The Middle Ages or Medieval Europe is the 1,000 year period after the fall of Rome and before the Renaissance.
I. Geography :
Europe is on the western end of Eurasia.
B. Natural Resources:
Fall of Rome Dark Ages in W. Europe Tribal Warfare Money is no longer used Cities disappeared Advances made by Greece & Rome forgotten Trade collapsed No central gov’t Weak local gov’ts Literacy declined
III. Germanic Tribes A. Farmers and herders 1. No written laws 2. Divided W. Europe into small kingdoms
Not these Franks!
B. The Franks
1. The most powerful Germanic tribe in Gaul , or present-day France.
King of the Franks
He converted to Christianity
The Roman Catholic Church becomes his ally ( supporter)
3. The Battle of Tours
- In 732 CE, the Franks defeated the Muslims in Spain.
This stopped Muslims from advancing into W. Europe.
DON’T WRITE THIS Christians did not want Islam to spread into Europe, even though they learned science and math from Arab Muslims.
C. Charlemagne ( Charles the Great ) 1. In 800 CE, he became king of the Franks 2. Pope Leo III named him emperor
3. His empire united Europe.
He spread Christianity
He blended Christian, Roman and German traditions
He formed an efficient gov’t
Charlemagne tried to revive learning
He set up schools to educate officials and children.
Curriculums, or formal courses of study, included reading, grammar, math, music, and astronomy.
Don’t write this!
D. New Attacks
1. After Charlemagne’s death in 814 CE, Muslims, Magyars and Vikings attacked.
Peace Out, Charlemagne!
When Charlemagne died in 814, his empire fell apart as his heirs fought over it.
Don’t write this!
2. 843 CE- The Treaty of Verdun divided the empire into three kingdoms.
3. This became the Holy Roman Empire.
Life in Medieval Europe (500 – 1500 CE)
A. Feudalism- A political system which exchanges land for military service.
King gives lord ( vassal ) a fief (land) . In exchange, the lord (vassal) gives the king his loyalty and protection when needed.
Lords gradually became more powerful than kings as they acquired more land.
Feudalism King or lord Required to give: -Fief (land) Vassal or lord Required to give: -loyalty -military service
Kings and Lords were at the top of the social hierarchy.
Knights - mounted warriors
Chivalry - code of
conduct for knights
be brave, loyal, polite
Feudal lords battled constantly for power and land
By the 1100’s, fighting declined so lords held tournaments (fake battles) to entertain people.
Serfs - peasants who worked the lord’s land
They could not leave without permission
They paid the lord rent in food and labor (no $$) for use of the land and protection.
DON’T WRITE THIS!
Role of Women
Noblewomen managed the household and were in change when men were away.
Received a limited inheritance
Arranged marriages, expected to have many kids
Few knew how to read and write
Chivalry raised women to a new status. They were protected and cherished.
Manorialism - an economy where land, not money, is the basis of wealth
Manor - the lord’s estate including the town, peasant houses, church, and fields
- It was self-sufficient, which led to a decline in trade
Three-field system - two fields planted, one left fallow (empty) to regain fertility
Remember Europe was isolated BUT, there were advanced civilizations in the Middle East, South Asia, and China!