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Planning stage in Project Management

Planning stage in Project Management

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  • Basic Rules in AOA: each event must have a unique event number and no event in the network can have the same event number, each activity must have a unique combination of predecessor and successor

Project management planning Project management planning Presentation Transcript

  • PLANNING 09.24.11 Alvin G. Niere MBA-1 Misamis University
  • Learning Objectives
    • Clearly defining the project objective
    • Developing a work breakdown structure
    • Developing a network diagram
    • Utilizing a project management methodology for information systems development project
    • Familiarize with Microsoft project software
  • PLANNING
    • The systematic arrangement of tasks to accomplish an objective
    • Lays out what needs to be accomplished and how it is to be accomplished
    • Involves people who will be involved in performing the work
  • STEPS IN PLANNING
    • Step 1. Define the Project Objective
    • The objective must be clearly defined and agreed upon by the customer and the organization or contractor that will perform the project.
    • Objectives are usually defined in terms of scope, schedule and cost.
  • SMART Objective
    • S - specific
    • M - measurable
    • A - attainable
    • R - realistic
    • T - time-bounded
  • Steps in Planning ( continuation)
    • Step 2. Determine what work elements, or activities, need to be performed to accomplish it.
    • This requires developing a list of all the activities.
  • Two Approaches in Making the Lists
    • Project team brainstorm
    • only suitable for small projects
    • Work breakdown structure
    • suitable for larger and complex projects
  • Work Breakdown Structure
    • Breaks a project down into manageable pieces, or items, to help ensure that all of the work elements needed to complete the project work scope are identified
    • It’s a hierarchical tree of end items that will be accomplished or produced by the project team during the project
  • WBS Concepts
    • Work items  graphic structure that subdivides the project into smaller pieces.
    • Work Package  the lowest-level work item for any given branch of the WBS
    The WBS usually indicates the organization or individual responsible for each work item.
  • WBS Example
  • Responsibility Matrix
    • A method used to display, in tabular format, the individuals responsible for accomplishing the work items in the WBS.
    • Emphasizes who is responsible for each work items and shows each individual’s role in supporting the over-all project
    • P = primary responsibility S = support
  • Responsibility Matrix for Festival Project
  • Point to Remember It is a good idea to show only one individual as the lead, or primary, person responsible for each work item. Designating two individuals as co-chairpersons increases the risk that certain work will “fall through the cracks” because each person assumes that the other person is going to do it.
  • Defining Activities
    • ACTIVITY  defined piece of work that consumes time
    •  can also be defined by the person or team responsible for each work
  • Defining Activities
  • Possible activities under Game Booth
  • Point to Remember
    • When all detailed activities have been identified for each of the work packages, the NEXT STEP is….
    •  to graphically portray them in a network diagram that shows the appropriate sequence and interrelationships needed to accomplish the over-all project scope.
  • Developing the Network Plan
    • Network Planning
    • A technique that is helpful in planning, scheduling, and controlling projects that consist of many interrelated activities
  • Network Planning Techniques
    • Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT)
    • Critical Path Method (CPM)
    • Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
    • Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
    • COMMON DENOMINATOR : ALL MAKES USE OF A NETWORK DIAGRAM
    • The most familiar tool for used in the network planning technique is the so called “Gantt Chart”
    •  Gant chart was developed in the early 1900’s however remains very popular today mainly because of its simplicity.
    • Gantt Chart combines to functions of planning and scheduling. Activities are listed down the left-hand side, and a time scale is shown along the bottom.
    • The estimated duration for each activity is indicated by a line or bar spanning the period during which the activity which is excepted to be accomplished.
    • With Gantt Chart, the scheduling of activities occurs simultaneously with planning
  • Example Gantt Chart for Market Study Report Person Activity Responsible 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140                                                                 Identify target consumers Susan                               Develop draft questionnaire Susan                                     Pilot-test Questionnaire Susan                                   Finalize Questionnaire Susan                                                             Print questionnaire Steve                                                             Prepare mailing labels Steve                                                             Mal questionnaire and get                                                               response Steve                                                             Develop data analysis                                                               software Andy                                                             Develop software test data Susan                                                             Test software Andy                                   Input response data Jim                               Analyze result Jim                                 Prepare report Jim                                                             0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 ### 120 130 140
  • Different Formats in Drawing Diagram
    • Activity in the box method(AIB) a.k.a activity on the node(AON)
    • Activity on the arrow
  • ACTIVITY IN THE BOX METHOD
    • Each activity is represented by a box in the network diagram and the description of activity is within the box
    • Activities consume time and starts with a verb
    • Each activity is represented by one box
    • Each box is assigned a unique activity number
  • ACTIVITY IN THE BOX METHOD Get Volunteers 7
  • ACTIVITY IN THE BOX METHOD
    • Precedential Relationship
    •  activities are linked in a precedential order to show which activities must be finished before others can start
    •  arrows linking the activity boxes show direction of the precedence
    •  An activity cannot start until all of the preceding activities that are linked by arrows have been finished
  • Wash Car Dry Car 3 4
  • When activities can be done concurrently for AIB Get Volunteers Buy Materials Dismantle Booth Clean-up Construct Booth Paint Booth 7 8 9 10 11 12
  • Activity on the Arrow (AOA)
    • An activity is represented by an arrow in the network diagram and the activity description is shown above the arrow
    • Each activity is one and only one arrow
    • The tail of the arrow designates the start of the activity, and the head of the arrow represents the completion of the activity.
    • COLLECT DATA
    • In the AOA format, activities are linked by circles called EVENTS. An event represents the finish of activities entering into it and the start of activities going out of it.
    • Each event (not each activity) is assigned a unique number.
    • Predecessor event  event at the tail of the arrow
    • Successor event  event the end of the tail of the arrow
  • 1 2 3 WASH CAR DRY CAR
  • When activities can be done concurrently for AOA 6 7 11 12 8 9 10 Get Volunteers Buy Materials Construct Booth Paint Booth Dismantle Booth Clean-up
  • Dummy Activities
    • In the AOA format, a dummy activity can be created represented by a dash which consume zero-time. They are needed for 2 reasons:
    • To help in the unique identification of activities
    • To show certain precedential relationships that otherwise could not be shown
  • Is the following example allowed in AOA network diagram? 1 2 A B Both A and B have predecessor-successor but not allowed in AOA because if someone referred to activity 1-2, we will be confused whether if it refers to A or B.
    • The insertion of dummy activity allows activities A and B to have a unique predecessor-successor event number combinations.
    1 2 3 A B Activity A = 1-3 Activity B = 1-2
  • Example for the usage of a dummy activity
    • Situation:
    • Activities A & B can be done concurrently
    • When activity A is finished, activity C can Start
    • When both A & B are finished, D can start.
    1 3 5 2 4 6 A B C D
  • Laddering
    •  a technique used when a project has a set of activities that are repeated several times.
    •  Allows the project to be finished in a short period of time
  • Consider the following example:
    • Painting of 3 rooms
    • 1. preparing the room to be painted
    • 2. painting the ceiling and walls
    • 3. painting the trim
    • Assume that there are 3 experts in each area.
  • Activities performed serially AIB Prepare R1 Paint R1 Trim R1 So on… 1 2 3 4 AOA 1 2 3 4 Prepare R1 Paint R1 Trim R1 So on…
  • Activities done concurrently Start Project Prepare R1 Prepare R3 Paint R 1 Paint R 3 Finish Project Prepare R2 Paint R 2 Trim R 1 Trim 3 Trim R 2 1 4 So on..
  • Preparing a network Diagram
    • There should be a list of activities and knowledge of network principle
    • Select the format to be used: AIB or AOA
    • Start drawing the activities in their logical precedential order
  • Things to be asked when deciding on the sequence of the activities
    • Which activities must be finished immediately before this activity can be started?
    • Which activities can be done concurrently with this activity?
    • Which activities cannot be started until this activity is finished?
  • Planning for Information Systems Development
    • Information System  a computer-based system that accepts data as input, processes the data, and produces useful information for users.
    •  include computerized order entry systems, e-commerce systems, ATM, and billing, payroll, and inventory systems.
  • Systems Development Life Cycle
    • Also called project management tool or methodology
    • Often used to help plan, execute, and control IS development projects.
    • Consists of a set of phases or steps that need to be completed over the course of a development project.
  • STEPS in Systems Development Life Cycle
    • Problem Definition. Data are gathered and analyzed, and problems and opportunities are clearly defined.
    • System analysis. The development team defines the scope of the system to be developed, interviews potential users, studies the existing system and defines user requirements.
  • STEPS in SDLC ( continuation)
    • 3. System design. Several alternative conceptual designs are produced that describe input, processing, output, hardware, software, and the database at a high level.
    • 4. System development. The actual system is brought into existence. Hardware is purchased, and software is either purchased, customized, or developed. Databases, input screens, systems reports, telecommunication networks, security controls and other features are also developed.
  • STEPS in SDLC ( continuation)
    • 5. System Testing. After individual modules within the system have been developed, testing can begin. Testing involves looking for logical errors, database errors, errors of omission, security errors, and other problems that might prevent the system from being successful. Once the users and developers are convinced that the system is error-free, the system can be implemented.
  • STEPS in SDLC ( continuation)
    • 6. System implementation. Users are trained and the existing system is replaced with the new improved system.
  • Project Management Software
    • A software that allow the project manager and the project team to plan and control projects in a completely interactive mode.
  • Common Features of a Project Management Software
    • Create lists of tasks with their estimated durations
    • Establish interdependencies among tasks
    • Work with a variety of time scales, including hours, days, weeks, months, and years
    • Handle certain constraints
    • Track team members including their pay rates
  • Common Features of a Project Management Software ( continuation)
    • Incorporate company holidays, weekends, and team member vacation days into calendaring systems
    • Handle shifts of workers
    • Monitor and forecast budgets
    • Look for conflicts
    • Generate a wide variety of reports
    • Interface with other software packages
    • Sort information in a variety of ways ( by team, member, work package)
  • Project Management Software
    • Microsoft Project is an example of a project management software.
  • Critical Success Factors
    • It is important to develop a plan before the start of the project
    • Participation builds commitment
    • The project objective must be clear, attainable, specific, measurable, and agreed upon by the customer and the organization that will perform the project.
    • Handle multiple projects
    • Work online and respond quickly to changes in schedule, budget, or personnel
    • Compare actual costs with budgeted costs
    • Display data in a variety of ways, including both Gantt charts and network diagram
  • Familiarization with a Microsoft Office Project
    • Watch and learn………