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Enlightenment and Revolution
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Enlightenment and Revolution Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Scientific Revolution
    • 1800s: New ideas began sweeping Europe
      • Scientific Revolution
      • Intellectual Enlightenment
    • Before 1500, truth = whatever the Church or ancient texts said
    • Suddenly, scholars began to challenge ancient thinkers and the church
      • Astronomy
      • Physics
      • Mathematics
      • Medicine
    • This launched the Scientific Revolution
      • New way of thinking about the natural world based on observation and questions
    Believed only the Church and ancient texts
  • 3. The 1 ST Guy to Realize We’re Not the Center of the Universe
    • The Church said Geocentric Theory
      • Earth centered universe
    • Wrong about movement of planets, Sun, and Earth
    • Astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus said Heliocentric Theory
      • Sun-centered
    • Was afraid to publish his findings until the year he died
  • 4. Galileo Gets in Trouble
    • Italian Galileo was a brilliant scientist
    • Invented telescope
      • Dark spots on sun
      • Jupiter has 4 moons
      • Moon has rough, uneven surface
    • Church threatened to excommunicate him because his discoveries scared them
  • 5. Galileo Gets in Trouble
    • If people believed the Church was wrong, they could question and challenge the Church on other things as well.
    • So the Church made Galileo say he lied.
  • 6. “ I Think, Therefore, I Am”
    • Frenchman who believed scientists needed to reject old assumptions and teachings
    • Relied on math and logic
    • Everything should be doubted until proved by reason. Only thing he was certain of was his existence.
  • 7. Assaulted by an Apple
    • Isaac Newton explained the law of gravity and laws of motion
  • 8. Chemistry’s Dad AKA the Man Sophomores Hate
    • Father of Chemistry
      • Proposed that matter was made up of smaller primary particles that joined together in different ways
    • Pioneered the scientific method
  • 9. The Enlightenment
    • The Age of Reason
      • Because Newton used reason to explain laws of nature, people looked for laws governing human behavior
    • Tenets of the Enlightenment
      • Reason
        • Logic can alleviate most problems in society
      • Nature
        • Natural laws of economics
      • Happiness
        • Nature’s laws lead to happiness on earth
      • Progress
        • Society and mankind can be perfected
      • Liberty
        • Society should be free
  • 10. Salons: The Philosopher's Tree House
    • Gatherings in people’s homes where philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and others discussed ideas
  • 11. Won’t Someone Control Me?
    • English philosopher who wrote the Leviathan (1651)
      • Believed humans were naturally selfish and wicked
      • People must give up rights to a strong ruler; in exchange, they gain law and order.
        • Solution: Social Contract between people and government
  • 12. America’s Godfather
    • People are free and equal and have natural ability to govern themselves
    • People’s 3 natural, unalienable rights:
      • Life
      • Liberty
      • Property
    • Purpose of government is to protect these rights
    • Had deep impact on modern political thinking
    • Believed that people can overthrow government if it fails to defend natural rights
    • America’s Founding Father’s subscribed to Locke’s beliefs
  • 13. Powers, Please Separate
    • Thought Great Britain was the best governed nation of his day because of monarch, Parliament, and courts
    • Separation of Powers- division of power among 3 branches of government
    • “ Power should be a check to power.”
    • Basis for the U.S. Constitution
  • 14. Civilization Bad.
    • French philosopher believed man is naturally free but enslaved by the state
    • Only good government is a direct democracy
      • Where people agree to give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good
  • 15. Philosopher Woman
    • Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
      • Women deserve same rights as men
      • Key to gaining equality and freedom is education
    • Argued for female education
      • Makes one virtuous and useful
      • Women should be doctors politicians not just wives
  • 16. Baby America, Child of the Enlightenment
    • Enlightenment ideas swept through European society and also to colonial America
  • 17. A New Type of Nation
    • Representative Democracy
      • Allows citizens to vote for their leaders
  • 18. Montesquieu’s Influence
    • Baron Montesquieu believed in separation of powers.
    • The U.S. Constitution adopted this belief and established 3 branches of government
  • 19.