On the Destiny of the Species   What Would Darwin Think 150 Years After                 ‘The Origin of the Species’       ...
Variation (Diversity) Is Key to            Survival   “Natural selection acts exclusively by the preservation and   accumu...
Darwin Was a Transpeciest» He saw nothing essential to  any specific species» He believed all species  emanated from, and ...
If you want one year of   prosperity, grow grain. If you   want ten years of prosperity,    grow trees. If you want 100   ...
Growing People                    » To grow people, you must first                      learn what they are made of       ...
What We Do Know» A simple code or formula can produce  complex patterns, for example     » Weaving patterns     » Chaos pa...
Terminology & Analogies            Software         Firmware         HardwareComputer    Operating        Logic circuits  ...
Why Do We Have So ManyDNA Codes if the Code is Just Suppose to Replicate Itself06/20/12   Martine4@gmail.com   8
Answers to the Key Question for           Evolutionary Biologists                      » Nature frustrates its own        ...
Scrambled DNA is the                              Catalyst for Evolution         If the scrambled         DNA changes the ...
To An Evolutionary Biologist,          History Looks Like This» First there were nothing but  gases» The gases collided fo...
All About Self-Replicating                                          Code and the Environment                              ...
Status Quo is Not an Option“But Natural Selection, we shall hereafter see,  is a power incessantly ready for action…”     ...
Where to Go From Here» At the end of eons of “goof-  ups” sits Homo Sapiens Sapiens,  but history has taught us that it  s...
What is BNA?» Beme Neural  Architecture (BNA)» Bemes are the smallest  units of beingness that  comprise our sense of  sel...
Mind Is Deeper                         Than Matter                      » The beme is mightier                        than...
DNA vs. BNA                                               Beme                                              Neural        ...
Is BNA Reproduction Consistent     With Nature’s Purpose» Nature’s “purpose” is to  create self-replicating codes» Softwar...
My Avatar, My Self» Re-creation of the human mind in  a digital world has already begun» Re-creation of the human “body”  ...
The Turing Test           Was Just the Beginning   Ray Kurzweil points out that artificial intelligence   is already all a...
Where Can We Place The       Uploaded Consciousness                                QuickTimeª and a                       ...
Can Or Should We Alter Our Code             » There are those who               believe we should not             » They f...
Humans Are Active Agents of         Evolution   A new variety raised by man will be a far   more important and interesting...
Darwin Would Say ‘Yes’ To      Improving Our Program  In his own words, it would be far more ‘important  and interesting’ ...
Best Darwinian Reasons For and  Against BNA Reproduction» FOR                               » AGAINST  » It can greatly ex...
Why the Positives Outweigh           the Negatives» Our society already has       » Per evolutionary biology,  institution...
Cyber Sapiens...We will no longer be Homo sapiens,but Cyber sapiens--a creature partdigital and part biological that willh...
Becoming Transbeman                              » Uploading consciousness allows                                one to av...
Defy DeathThe most compelling argument forBNA reproduction is defying death» Some accept death as inevitable and  reason f...
Darwin on Varieties   We have also seen that it is the most flourishing or   dominant species of the larger genera within ...
» Darwin’s theory was developed                       without any known code, so he                       was unlikely to ...
Expanding the Varieties of         Homo Sapiens Sapiens» BNA-based life will encourage  mind-expansion beyond the  abiliti...
Beme-Based Life Forms CanAlso Clone Their ConsciousnessIn addition to combining bemeswith another for reproduction, youwou...
Could Multiple Copies                 Destroy Autonomy?Artwork by: Kristina Abraham   <http://www.kristinabraham.com/Strai...
Autonomy» The quality or state of being independent,  free, and self-directing» Independence from the organism as a whole ...
Autonomy Is Built Into the Process              » Since bemes are personalized bytes                of information based o...
So What Would Darwin Think» It is promulgation of a self-replicating code  that sits atop the apex of life’s purpose» DNA ...
Adaptation is the Natural Progression             “…in short, we see               beautiful adaptations               eve...
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O que darwin pensaria 150 anos após a origem das espécies

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  • Why Do We Have So Many DNA Codes If the Code Is Just Suppose to Replicate Itself? Nature continually frustrates DNA as it goes about its business of maximizing its replication. And this frustration has been going on for billions of years. A damn good thing too. It has resulted in us. People (and other living things) are the result of billions of years of Nature frustrating her own software program. The molecules that make up DNA (a very, very huge molecule) are arranged in an order that enables the DNA to copy itself and to create a host (like a body) to both protect the DNA and to create yet further copies. During replication, however, the molecular order gets frequently scrambled (about as often as carmakers produce lemons), with the usual result that the scrambled DNA is useless and ends up as lunch for molecules that digest useless DNA. Apparently it must be impossible or unwise to make a goof-proof DNA molecule, because after billions of years Nature has failed to do so. However, portions of the DNA molecule are goof-proof – or goofs are non-viable -- because portions of it are unchanged since the earliest life forms evolved.
  • O que darwin pensaria 150 anos após a origem das espécies

    1. 1. On the Destiny of the Species What Would Darwin Think 150 Years After ‘The Origin of the Species’ Martine Rothblatt, Ph.D. TransVision07 Chicago, IL 2007-07-25 2300 GMT
    2. 2. Variation (Diversity) Is Key to Survival “Natural selection acts exclusively by the preservation and accumulation of variations, which are beneficial under the organic and inorganic conditions to which each creature is exposed at all periods of life. The ultimate result is that each creature tends to become more and more improved in relation to its conditions. This improvement inevitably leads to the gradual advancement of the organization of the greater number of living beings throughout the world.” -Charles Darwin06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 2
    3. 3. Darwin Was a Transpeciest» He saw nothing essential to any specific species» He believed all species emanated from, and evolved into, other species» He believed, expanding your species brought prosperity» He would most likely recognize the possibility of artificial life forms as a predictable part of natural selection. http://www.paleoweb.net/pal-ges/bilder/evolution-poster.jpg06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 3
    4. 4. If you want one year of prosperity, grow grain. If you want ten years of prosperity, grow trees. If you want 100 years of prosperity, grow people. --- Old Chinese Proverb06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 4
    5. 5. Growing People » To grow people, you must first learn what they are made of » Evolutionary biologists view human consciousness as an enormously complex firmware sub-routine » That firmware is spelled out in 30,000 genes of DNA software » Although we are making strides, scientists have little knowledge of the genes that spell out the complex neurology of our brains06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 5
    6. 6. What We Do Know» A simple code or formula can produce complex patterns, for example » Weaving patterns » Chaos patterns» There is no other logical explanation for how brains are pre-wired for such an extensive array of behaviors06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 6
    7. 7. Terminology & Analogies Software Firmware HardwareComputer Operating Logic circuits Input/OutputExample system; burned into aspects such Applications chips as displayHuman Learned DNA-defined BehavioralExample ways to use neural paths expressions neural paths like moving 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 7
    8. 8. Why Do We Have So ManyDNA Codes if the Code is Just Suppose to Replicate Itself06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 8
    9. 9. Answers to the Key Question for Evolutionary Biologists » Nature frustrates its own programming, in order to evolve and promote survival » DNA molecules enable DNA to copy itself and create a host body, that produces more copies » Replication occasionally scrambles the code » Scrambled DNA is usually destroyed by molecules that digest useless DNA » Some scrambled DNA gives rise to new DNA codes and new host forms » In short, DNA does more than simply replicate itself, it replicates DNA coding, not only DNA codes06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 9
    10. 10. Scrambled DNA is the Catalyst for Evolution If the scrambled DNA changes the host’s structure, new species may be born http://www.artdiamondblog.com/images/FishMissingLinkFossilSmaller-thumb.jpghttp://www.sanparks.org/parks/kruger/elephants/about/evolution.php 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 10
    11. 11. To An Evolutionary Biologist, History Looks Like This» First there were nothing but gases» The gases collided for eons and eventually formed molecules from which later came DNA» DNA began reproduction and scrambling process» A purpose for life was created, Art by Andrew C. Stewart http://www.solarvoyager.com/images/art/New%20Earth%20by %20Andrew%20C%20Stewart.jpg its self-perpetuation, for that is what it does 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 11
    12. 12. All About Self-Replicating Code and the Environment » First came RNA » Then DNA » DNA that permitted no “goof- ups,” became extinct as the environment that nurtured the original DNA turned hostile » The purpose of life is to replicate the replication process, of which RNA & DNAhttp://www.nature.com/embor/journal/v7/n1/images/7400609-f1.jpg are just examples 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 12
    13. 13. Status Quo is Not an Option“But Natural Selection, we shall hereafter see, is a power incessantly ready for action…” - Charles Darwin06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 13
    14. 14. Where to Go From Here» At the end of eons of “goof- ups” sits Homo Sapiens Sapiens, but history has taught us that it shouldn’t stop there» Dangers await those who don’t evolve, such as: » Floods » Diseases » Global catastrophes» Another form of reproduction may be our best solution; BNA instead DNA 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 14
    15. 15. What is BNA?» Beme Neural Architecture (BNA)» Bemes are the smallest units of beingness that comprise our sense of self » Elements of our Mannerisms, Personality, Recollections, » BNA is a to-be-determined set of Feelings, Beliefs, mindware that enables our sense of Attitudes, Values self to be digitally realized from our bemes » Synthetic Consciousness; Synthetic Life 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 15
    16. 16. Mind Is Deeper Than Matter » The beme is mightier than the gene » We’re not our bodies; we are our minds » Genes are not essential for our minds » Our minds can be represented as bemes » BNA can operationalize our bemes » BNA can handle reproduction06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 16
    17. 17. DNA vs. BNA Beme Neural Architecture» Slow to reproduce » Rapid and unlimited reproduction» Limited survival in » Various bodies to new environments chose from, for» Susceptible to survival in many disease and limited environments lifespan » Unlimited lifespan 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 17
    18. 18. Is BNA Reproduction Consistent With Nature’s Purpose» Nature’s “purpose” is to create self-replicating codes» Software reproduction is faster than wet biology, BNA is a more efficient way to replicate» Shifting from genes to bemes is consistent with what life has always done06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 18
    19. 19. My Avatar, My Self» Re-creation of the human mind in a digital world has already begun» Re-creation of the human “body” has already begun» The melding of your mind to your digital body is the next logical step » www.MyCyberTwin.com where a virtual version of you can conduct autonomous conversations » www.SecondLife.com where entire virtual communities are built 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 19
    20. 20. The Turing Test Was Just the Beginning Ray Kurzweil points out that artificial intelligence is already all around us, in… » Our cars » Airplane gate systems » Computer guiding software » Video game opponents06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 20
    21. 21. Where Can We Place The Uploaded Consciousness QuickTimeª and a H.264 decompressor are needed to see this picture.Video from Hanson Robotics in Richardson, TXhttp://www.hansonrobotics.com06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 21
    22. 22. Can Or Should We Alter Our Code » There are those who believe we should not » They fear the results of translating life to a digital form » Darwin would not have been one to fear the endless possibilities 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 22
    23. 23. Humans Are Active Agents of Evolution A new variety raised by man will be a far more important and interesting subject for study than one more species added to the infinitude of already recorded species. -Charles Darwin06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 23
    24. 24. Darwin Would Say ‘Yes’ To Improving Our Program In his own words, it would be far more ‘important and interesting’ to see on which evolutionary path our high level of intelligence can take us.06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 24
    25. 25. Best Darwinian Reasons For and Against BNA Reproduction» FOR » AGAINST » It can greatly extend » We may inadvertently our reproductive create “monster minds” lifetimes, thereby » It may diminish our serving evolution’s motivation for prime directive reproduction, thereby » It can reduce the risk of undermining diversity consciousness and proclivity extinction caused by a global catastrophe 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 25
    26. 26. Why the Positives Outweigh the Negatives» Our society already has » Per evolutionary biology, institutions designed to deal the desire to reproduce with DNA-based “monster ourselves is innate and we minds”; the same could be are unlikely to cease translated to a “monster » Most astrobiologists and mind” BNA-based individual geologists agree that global catastrophes are inevitable » Therefore it is imperative to find ways to continue life » Digital life is easier to transport between stars » Digital life is easier to back- up redundantly 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 26
    27. 27. Cyber Sapiens...We will no longer be Homo sapiens,but Cyber sapiens--a creature partdigital and part biological that willhave placed more distance betweenits DNA and the destinies they forceupon us than any other animal ... acreature capable of steering our ownevolution.... Chip Walter. Thumbs, Toes, and Tears, Walker & Co. 2006. Excerpted on KurzweilAI.net on October 25, 2006.06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 27
    28. 28. Becoming Transbeman » Uploading consciousness allows one to avoid unwanted death » Digital conscious beings can live longer and impart wisdom to unlimited generations » Multiple forms for conscious life » Virtual reality » Mechanical bodies » Regenerated fleshPeople who transcend » According to evolutionary biology,biological & electronichuman boundaries this transbeman development should be highly favored by natural selection.06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 28
    29. 29. Defy DeathThe most compelling argument forBNA reproduction is defying death» Some accept death as inevitable and reason for its necessity » Claiming boredom with life » Drain on social resources» These are not relevant to a transbeman » Millennia-long life spans allow you to explore millions of books, musical instruments, the universe, whatever meets your fancy » Resources are more plentiful, because the new transbeman body would require less maintenance than a DNA-based life06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 29
    30. 30. Darwin on Varieties We have also seen that it is the most flourishing or dominant species of the larger genera within each class which on an average yield the greatest number of varieties, and varieties, as we shall hereafter see, tend to become converted into new and distinct species. Thus the larger genera tend to become larger; and throughout nature the forms of life which are now dominant tend to become still more dominant by leaving many modified and dominant descendants. -- Charles Darwin06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 30
    31. 31. » Darwin’s theory was developed without any known code, so he was unlikely to be hung up on DNA as the only code for life. » He would have likely agreed that because Beme Neural Architecture (BNA) codes could replicate and diversify, they would stand a good chance of thriving in a supportive environment. » Were he to accept Kurzweil’s Law of Accelerating Returns, he would have concluded that BNA-based life would dominate the destiny of the human species.06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 31
    32. 32. Expanding the Varieties of Homo Sapiens Sapiens» BNA-based life will encourage mind-expansion beyond the abilities of DNA-based life» Reproduction of the mind may allow the knowledge of each generation to be imparted immediately and then built upon» Life would no longer be limited to earth, therefore experiences would be endless 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 32
    33. 33. Beme-Based Life Forms CanAlso Clone Their ConsciousnessIn addition to combining bemeswith another for reproduction, youwould be able to self-replicate» This would help avoid any catastrophe to one’s substrate» Each new version of you would still be a unique individual due to his/her experiences» Multiple versions would make it easier to release one of your EveR-2 Muse, Humanoid Robot by KITEC (Korea Institute of Industrial conscious copies onto an Technology) in Seoul, Korea interstellar spaceship http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction- News.asp?NewsNum=882 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 33
    34. 34. Could Multiple Copies Destroy Autonomy?Artwork by: Kristina Abraham <http://www.kristinabraham.com/Straight%20Off%20the%20Assembly%20Line.jpg> 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 34
    35. 35. Autonomy» The quality or state of being independent, free, and self-directing» Independence from the organism as a whole in the capacity of a part for growth, reactivity, or responsiveness autonomy. (n.d.). Merriam-Websters Medical Dictionary. Retrieved July 5, 2007, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/autonomy06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 35
    36. 36. Autonomy Is Built Into the Process » Since bemes are personalized bytes of information based on the emotions, mindset and experiences of an individual, they create a highly unique consciousness » By definition, each conscious being would be autonomous » Individual beings » Individual experiences » Individual lives » Though related, just as DNA-based children are different than their parents, so would beme-based children, and clones 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 36
    37. 37. So What Would Darwin Think» It is promulgation of a self-replicating code that sits atop the apex of life’s purpose» DNA is a tool that enabled life to create a superior self-replicating code -- BNA» The BNA code will be capable of both nanotechnologically creating all that came before it and diversely transcending a universe of challenges of which DNA might not survive» So what would Darwin think…» That BNA is just another step in the http://www.let.uu.nl/~Rosi.Braidotti/personal/teachin evolution of life, with good odds for g.htm success 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 37
    38. 38. Adaptation is the Natural Progression “…in short, we see beautiful adaptations everywhere and in every part of the organic world.” - Charles Darwin 06/20/12 Martine4@gmail.com 38

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