Protestant Reformation


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Protestant Reformation

  1. 1. The Protestant Reformation
  2. 2. What was it? <ul><li>The [REFORM]ation was an attempt to REFORM the Catholic Church in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Reformers wanted restore the people’s faith in the church </li></ul>
  3. 3. I.Causes <ul><li>1. The Renaissance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanism led people to question the church. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They placed increasing faith in human reason (thinking). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>2. Strong Monarchs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased their power by supporting reformers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>3. Other Events </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Death caused doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Advances which contradicted the Church </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>4. Corruption in the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinary people felt church leaders were fighting for power and wealth rather than representing God. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing fees for sacraments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selling indulgences </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Indulgence - Pardon for committing a sin in exchange for money (bribe) </li></ul>&quot;As soon as a coin in the coffer rings / the soul from purgatory springs.&quot; This couplet is attributed to Johann Tetzel, a German preacher remembered for selling indulgences. In 1517, Tetzel was trying to raise money for the reconstruction of St. Peter's Basilica and it is believed that Martin Luther was inspired to write his Ninety-Five Theses, in part, due to Tetzel's actions during this period of time.
  8. 8. II. The Reformers
  9. 9. 1. Martin Luther <ul><li>Protestant Reformer and German monk ( 1483-1546) </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T WRITE </li></ul><ul><li>Father encouraged him to study law </li></ul><ul><li>A sudden religious experience inspired him to become a monk </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>He posted 95 theses (arguments) on the door of the Church in Wittenberg, Germany </li></ul>
  11. 12. Luther's 95 Theses <ul><li>A list of 95 complaints against the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Luther believed: </li></ul><ul><li>The sale of indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>was wrong </li></ul>
  12. 13. 2. Salvation was through FAITH alone. 3. Good deeds were NOT necessary for salvation. 4. Priests do NOT have special powers
  13. 14. ROMANS 1:17 “ The righteous shall live by faith.” Luther realized that only faith (in the ultimate goodness of Jesus), not good deeds, could save a person. No good works, rituals, etc. would save a person if they did not believe. 5. The Bible was the ONLY source of religious truth
  14. 15. <ul><li>He sparked the </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant Reformation- when Europeans (Protestants) broke away from the Catholic Church and formed NEW Christian churches </li></ul>
  16. 17. Don't Write! <ul><li>At the Diet of Worms in 1520, Pope Leo X order Luther to give up his beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Luther burned the order and was excommunicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Luther went into hiding where he translated the New Testament into German – spreading his beliefs even further </li></ul>
  17. 18. Pope Leo X (Medici) <ul><li>He was the Pope during the height of the corruption </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  18. 19. “ I am fed up with the world, and it with me. I am like a ripe stool, and the world is like a gigantic anus, and so we’re about to let go of each other.” -Luther Luther's Dying Words DON’T WRITE
  19. 20. 2. John Calvin <ul><li>Follower of Luther who then added his own ideas </li></ul>
  20. 21. Predestination <ul><li>Calvin believed in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At birth God decides who achieves salvation (if you will go to heaven or hell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s destiny was predetermined </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><ul><li>Two types of people: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>saints and sinners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purified approach to life: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No drinking, swearing, card playing, gambling etc.. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. CALVINISM <ul><li>Started in Switzerland – Calvinists </li></ul><ul><li>England = Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland = Presbyterians </li></ul><ul><li>Holland = Dutch Reform </li></ul><ul><li>France = Huguenots </li></ul><ul><li>Germany = Reform Church </li></ul>This should be one your homework! If not, write it in!
  23. 24. “ May little chickens dig out your eyes 100,000 times.” - Calvin speaking to another reformer whose ideas he disagreed with DON’T WRITE
  24. 25. Christianity Catholic Protestant Lutheran Calvinism Puritan Hugeunots Presbyterian
  25. 27. <ul><li>Religious unity ends in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>- New Protestant Churches emerge </li></ul><ul><li>2. A century of wars </li></ul>III.Effects
  26. 29. 3. Catholic Counter Reformation - The church’s reaction: strengthen Catholicism to stop people from converting to Protestantism
  27. 30. 4. Anti-Semitism increases; many Jews were forced into Eastern Europe
  28. 31. <ul><li>Education & Literacy increase </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants believed EVERYONE must be able to read the Bible. </li></ul><ul><li>The Printing Press made this possible. </li></ul>
  29. 32. How did the Scientific Revolution affect the Protestant Reformation? <ul><li>Gutenberg’s Printing Press made it possible for Luther to spread his beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Posted his 95 Theses on Church doors in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Gained support from people and criticism from Church </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  30. 33. <ul><li>The first thing printed on Gutenberg’s press was the Bible. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a picture of a page from one of Gutenberg’s Bibles. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  31. 34. What was the Protestant Reformation? <ul><li>In the end the reformers, like Luther, established their own religions </li></ul><ul><li>The Reformation caused a split in Christianity with the formation of these new Protestant religions </li></ul>Recap!