Eventually Israel was invaded and the Hebrews lived under foreign rule
Diaspora - When the Jews were forced out of Palestine and were scattered
They kept their identity, obeyed Hebrew law, and influenced Christianity and Islam
Monotheism - believe in one true God
Chosen people - God made a covenant (binding agreement) with Abraham
- First 5 books of the Old Testament
- Tells the story of the Hebrew people including their enslavement by Egyptian Pharaohs
Ten Commandments - laws that God gave to the Hebrews through Moses
They explain religious duty to God and moral conduct
Prophets - spiritual leaders that interpreted God’s will and preached ethics (moral standards of living)
III. Important Facts
Place of Worship:
Synagogue or Temple
Nation of Israel is Jewish
Neighbor country of Palestine is Muslim
This has led to constant fighting over common holy places in Israel
(Ex. Jerusalem )
The Temple Mount, Jerusalem Today Solomon’s Temple Wall: The “Wailing” Wall The Dome of the Rock
IV. Important Leaders:
Patriarch or father of Judaism, made a covenant (binding agreement) with God
Abraham’s Geneaology ABRAHAM SARAH HAGAR Isaac Esau Jacob 12 Tribes of Israel Ishmael 12 Arabian Tribes
adopted son of Egyptian pharaoh
led Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt to the Promised Land (Canaan). Called the Exodus.
“ Shepherd of His People”
united the empire
defeated the Philistine giant Goliath
Made Jerusalem into impressive capital (built temple and palace)
He was praised for his wisdom
female judge who won honor and respect
In Hebrew society, women were subordinate (inferior) to men and could not participate in some religious ceremonies
A Mitzvah (MITS-vuh) literally means commandment. It is a ny of the 613 commandments that Jews are obligated to observe. It can also refer to any Jewish religious obligation, or more generally to any good deed. It’s plural is Mitzvot (mits-VOHT) .
Why do Jews wears a yarmulke?
The most commonly known and recognized piece of Jewish garb is actually the one with the least religious significance. The word yarmulke (usually, but not really correctly, pronounced yammica) is Yiddish . It comes from a Tartar word meaning skullcap. According to some Orthodox rabbis , it comes from the Aramaic words "yerai malka" (fear of or respect for The King).
It is an ancient practice for Jews to cover their heads during prayer. This probably derives from the fact that in Eastern cultures, it is a sign of respect to cover the head (the custom in Western cultures is the opposite: it is a sign of respect to remove one's hat). Thus, by covering the head during prayer, one showed respect for G-d . In addition, in ancient Rome, servants were required to cover their heads while free men did not; thus, Jews covered their heads to show that they were servants of G-d. In medieval times, Jews covered their heads as a reminder that G-d is always above them.
Whatever the reason given, however, covering the head has always been regarded more as a custom rather than a commandment .
Reading the Torah
Hasidic Jews are called Hasidim in Hebrew. This word derived from the Hebrew word for loving kindness. It focuses on the joyful observance of God’s commandments, heartfelt prayer and boundless love for God and the world He created.
The movement originated in Eastern Europe in the 18th century by Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer (1700-1760). As his following grew, he became known as the Baal Shem Tov (abbreviated as Besht) which means “Master of the Good Name”.
Why do Hasidic men always wear a hat?
Religious male Jews (not just Hasidim) wear a hat to cover the head in respect for God. Covering the head reminds us that there is a Creator, a Higher Power, above our own limited minds. Any head covering will do, but some people like a certain style of hat to identify their group. Others simply have personal preferences about hats.
Why do Hasidic Jews always wear black?
Some Hasidic groups do have a uniform of sorts for the men, while others do not. Male Hasidic clothing does not have to be black, but is usually a dark, conservative color. The use of black clothing on Sabbaths and holy days traces back to a time when black dye was rare and expensive, so black was reserved for formal occasions (the same as tuxedos and "black tie" events in the secular world.) The Sabbath is a time for honoring God by dressing nicely (as you would in the presence of a king), so people wore their best black coats on the Sabbath.
What is the significance of the untrimmed beards and sidecurls?
The payos (sidecurls, pronounced PAY-us) and beard are worn in obedience to this commandment in the Torah (Bible):
You shall not round the corners of your heads, nor mar the edges of your beards. (Leviticus 19:27)
The "corners of the head" are the area above the ears. "Not rounding" them means not shaving the hair there, or cutting it very short. Together, both the curls and the untrimmed beard are a symbol of obedience to the laws of God. Many Hasidic men also cut the rest of the hair very short. This is not really required, but is more comfortable under a hat. Also, some Hasidim see the entire haircut -- very short hair with beard and payos -- as part of the "uniform" of their group.
Most men twist them while still wet. If you do this often enough, the hair gets trained that way. A boy starts wearing payos at age three. Before that, his hair is not cut at all, and is allowed to grow long. On his third birthday, there is a special ceremony where the hair is cut short except for the sidecurls.