Mis Mac

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Mis Mac

  1. 1. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
  2. 2. Data and information <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw facts or Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine Efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informative value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on previous knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Transformation: From Data to Wisdom <ul><li>Data is transformed into information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources used to organize data into categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include monthly reports, regional summaries, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Information is transformed into knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is understanding patterns, rules and contexts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is transformed into wisdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective and individual experience in applying knowledge to solve a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom is where, when and how to apply knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What is a System?
  5. 5. A System
  6. 6. A System Input
  7. 7. A System Input Process
  8. 8. A System Input Output Process
  9. 9. A System Input Output Process feedback
  10. 10. A System Input Output Process feedback Customers Competitors Suppliers Government
  11. 11. SYSTEM <ul><li>A system is an orderly grouping of interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>components linked together according to a plan to </li></ul><ul><li>achieve a specific objective. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Elements(Components) of system <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Control- guides the system </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback- control in a dynamic system is achieved by feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Environment - super system </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries and Interface </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Systems <ul><li>Conceptual and Empirical </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and Manufactured </li></ul><ul><li>Social, People-Machine and Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Closed and Open Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive and Non-adaptive </li></ul><ul><li>Deterministic and Probabilistic Systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent and Temporary System. </li></ul><ul><li>Stationary and Non-stationary System. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsystems and super systems. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is an Information System? <ul><li>a set of interrelated components that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collect (or retrieve) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distribute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>information in order to support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coordination and control </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Information System <ul><li>An information system is an organized </li></ul><ul><li>combination of people, hardware, software, </li></ul><ul><li>communications network, and data resources </li></ul><ul><li>that collects, transforms, and disseminates </li></ul><ul><li>in an organization. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Role of Information System <ul><li>Support of business operation </li></ul><ul><li>Support of Managerial Decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Support of Strategic competitive advantage </li></ul>
  17. 17. Components of Information System <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware(physical devices) </li></ul><ul><li>Software (information processing instructions) </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Network (communication channels) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Activities of Information System <ul><li>Input of data resources </li></ul><ul><li>Processing of data into information </li></ul><ul><li>Output of Information Products </li></ul><ul><li>Storage of Data Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Control of System Performance </li></ul>
  19. 19. Types of Information System <ul><li>Operational support system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction Processing system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process control systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office automation system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management support system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Information Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Support Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Information Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Systems </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Transaction Processing System <ul><li>Transaction processing systems functions at the operational level of an organization. Examples of transaction processing systems include order tracking, order processing, machine control, plant scheduling, and compensation. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Management Information System <ul><li>A management Information System is </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An integrated user-machine system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For providing information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To support the operations, management, analysis, and decision-making functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In an organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The system utilizes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Hardware and Software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manual Procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Models for analysis, planning, control and decision making and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A database </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Characteristics of MIS <ul><li>Management Information System Support Structured and Semi-structured Decision at the operational and management control levels. They are also useful for planning purpose of senior management staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Management Information Systems are generally reporting and control oriented. They are designed to report on existing operation and therefore to help provide day- to day control of operations. </li></ul><ul><li>MIS rely on existing corporate data and data flows. </li></ul><ul><li>MIS have little analytical capability. </li></ul><ul><li>MIS generally aid in decision making using past and present data. </li></ul><ul><li>MIS are relatively inflexible. </li></ul><ul><li>MIS have internal rather than an external orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Information requirements are known and stable. </li></ul><ul><li>MIS require a lengthy analysis and design process. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Levels and Functions within an Organization <ul><li>Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales and Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance and Accounting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Management <ul><li>Management is the art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Organization structure strategic management oper Sales and Marketing Manufacturing and Production Human Resources Finance and Accounting
  26. 26. strategic management oper Sales and Marketing Manufacturing and Production Human Resources Finance and Accounting Hardware Software Data and Storage Networks IT Infrastructure Information Architecture
  27. 27. Information required at different management levels 9-
  28. 28. Levels of Management Decision Making <ul><li>Strategic management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executives develop organizational goals, strategies, policies, and objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As part of a strategic planning process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tactical management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers and business professionals in self-directed teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop short- and medium-range plans, schedules and budgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify the policies, procedures and business objectives for their subunits </li></ul></ul>9-
  29. 29. Levels of Management Decision Making <ul><li>Operational management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers or members of self-directed teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop short-range plans such as weekly production schedules </li></ul></ul>9-
  30. 30. Content of a Long range Plan <ul><li>Where are we? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we want to go? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we get there? </li></ul><ul><li>When will it be done? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will do it? </li></ul><ul><li>How much will it cost? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Information Quality <ul><li>Information products whose characteristics, attributes, or qualities make the information more valuable </li></ul><ul><li>Information has 3 dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul></ul>9-
  32. 32. Attributes of Information Quality 9-
  33. 33. Level of the System <ul><li>Operational-level systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of elementary activities and transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sales, receipts, payroll, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose is to answer routine questions and track flow of transactions </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Level of the System <ul><li>Management-level systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of monitoring, controlling decision making, and administrative work of middle management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic reports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some may be used for non-routine decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What-if analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically draws information from operational systems </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Level of System <ul><li>Strategic-level systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist senior management in making long-term decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically non-routine, unstructured decision making activities </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Executive Support Systems (ESS) </li></ul><ul><li>Management Information Systems (MIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Support Systems (DSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Types of Systems <ul><li>Transaction Processing Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>serves operational needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performs/records daily and routine transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>span boundary of organization and environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>major supplier of information to other IS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>airline reservation system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>payroll system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plant scheduling </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Types of Systems (contd.) <ul><li>Management Information Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>serves activities of planning, controlling and decision-making at the management level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually take form of performance reports (such as exception or summary reports) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited analytical ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often (mistakenly) equated with IS </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Decision Support Systems <ul><li>DSS </li></ul><ul><li>Provide interactive information support to managers and business professionals during the decision-making process </li></ul><ul><li>Use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A decision maker’s own insights and judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive computer-based modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To support semi structured business decisions </li></ul>9-
  40. 40. Executive Information Systems <ul><li>EIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine many features of MIS and DSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide top executives with immediate and easy access to information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About the factors that are critical to accomplishing an organization’s strategic objectives ( Critical success factors ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So popular, expanded to managers, analysts and other knowledge workers </li></ul></ul>9-
  41. 41. Knowledge Management Systems <ul><li>The use of information technology to help gather, organize, and share business knowledge within an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Knowledge Portals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EIPs that are the entry to corporate intranets that serve as knowledge management systems </li></ul></ul>9-
  42. 42. Expert Systems <ul><li>ES </li></ul><ul><li>A knowledge-based information system (KBIS) that uses its knowledge about a specific, complex application to act as an expert consultant to end users </li></ul><ul><li>KBIS is a system that adds a knowledge base to the other components on an IS </li></ul>9-
  43. 43. Information System Integration Management Level Strategic Level Operational Level Management Level
  44. 44. Information System Integration Management Level Strategic Level Operational Level Management Level TPS
  45. 45. Information System Integration Management Level Strategic Level Operational Level Management Level TPS MIS DSS
  46. 46. Information System Integration Management Level Strategic Level Operational Level Management Level TPS MIS DSS ESS
  47. 47. Information System Integration Management Level Strategic Level Operational Level Management Level TPS MIS DSS ESS
  48. 48. Information System Integration Management Level Strategic Level Operational Level Management Level TPS MIS DSS ESS
  49. 49. Information System Integration Management Level Strategic Level Operational Level Management Level TPS MIS DSS ESS
  50. 50. System Approach to Problem Solving <ul><li>Define the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Design the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Develop alternate solution </li></ul><ul><li>Select the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Implement the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and evaluate the results </li></ul>
  51. 51. Information for competitive Advantage
  52. 52. Organizational Change <ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization of procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Business process reengineering </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm shifts </li></ul>
  53. 53. Business Process Reengineering <ul><li>“ The fundamental rethinking and radical </li></ul><ul><li>redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>improvements in critical, contemporary measures of </li></ul><ul><li>performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.” </li></ul>

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