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Ancient Greece
 

Ancient Greece

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Ancient Greece Ancient Greece Presentation Transcript

  • Greece 1750 – 133 BCE
  • I. Geography Multi-Flow Map Geography of Greece Short mountain ranges cut up the mainland No important rivers Long, irregular coastline No sense of unity Cultural diversity Encouraged fishing and trade of olive oil, wine, and marble Phoenician alphabet spread Colonized new lands Separate city states Surrounded by sea
  • II. Early Greeks
    • Developed on Crete- an island south of Greece in the Aegean Sea
    • Economy based on TRADE
    Ruins of the Palace of King Minos at Knossos Around this vase are hoplites (foot soldiers) on dolphins, showing the importance of seas A. Minoan Civilization
  •  
  • B. Myceneans
    • Conquered mainland Greece and Crete
    • Dominated Aegean trade
    (MY SUH NEE UNZ) The mask of Agamemnon comes from a grave that dates from around 1600 BCE. Myceneans sometimes put gold masks over significant peoples’ faces.
  • 1. The Trojan War
    • 1250 BCE
    • War over trade and control of the Bosporus and Dardanelle straits
    • Legend:
      • Trojan prince Paris kidnapped Helen, the wife of a Greek king
      • Greeks left a “Trojan Horse” filled with hidden warriors
      • Trojan brought it in and Greeks burned the city.
  •  
  • 2. Homer
    • Homer was a traveling poet
    • He wrote two great Epic poems
      • The Iliad
      • The Odyssey
  • 3. Changes in Warfare
    • Bronze weapons and tools replaced by iron
    • Citizens could afford weapons
    • Phalanx- a massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers
  • Mrs. Agosta’s dad when he was 8 dressed in a traditional Greek uniform.
  • 4. Early Forms of Government Flow Map Monarchy – a king rules Power shifted to noble landowners Aristocracy - landholders rule Oligarchy - small business class rules ATHENS ONLY developed democracy - rule by the people
  • III. The Polis
    • A city-state built on two levels
      • 1. Acropolis- high city
      • - temples
      • 2. Lower city- flatter ground
      • - market, theater, homes
  •  
  •  
  • A. Athens
    • Started as a limited democracy
    • - only male citizens could vote
      • - Had a Legislature - lawmaking body - Council of 500
      • Only boys were educated if families could afford it
  • Athens
    • Solon’s reforms - expanded rights to more Athenians
    • Pericles - improved Athens from 460 to 429 BCE
      • Direct democracy- system of government in which citizens directly vote on issues
      • Encouraged the arts
      • Made Athens the cultural center of Greece
  • B. Sparta
    • Military state
    • Government included:
          • 2 kings
          • Council of elders
          • Assembly of all
          • male citizens
    Sparta
    • At age 7, boys began military training
    • Sickly kids were abandoned
    • Girls were to produce healthy sons,
    • were encouraged to exercise
  • C. Other City States
    • Corinth
    • Delphi
  •  
  • IV. Greek Religion
    • Polytheistic
    • Gods and goddesses lived on Mount Olympus
    • Zeus was head of the gods
  •  
  • V. Greek Conflicts
    • Greeks felt superior to non-Greeks and called them barbaroi even though they borrowed others’ ideas
    • (Eg. Phoenicians, Egyptians)
  • A. Persian Wars
    • In 490 BCE, Emperor Darius sent ships to Marathon (Greece) to punish Athens for interfering in Asia Minor
    Asia Minor
    • Persians outnumbered Athenians 2 to 1
    • Athens won and sent a man back 26.2 miles to Athens
    • He told of the victory then died on the spot
    • In 480 BCE, Darius’ son Xerxes
    • (ZERK SEEZ) wanted revenge
    • Greeks unified to defeat Persians again
    • Delian League (Athenian led alliance with other Greek city-states) was formed
  • B. Peloponnesian War
    • Peloponnesian League led by Sparta
    • War broke
    • out in 431 BCE
    • between
    • Sparta and
    • Athens
    • A plague broke out killing 1/3 of the people including Pericles
    • Even the Persians helped Sparta defeat Athens in 404 BCE