In the Middle Ages, scholars decided truth based on the Bible or from Greek or Roman texts.
In the Renaissance, people questioned how the universe worked.
This caused the Scientific Revolution.
1. Nicolaus Copernicus
Heliocentric theory – the earth and planets revolve around the sun!
Until this time, scholars believed in the geocentric theory , that everything in the universe revolved around the earth.
Copernicus’ theory still didn’t explain why the planets orbited the way they did.
Fearing ridicule or persecution, Copernicus did not publish his findings until 1543, the year he died.
2. Johannes Kepler
Math and astronomy
Calculated the orbits of the planets (elliptical)
Scientist & astronomer
Invented the telescope
3. Galileo Galilei
In Italy, Galileo confirmed Copernicus’ heliocentric theory through the use of his telescope.
The Catholic Church warned Galileo, but in 1632 he published a heliocentric book!
The pope called Galileo to Rome to stand trial.
Under the threat of torture and excommunication, Galileo knelt before the cardinals and read a confession that the heliocentric theory was false.
Galileo was never again a free man, living under house arrest and dying in 1642 in Florence.
His books and ideas still spread throughout Europe.
4. Isaac Newton
1687- published book
Developed the law of gravity & laws of motion
What does an apple have to do with gravity? Ac-cording to George Stukeley, Newton’s biographer and friend, Newton was sitting in the shade of an apple tree when an apple fell nearby. Newton began to wonder why apples always fall to the ground. Why don’t they fall sideways or up? Newton reasoned that the earth must have a power that draws objects to it. That was the beginning of the law of gravity.
Newton established the law of universal gravitation .
According to this law, every object in the universe attracts every other object.
In 1687, Newton wrote Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy , full of his ideas.
5. Robert Boyle
Distinguished elements and compounds
Boyle defined the term element in 1661 as " . . . certain primitive and simple, or perfectly unmingled bodies; which not being made of any other bodies, or of one another, are the ingredients of which all those called perfectly mixt bodies are immediately compounded, and into which they are ultimately resolved."
Although Boyle's chief scientific interest was chemistry, he developed a brilliant series of experiments in which he used an air pump to create a vacuum. He also developed what later became known as "Boyle's law" that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure.
7. Andreas Vesalius
He accurately detailed the human body
8. William Harvey
Developed theory of blood circulation (the heart pumps blood through the body)
This illustration depicts one of William Harvey's experiments in his On the Circulation of the Blood (1628). Venal valves had already been discovered, but here Harvey shows that venal blood flows only toward the heart. He ligatured an arm to make obvious the veins and their valves, then pressed blood away from the heart and showed that the vein would remain empty because blocked by the valve.
9. Francis Bacon
Developed the Scientific Method
Not that bacon!
An English writer, Francis Bacon believed that by better understanding the world, scientists would improve people’s lives.
He urged scientists to experiment by observing the world and drawing conclusions.
10. Rene Descartes
Supported idea that human reason should be used to find truth
A French researcher, Rene Descartes relied on mathematics and logic.
He believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason.