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  • 1. The Enlightenment A New Way of Thinking
  • 2. I. The Enlightenment A. A time when the use of reason (logical thinking) and science were applied to political, social and economic problems.
  • 3. B. It was a direct result of absolutism. DON’T WRITE The people of Europe became tired of the abuses of power by absolute monarchs.
  • 4. John Calvin Thomas Hobbes
  • 5. II. Thinkers A. Philosophes: (“Lovers of Wisdom”)  Enlightenment thinkers who applied methods of science to improve society.
  • 6. B. They wrote about natural laws, or laws that govern human behavior.
  • 7. Thomas Hobbes Wrote Leviathan (1651)
  • 8. C. The best government, according to Hobbes, was one that had the absolute power of a leviathan (sea monster).
  • 9. Views & Beliefs • Man is naturally cruel and must be controlled. • Man gives up rights for order to enter into a social contract – an agreement to give up man’s natural state to live in organized society.
  • 10. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t ► A powerful gov’t must ensure order and obedience ► An absolute monarchy
  • 11. Impact Impact ► Absolute monarchs used his ideas to justify their rule.
  • 12. Wrote Two Treatises of John Locke Government (1690)
  • 13. Views & Beliefs •Man is naturally good & born equal •Every man has natural rights-rights belonging to all humans (life, liberty and property) •If gov’t fails the people, they have the right to overthrow it
  • 14. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t ► Best gov’t is where leader is limited and is accepted by all citizens (democracy)
  • 15. Impact Impact ► Used as the basis for American, French and Latin Revolutions in the 1700’s and for modern democracy
  • 16. The Baron de Montesquieu wrote the Spirit of Laws (1748)
  • 17. Views & Beliefs ►Gov’t should be separated into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. ►This would prevent tyranny by each branch being able to “check” the other two.
  • 18. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t ► Favored limited monarchy (studied British, Chinese, & Native American gov’t)
  • 19. Impact Impact ► Used as the basis for the structure of the American gov’t (checks and balances)
  • 20. Voltaire wrote Candide (1759)
  • 21. Views & Beliefs published more than 70 books about the right to free speech. Promoted civil rights & religious toleration He targeted corrupted officials and offended the Catholic church.
  • 22. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t ► Enlightened monarchs were best
  • 23. Impact Impact ► He helped make liberalism (the philosophy that emphasizes change, freedom from tradition and individual rights) more popular
  • 24. Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contact (1762)
  • 25. Views & Beliefs People are naturally good but are corrupted by the inequality of society. People should give up some rights for the common good. The “general will” of the people is for good. He individual should be subordinate to the community.
  • 26. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t Two Views ► Democracy –authority given to people OR ► Communism- good of the community over the individual
  • 27. Impact Impact ► His ideas helped spark the French Revolution.
  • 28. Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations (1776)
  • 29. Views & Beliefs The free market- the natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate and regulate business. (If there is a demand for goods, suppliers will meet it) Believed in laissez-faire-allowing business to operate without gov’t interference.
  • 30. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t Any gov’t that promotes laissez-faire economics
  • 31. Impact Impact ► Gave rise to capitalism and the Industrial Revolution
  • 32. C. Mary Wollstonecraft • Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women • Supporter of women’s rights • Argued that girls needed education as well as boys
  • 33. DON’T WRITE ► Mary Wollstonecraft’s daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, would write the classic novel Frankenstein.
  • 34. III. Spread of Ideas A. The printing press spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe.
  • 35. B. Methods of Communication: 1. Diderot’s Encyclopedia: Political thoughts, writings and ideas all in one place.
  • 36. 2. Salons ► Informal social gatherings ► writers, artists, philosophers exchanged ideas & points of view ► Many women organized salons and used them to learn about the issues of the day.
  • 37. IV. Enlightened Despots ► Absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change.  Frederick the Great (Prussia)  Catherine the Great (Russia)  Joseph II (Austria)
  • 38. V. Arts and Literature ► The middle class (merchants and town officials) influenced art and music.  Baroque: A grand, bright style of art  Rococo Style: Delicate Porcelain, portraits, tapestries  Music: Composers- Bach, Mozart, Handel
  • 39. VI. Effects  Enlightenment ideas inspired a belief of personal freedom and equality.  These concepts, along with challenges to authority, caused a growth of democracy.  The Enlightenment would contribute to