The American Revolution

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The American Revolution

  1. 1. The American Revolution 1754-1791 Eisenhower High School
  2. 2. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights Hallooooooo?!? For almost a century Great Britain had left the American Colonies to govern themselves. The neglect and great distance made it hard for Britain to keep control of the colonies. 3,000 Miles
  3. 3. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights So…Who Really Had Control? <ul><li>England had its own problems in dealing with other European countries. Officials were sent from England to keep tabs on the colonists. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governors from London </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each governor selected 6 citizens to delegate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonists were also allowed to elect their own local officials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 15 local plantation owners and businessmen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eligibility for voting was based on 3 factors: </li></ul><ul><li>-Age </li></ul><ul><li>-Gender </li></ul><ul><li>-Landownership </li></ul>
  4. 4. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights France, Indians, and Everyone Else <ul><li>-With tensions tight, another war broke out, the Seven Years’ War (1754-1763). A.K.A.-- </li></ul><ul><li>-The French and Indian War—a struggle for dominance in Europe and the Americas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The French lost the war, and territories changed hands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After years of war, huge debts were amassed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The War of Austrian Succession between Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa caused divisions in Europe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain allied with Prussia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France, Austria, and Russia stuck together. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights The Battle’s Done, the Victory’s Won, So Who Gets the Bill? Hello, America! New Taxes! -Sugar Act--1764 -Stamp Act--1765 -Tea Act--1773 New Laws with Soldiers to Enforce them! Colonists were given no representation. -Laws made in England without consideration of American feelings. -Translation? American Colonists are NOT Happy!
  6. 6. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights Talk About Backfire! <ul><li>American Colonists Protest! </li></ul><ul><li>-Boston Massacre, 1770 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American colonists gathered outside the courthouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British troops and colonists clashed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Americans were killed, was it really a massacre? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-Boston Tea Party, 1773 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the Tea Act, the drink became too expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists refused to purchase the tea and British trade ships refused to leave Boston Harbor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sons of Liberty snuck on board 3 British ships and dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stronger divisions developed in the colonies </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights One if by Land, Two if by Sea Colonists Prepare for a Confrontation -Gathering of weapons and supplies -Communication links were set up The British Discover the Intrigue - April 1775-They knew weapons were stored in Lexington and Concord -Paul Revere and others spread the word by displaying lanterns & the famous midnight ride Interception -As the British closed in, colonial militia met them in the fields - This was the first armed conflict—the American Revolution had begun!
  8. 8. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights You Say You Want a Revolution…
  9. 9. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights The American Nation is Born
  10. 10. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights Hear Ye, Hear Ye…We Have a Declaration! <ul><li>From the Continental Congress, July 4th, 1776 in Philadelphia: </li></ul><ul><li>-Scribed by Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by John Locke’s natural rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the unalienable rights (individual rights) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-A document which listed grievances, or complaints, against King George III and declared independence for the colonies </li></ul>
  11. 11. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights Oh, King George, A Few Words, If You Please <ul><li>He has refused his assent to laws to laws…for establishing judiciary powers. </li></ul><ul><li>He has…sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people… </li></ul><ul><li>For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: </li></ul><ul><li>For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world: </li></ul><ul><li>For imposing taxes on us without our consent: </li></ul><ul><li>For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury: </li></ul><ul><li>For transporting us beyond seas to be tried… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights We’ve Paid Your Foolish Tax, Read the Acts and They Just Won’t Do. It’s Too Late to Apologize…a Declaration
  13. 13. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights All for One and... … Not One for All… Many colonists were unwilling to fight the British, they preferred an unhappy arrangement and taxes to war. It took years to gather enough support to push the British back. The World Takes Notice- After many unsuccessful battles against the British, there came a Turning point: The Battle of Saratoga in 1777. Impressed with the American will and hungry for revenge, France officially joined the war.
  14. 14. … Remember this? Payback time! The French sent the Marquis de Lafayette to train the American troops to fight the British.
  15. 15. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights We’ll Follow the General Wherever He Wants to Go! Commander of the Continental Army -Fought in the French and Indian War - Did not win every battle, but never gave up! President of the Constitutional Convention -Helped to write the Constitution -Defined the role of the president First President of the US -Served two terms -Coined the term “Mr. President” “ First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.&quot;
  16. 16. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights Minister to France -Had a love of Enlightenment -Created ties which led to Louisiana Purchase “ Law is often but the tyrant's will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual.” From Enlightenment to President Drafted the Declaration of Independence -From June-July 4, 1776 -Wrote a passage against slavery, later deleted Governor of Virginia -Moved the capital to Richmond -Founded Univ. of Virginia 3 rd President of the US -Founded West Point -Made the Louisiana Purchase in 1903 Governor of Virginia -Moved the capital to Richmond -Founded Univ. of Virginia
  17. 17. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights The World Turn’d Upside Down French forces arrive -More than 5,000 troops Convergence at Yorktown -The last major battle of the American Revolution -Sept.-Oct. 1781 British surrender -Gen. Cornwallis surrendered to Gen. Washington Nothing left to do but wait -Almost 2 years later, the Treaty of Paris (1783) officially ended the war.
  18. 18. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights So America, You Won the War…Now What? <ul><li>Once independence was won the Americans had to create a new government that would be accepted. Leaders faced 3 major problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Diplomatic Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many countries (including Britain) were reluctant to accept ties to the new country. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealing with Limited Financial Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonists declared war over taxes, it was a touchy subject </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facing Accusations of Treason </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many did not know who to trust or who would lead them in the right direction </li></ul></ul>The British refused to sit for a portrait at the Treaty of Paris… Perhaps they were a little upset?
  19. 19. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights Suggestions? Anyone? Ah, Yes—A Constitution! The Articles of Confederation were approved in 1781 , but colonial leaders were concerned about protecting the power of the states. <ul><li>Limits put in place led to a weak central government , among them were the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No levying of taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All 13 states must approve new laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No trade regulation </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights If It’s Not Broke, Don’t…Wait… It’s Broke, Time to Fix It Within a few years, the new nation realized the Articles were not working. The argument: Federalist vs. Anti-federalist Federalists wanted a stronger national government. Anti-federalists wanted power for the states.
  21. 21. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights Another Constitution…How Conventional! The Enlightenment had lasting effects on America. Locke, Rousseau and Montesquieu inspired ideas about a nation ruled by the consent of the governed. <ul><li>In 1787, a Constitutional Convention was organized , their goals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix the Articles of Confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate powers and include checks and balances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instead, a new document was drafted: The Constitution of the United States of America. However, it wasn’t ratified until 1789. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights Separate, but Equal Inspired by the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact, the Constitution set up a republic that has lasted more than 200 years.
  23. 23. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights To Check, to Balance, and to Separate!
  24. 24. Britain and the Colonies Voting in America England Asserts Control -War -Taxes The Shot Heard Round the World America Declares Independence The Declaration of Independence -Colonial Grievances American Leaders Unite -George Washington -Thomas Jefferson The Final Battle The New Government The Articles of Confederation The Constitution The Bill of Rights A Guarantee to Win Approval <ul><li>Federalists won their strong national government. To appease the Anti-federalists, amendments were added to the Constitution to protect the rights of the individual from the government. </li></ul><ul><li>The first 10 amendments (changes) became the Bill of Rights, added and approved in 1791. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The American Revolution 1754-1791 Eisenhower High School
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