENDAM PARA JORNADAS QUE EXCEDAM ESTE PERÍODO A INCLUSÃO DA ALIMENTAÇÃO E DE UM PERÍODO DE DESCANSO ANTES DE PROCEDER AO ABATE (APUD GREGORY, 1994).
Slide 21 Faucitano et al. (2006) reported a lower carcass weight after a 24 h fast resulting in a 1% decrease in carcass yield losses; however, Chevillon et al. (2006) reported significant carcass weight loss (360 g/pig) only after 24 h of feed withdrawal. This loss resulted in a 0.33-point difference in dressing yield, which is equivalent to 30 g/h of cold carcass weight loss for a pig weighing 110 kg at slaughter.
Slide 25. Embarque The stressfulness of the loading procedure results from the combination of different factors, such as group splitting in the finishing pen, distance moved from the pen to the load point, group size, mixing, handling system and eventually the design of the loading device (either ramp or quay). According to Geverink et al. (1998) and Marchant-Ford et al. (2003), the most stressful task a market pig must endure during transport to slaughter is the pig’s initial departure from its finishing pen. At this stage, the position of the handler, the use of a solid board and moving small groups are important to improve easiness of handling and limit stress (Hemsworth, 2000). In large swine units, the load point is often far from the finishing pens so pigs are imposed to walk long distances to get to the load point resulting in muscle fatigue. A recent survey on 17,000 pigs showed that a long walking distance (> 60 m) from the pen to loading tended to increase the proportion of NANI pigs at the load point and NAI pigs on arrival at the plant (Ritter et al., 2007). E specially at the farms where split-marketing (removal of the heaviest 25 to 50% of pigs from a pen) is applied, the use of a shipping room where pigs are transferred from different finishing pens ahead of time (minimum 4 h before loading) is recommended as it reduces by half the time required to load 100 pigs and increases the easiness of handling. The lower stress results in a reduction of animal losses (Chevillon, 2005; Johnson et al., 2008).
Slide 26. Batimento cardiaco no embarque Loading pigs onto the truck is considered the most critical stage of the transport stage as showed by the 110-130 increase in the heart beats compared to a pig at rest (Chevillon, 2001b) because of the strong human-animal interaction and the change of environment. The effects of on-farm handling on welfare and physiology of market pigs can be divided into two stages: 1) driving pigs from their home pen in the finishing barn to the load-out facility, and 2) loading pigs onto the transport vehicle (Van Putten, 1982). The easiness of handling at loading depend from the design of the loading facilities, group size, handling tools and whether pigs are mixed or not. The weather conditions (temperature and relative humidity) are also very important at loading. Usually, to prevent mortality in the truck due to hyperthermia it is recommended to load pigs early in the morning in summer and, in case of trucks not equipped with mechanical ventilation, to shorten the wait in the truck before departure as much as possible in order to ventilate pigs and reduce their body temperature (Eikelenboom, 1988; Tamminga et al., 2008) and the risk of death (Correa, unpublished results). When the temperature is above 10ºC and the wait time is long, pigs should be given a shower on the truck (Schutte et al., 1996). A 5 minute shower prior to departure from the farm gate drops body temperature of pigs by 10 % resulting in 25 % lower mortality rate during transit (Chevillon, 1998; Colleu and Chevillon, 1999). A retirada dos suínos da baia e o deslocamento até o local de espera constituem os primeiros estresses e esforços violentos para os suínos. Observa-se uma alteração do ritmo cardíaco que passa de 90 batimentos cardíacos por minuto, apresentado pelo suíno em repouso na baia, até atingir 210–220 bpm (Gráfico 1; CHEVILLON, 2000). A retirada dos suínos da baia e a transferência devem ser efetuados com calma, de preferência após a última alimentação ou 7 a 8 horas após esta, e se possível nas horas mais frescas do dia.
Slide 27. Bastao eletrico e frequencia cardiaca
Slide 32. Tipos de carrocería.
Slide 33. Material para manejo Official regulations and scientific reports recommend to limit, if not to avoid, the use of electric prods for pig handling at any stage of the preslaughter period (EC, 1993). Loading pigs with electric prod increases their heart rate and blood lactate and salivary cortisol levels (Brundige et al., 1998; Hemsworth et al., 2002) and the incidence of NANI pigs (Benjamin et al., 2001). McGlone et al. (2004) compared the efficacy of electric prod, board, paddle and flag as moving devices for pigs at the farm. The board and the flag were more effective devices than the paddle or electric prod as they induced fewer behavioural problems and reduced the time required to move pigs. However, boards and flags are not useful when pigs line up in close, tight spaces, such as chutes, alleys or races since the pig stopping the group can be far ahead and thus unreachable by the handler. The electric prod is the most effective device in this situation, but has a great potential for abuse especially when used by untrained handlers (Coleman et al., 2003). The quality of the load crew can be a factor influencing animal losses during transport. Fitzgerald et al. (2008) reported that the use of untrained handlers at loading can result in 0.22 % increase in the number of fatgued pigs on arrival at the plant. Recently, Correa et al. (2008) and Torrey et al. (2008) compared the efficacy of the board either combined with the electric prod or the paddle or the compressed air prod as moving devices for pigs at loading. The electric prod moved pigs quickly but it was an aversive method with pigs exhibiting abnormal behaviour, such as slips, falls and overlaps, which may lead to injury and muscle fatigue as showed by the higher ultimate pH in the ham at slaughter. In conclusion, the paddle appeared to be a suitable substitute for the electric prod as the compressed air prod increased loading time due to difficult handling (escape behaviour).
Slide 35. Resultados
AUTHOR: Janet Sunstrum, BSc; Cate Dewey, DVM, PhD; Charles Haley, DVM, PhD - Swine News, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service A study conducted in 2001 in Ontario found that of 4,760,213 market weight pigs shipped to packing plants, 7969 died prior to being processed at the plant. Of those that died, 15% were classified as “subject” pigs when they were loaded into the truck. 1 A subject pig is one that appears abnormal for any of a variety of reasons. Pigs shipped in the summer months were twice as likely to die in-transit compared to pigs shipped during other months of the year. The objectives of this study were to describe the numbers of subject pigs and pigs dying intransit and the factors associated with these during the summer. Specifically, we recorded reasons for subject pig classification, clinical signs of stress as pigs were being unloaded, temperatures at the time of unloading, time spent waiting at the packing plant prior to unloading and the relationship between these variables and in-transit loss. Materials and methods This observational study included a weekly visit to the three largest packing plants in Ontario during July to September of 2003. Data were collected on 46,331 pigs from 250 trucks and detailed observations were made on 7351 individual pigs as they were unloaded at the plant. Specifically, every fifth pig unloaded for a maximum of 30 pigs per truck was scored for stumbling, panting, squealing, tail injury, and scratched skin. Time of arrival of trucks, wait time prior to unloading, number of pigs per truck and the number of subject and dead pigs on each truck was recorded. The reasons for subject classification, the locations where subject classification occurred and the locations on the trucks where pigs were found dead were recorded. Hourly dry temperature data was purchased from the government and merged with the other data to match the hour when pigs were unloaded. Poisson regression was used to determine the associations between panting, death and subject classifications, temperature at the time of arrival and waiting times at the packers. Results and discussion On average 0.27% of pigs were classified as subject. Of the 0.07% pigs that died in-transit, 34% were identified as subject prior to death. Subject classification occurred 6.1%, 30.4%, and 63.4% of the time at the producers, assembly/dispatch yard, and packing plant respectively. The reasons for subject classification were as follows: pigs showing severe signs of heat stress (fatigued) (48.0%), lame (44.9%), prolapse (6.3%), intact males (3.1%), severe bruises (2.4%), head tilt (1.6%) and tail bitten (1.6%). In total, 7.8% of these pigs had more than one reason for the subject classification. Of the 7351 pigs observed 11.6% stumbled or fell, 5.4% panted, 4.5% squealed, 1.2% had injured (bitten) tails and 59.8% had scratches. There were 38 pigs that died on the 250 observed trucks. The locations on the trucks where pigs were found dead were as follows: 46% bottom deck, 3% front middle deck, 15% back middle deck, 9% front top deck, 21% center top deck and 6% back top deck. Knowledge of the location on trucks where pigs are more likely to experience heat stress or die from heat stress may be used to alter stocking densities or implement cooling mechanisms in these areas. During heat stress, pigs thermoregulate by panting and if their body temperature continues to rise they collapse and may die due to cardiovascular failure. 1 Trucks with at least one dead pig were 2.0 times more likely to have panting pigs than trucks without dead pigs (P < 0.0001). Similarly, panting pigs were 2.2 times more likely on trucks with fatigued pigs than on trucks without fatigued pigs (P < 0.0001). Trucks waited to unload for an average of 49 minutes with a range of 2 to 198 minutes. There was no association between the time waiting to unload at the packersand the risk of pigs panting. However, as the waiting time increased by 30 minutes, the risk of dying and the risk of being a fatigued subject pig increased by 2.2 and 2.3 times respectively (P < 0.0001). The outside temperature when the pigs arrived at the packers averaged 25°C and ranged from 19 to 31°C. As the temperature on arrival at the packers increased by 10°C increments, the risk of panting, dying or being a fatigued subject pig increased 2.3, 26.7 and 26.2 times respectively (P < 0.0001). Previous research on pig transport trailers in Ontario during the summer showed that when stopped, trailer temperature increased on average by 5.6°C. It took 56 minutes for the truck to reach its maximum temperature after the stop. The increase in temperature of the trailer while it was stopped ranged from 0°C to 25°C. 1 Thus, as time waiting to unload at the packers increased, the temperature within the truck would have increased. This rise in temperature may be responsible for the correlation between time waiting in the yard and the risk of death or being a fatigued subject pig. Heat stress, as indicated by counting panting pigs, was a predictor of subject classification and death during transport. Shipping pigs during the cooler hours of the day, implementing cooling mechanisms such as sprinkler systems (as observed at 2 of the 3 plants) and efforts to decrease wait times prior to unloading may help reduce loss due to heat stress and improve swine welfare. Acknowledgements The authors greatly appreciate the contributions of the cooperating packers and truckers and Karen Richardson for her assistance with data collection. References 1. Haley, C. 2005. The factors associated with transport loss of market weight swine in Ontario. PhD Thesis, University of Guelph.
Evolução da temperatura e da velocidade do ar ao nível do lombo do suíno durante o carregamento e no transporte. (Temperature dans le camion (en oC ): temperatura no caminhão, Vitesse d‘air (en m/s): velocidade do ar, chargement: carregamento, transport: movimento). A duração do carregamento deve ser curta. No exemplo apresentado no Gráfico 1, os 210 suínos foram carregados em 50 minutos, ou seja menos de 25 minutos para carregar 100 suínos. Como regra geral, a duração do carregamento para 100 suínos para abate deverá ser inferior a 30 minutos. A densidade no carregamento não deverá passar 2,5 suínos/m2 e o número de suínos por baia não deverá exceder 20, o ideal é que os caminhões tenham compartimentos com uma capacidade individual de 12 a 15 suínos. Molhar os animais durante cinco minutos dentro do caminhão depois do carregamento contribui para combater o risco de hipertemia (COLLEU et al , 1999). Assim, nós observamos uma diminuição de 10% da temperatura corporal da superfície dos suínos após um banho nos animais durante cinco minutos depois do carregamento em período quente (To> 15oC). As aberturas para aeração no caminhão devem estar reguladas para abertura máxima no momento do carregamento. Na estação quente, naqueles lotes que não tiveram a oportunidade de repousar e estavam agitados ao carregamento (ativos, orelhas em pé e com tendência ao ajuntamento), foram observadas elevações da temperatura ambiente (cf Gráficos 2a e 2b), do CO2 e da umidade quando o caminhão está parado. Na situação inversa com o caminhão em movimento, a velocidade do ar que bate no lombo dos animais é de 2 a 3 m/s (7–10 km/h ; COLLEU et al , 1998) permitindo assim controlar a hipertermia e a renovação de ar no ambiente ao redor dos suínos (com taxa de CO2 e temperatura próximas dos valores exteriores). O fechamento das aberturas para ventilação é recomendada no período de inverno e nas durações de transporte longo (superiores a 1 hora). 2.5 O transporte O transporte gera estresse e esforços que se atenuam com a duração. Deve-se entretanto notar os piques de estresse observados sistematicamente após o início do deslocamento do caminhão (210–220 bpm). Os primeiros quilometros frequentemente geram pânico porque além de todas as condições as estradas inicialmente são péssimas ocorrendo com maior frequência paradas, acelerações e desacelerações. A sensibilidade do motorista é determinante em relação a estes aspectos. A taxa de mortalidade durante o transporte está intensamente associada com o primeiro quarto de hora de transporte (refletindo os sofrimentos relacionados com as condições inadequadas de carregamento). Quando os caminhões tem piso anti-derrapante ou apresentam piso com maravalha ocorre uma melhoria no bem estar do animal (barulhos são abafados, derrapagens são atenuadas).
Slide 47. Densidade populacional ESTUDOS REALIZADOS POR SCHÜTTE ET AL . (1994) REVELARAM QUE A DENSIDADE POPULACIONAL INFERIOR A 200KG/M 2 RESULTOU UMA INCIDÊNCIA DE CARNE PSE EM APROXIMADAMENTE DOIS TERÇOS DO REBANHO DE SUÍNOS E TAL INCIDÊNCIA FOI AINDA MAIOR PARA DENSIDADES MAIS ALTAS. LAMBOOY, 1991 SUGERIU QUE A DENSIDADE POPULACIONAL DEVE SER LIMITADA PARA 0,47 M 2 /100 KG QUANDO SE CONSIDERA MELHOR BEM ESTAR ANIMAL E QUALIDADE DA CARNE. BARTON GADE ET AL ., 1995, CONSTATARAM QUE DENSIDADE ANIMAL QUANDO PADRONIZADA PARA 100 KG FOI RELATIVAMENTE CONSTANTE (0,35 E 0,39 M 2 /100 KG) NO TRANSPORTE DE SUÍNOS REALIZADOS EM ALGUNS PAÍSES DA UNIÃO EUROPÉIA (PORTUGAL, ITÁLIA, BÉLGICA, ALEMANHA, HOLANDA, REINO UNIDO E DINAMARCA). CONSTATOU-SE AINDA, PEQUENA RELAÇÃO ENTRE A MORTALIDADE E A DENSIDADE ANIMAL, MESMO QUANDO A SUSCEPTIBILIDADE AO ESTRESSE DOS ANIMAIS FOI CONSIDERADA. QUANDO A DENSIDADE POPULACIONAL DOS SUÍNOS TRANSPORTADOS É ALTA RESULTARÁ UM DESCONFORTO, POIS NEM TODOS SÃO CAPAZES DE DEITAR AO MESMO TEMPO. NESSA SITUAÇÃO, ALGUNS SENTARÃO SOBRE OS OUTROS, POSIÇÃO ESSA QUE CAUSA A DISPNÉIA (DIFICULDADE NA RESPIRAÇÃO). PARA LIVRAR-SE DESSA SITUAÇÃO, OS ANIMAIS FAZEM UM TIPO DE ALONGAMENTO, COLOCANDO SEUS PÉS DIANTEIROS SOBRE OUTROS. OUTRA DIFICULDADE REFERE-SE A TROCA TÉRMICA, QUE O SUÍNO É PARTICULARMENTE SENSÍVEL. É ÓBVIO QUE A TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE E A VENTILAÇÃO AFETA A DENSIDADE POPULACIONAL. ANIMAIS TRANSPORTADOS EM TEMPERATURAS MENORES QUE 5 C MOSTRAM-SE TRANQÜILOS DURANTE A VIAGEM MESMO QUANDO A DENSIDADE POPULACIONAL É ALTA, PORQUE ELES TENTAM EVITAR A PERDA DE CALOR CORPORAL ATRAVÉS DO CONTATO FÍSICO. JÁ TEMPERATURAS MAIORES QUE 15·C PROMOVEM AGITAÇÕES E ATÉ MESMO PÂNICO.
Manejo pré-abate de suínos e seus impactos na qualidade da carcaça e carne Dr. Expedito Tadeu Facco Silveira Pesquisador Científico Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos Campinas – São Paulo
Por que assegurar o tratamento adequado dos suínos?
1 Pancadas sem fraturas (descrito como hematomas de diâmetro maior que 10 mm) 2 Considerando as etapas de carregamento, recebimento e insensibilização dos suínos 3 Total de animais abatidos no ano de 2008 (4.356.789 suínos) 4 Total de animais abatidos ate setembro de 2009 (2.987.456 suínos) Silveira et al., (2009) Por que assegurar o tratamento adequado dos suínos?
Redução nas perdas de suínos no transporte: mortalidade, cansaço (NANI), lesionados(NAI)
Ellis & Ritter, 2006
2. Evitar vômitos durante o transporte. Bradshaw et al., 1996
3. Evitar contaminação da carcaça por bactérias:
intestinos (na evisceração)
Saucier et al., 2007
Importância do jejum
4. Uniformizar o rendimento da carcaça Peloso, 2001 5. Melhorar a condução do suíno no momento do abate Chevillon, 1994 6. Controla a reserva do glicogênio muscular Guàrdia et al., 2004, 2005 7. Contaminação ambiental. Redução das excreções Warriss, 1992 Importância do jejum
Embarque a partir de 8 horas de jejum na granja (comedouro sem alimento)
Sangria efetuada antes de 12 horas. Maior incidência de carne PSE, devido a maior reserva de glicogênio muscular
Sangria efetuada depois de 18 horas perdas de 0,12 a 0,20% / hora. Redução no rendimento de abate (peso de carcaça quente dividido por peso vivo)
Longos períodos de jejum (> 28 horas). Maior incidência de carne DFD, devido a menor reserva de glicogênio muscular
Gregory, 1994 Tempo de jejum e qualidade de carne
Warriss, 1987 Glicogênio hepático e tempo do jejum
Ritter, 2006 Tempo de jejum e perdas no transporte
76,8 76,9 77 77,1 77,2 77,3 77,4 18 h 24 h 30 h a a b Perdas 0,33% rendimento de carne 30 g/h perdas de carcaça resfriada/110kg peso de abate % Chevillon et al., 2006 Tempo de jejum e rendimento de carne
Haley, 2005 Perdas mais altas em julho 2002 – coincidiram com as temperaturas ambientais mais altas (30.1 0 C de media) Morte durante o transporte
Chevillon, 2005 Embarque Transporte Hora Temperatura no caminhão (C) Velocidade do ar (m/s) Temperatura Velocidade do ar O embarque deve ser rápido para limitar a degradação do ambiente interno do caminhão
Ritmo cardíaco de um suíno antes do abate durante a espera no caminhão
Ritter, 2006 Mistura de lotes e perdas de animais