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Things to know when selecting employee.

Things to know when selecting employee.

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  • Managers are used to making decisions—tough calls that can impact a business for years. One of the most important decisions comes when hiring a new employee. As an astute manager once said, “I don’t worry about hiring a great employee and having him leave in three months. I worry about hiring a bad employee and having him stay for three years.” In the current labor market, however, managers are usually grateful if they get any applicants for a job—let alone highly qualified applicants. Sometimes it is so important that a position be filled that a person may win the job by default, but is that the best longrun decision for the business? A quick fix may temporarily ease labor pressure, but it is always better to be selective when hiring. The future of the business may depend upon it.
  • A selective employer cannot possibly choose the right person for a position without first truly understanding the position itself. Managers should perform a Job Analysis where every detail of the position is recorded through observations, interviews, and work journals. Suppose a long-time employee retires. It is important that you know everything that employee did, even outside the obvious scope of the job. Maybe that person always made the coffee in the break room or took out the trash—tasks that might be overlooked until one day those things are not done. Now suppose larger, more important, jobs were not done. The entire business could suffer because the manager did not know all of the responsibilities of an employee.
  • After the job analysis, compile a list of skills, abilities, licenses or knowledge needed to do the job. This is called a Job Specification . An employer should take no skills for granted. If an employee will have to read, write, do basic mathematics, drive a vehicle, lift heavy objects, etc., those things should be listed and considered when evaluating applicants.
  • Like most things, the most important work is in the preparation. A thorough job analysis and specification will outline the traits, skills, and qualities that should be emphasized during the selection process. The best way to judge whether or not an applicant possesses those skills, traits, and qualities is to run the applicants through some Hurdles .
  • Interviews can be a great way to get to know an applicant. Managers should use openended questions that show whether or not an applicant has the right personality, skill, and attitude to be successful within the business.
  • Reliability here means that the selection methods, tests and ensuing results are consistent and do not vary with time, place or different subjects – i.e. test and retest reliability. Thus, a ruler is reliable as an instrument for measuring dimensions whether the subject is wood or cheese, and whether the measurement is done in summer or winter, in Russia or Africa. By this criterion, human selectors of employees are inherently not reliable because standards may vary between selectors and within one selector over a period of time. The issue is the degree of unreliability. This may be reduced by using a variety of measuring devices (tests, interviews), and by training assessors, and using more than one assessor.
  • Reliability here means that the selection methods, tests and ensuing results are consistent and do not vary with time, place or different subjects – i.e. test and retest reliability. Thus, a ruler is reliable as an instrument for measuring dimensions whether the subject is wood or cheese, and whether the measurement is done in summer or winter, in Russia or Africa. By this criterion, human selectors of employees are inherently not reliable because standards may vary between selectors and within one selector over a period of time. The issue is the degree of unreliability. This may be reduced by using a variety of measuring devices (tests, interviews), and by training assessors, and using more than one assessor.
  • Reliability here means that the selection methods, tests and ensuing results are consistent and do not vary with time, place or different subjects – i.e. test and retest reliability. Thus, a ruler is reliable as an instrument for measuring dimensions whether the subject is wood or cheese, and whether the measurement is done in summer or winter, in Russia or Africa. By this criterion, human selectors of employees are inherently not reliable because standards may vary between selectors and within one selector over a period of time. The issue is the degree of unreliability. This may be reduced by using a variety of measuring devices (tests, interviews), and by training assessors, and using more than one assessor.
  • Reliability here means that the selection methods, tests and ensuing results are consistent and do not vary with time, place or different subjects – i.e. test and retest reliability. Thus, a ruler is reliable as an instrument for measuring dimensions whether the subject is wood or cheese, and whether the measurement is done in summer or winter, in Russia or Africa. By this criterion, human selectors of employees are inherently not reliable because standards may vary between selectors and within one selector over a period of time. The issue is the degree of unreliability. This may be reduced by using a variety of measuring devices (tests, interviews), and by training assessors, and using more than one assessor.

Hrm selecting employees Hrm selecting employees Presentation Transcript

  • Selecting Employees Prepared by: - Alvin G. Niere MBA-1 Misamis University
  • Learning Objectives:
    • Define selection process
    • Explain the Validity of the Selection Process
    • Explain the reliability of the Selection Process
    • Discuss the uniform guidelines for employees
    • Discuss and explain the selection procedure
  • The Selection Process
    • Job Analysis
    • The Identification of KSAs or Job Requirements
    • The Identification of Selection Methods to Assess KSAs
    • The Assessment of the Reliability and Validity of Selection Methods
    • The Use of Selection Methods to Process Job Applicants
  • The Selection Process 1. Job Analysis The systematic study of job content in order to determine the major duties and responsibilities of the job. Allows the organization to determine the important dimensions of job performance. The major duties and responsibilities of a job are often detailed in the job description. 2. The Identification of KSAs or Job Requirements Drawing upon the information obtained through job analysis or from secondary sources such as O*NET, the organization identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to perform the job. The job requirements are often detailed in a document called the job specification.
  • The Selection Process, cont. 3. The Identification of Selection Methods to Assess KSAs Once the organization knows the KSAs needed by job applicants, it must be able to determine the degree to which job applicants possess them. The organization must develop its own selection methods include, but are not limited to, reference and background checks, interviews, cognitive testing, personality testing, aptitude testing, drug testing, and assessment centers. 4. The Assessment of the Reliability and Validity of Selection Methods The organization should be sure that the selection methods they use are reliable and valid. In terms of validity, selection methods should actually assess the knowledge, skill, or ability they purport to measure and should distinguish between job applicants who will be successful on the job and those who will not.
  • The Selection Process, cont. 5. The Use of Selection Methods to Process Job Applicants The organization should use its selection methods to make selection decisions. Typically, the organization will first try to determine which applicants possess the minimum KSAs required. Once unqualified applicants are screened, other selection methods are used to make distinctions among the remaining job candidates and to decide which applicants will receive offers.
  • The Basics of Testing and Selecting Employees
      • It results in improved employee and organizational performance
      • Your own performance always depends on subordinates
      • Can reduce dysfunctional behaviors at work
      • Effective screening helps reduce costs in the long run
    Carefully testing and screening employees is important because :
  • Legal Implications and Negligent Hiring
    • Incompetent hiring can result in legal implications such as unfairly discriminating against a protected group
    • Negligent hiring occurs when employers are liable for employees who have criminal records or other problems that use a customer’s home or similar opportunities to commit crimes
      • Hiring these types of employees requires safeguards
      • Reasonable action must be taken to investigate the candidate’s backgrounds
    Legal Implications and Negligent Hiring, cont.
  • Selection Procedure
    • Interviewing Candidates
    • Selection Tests
    • Reference and Background Analysis
    • Physical Exam
    • Job Offer
    • Employment Contract
  • Interviewing Candidates
    • Interviewing is an indispensible management tool
    • An Interview is a procedure designed to solicit information from a person’s oral responses to oral inquiries
      • Preliminary Interview
      • Selection Interview
    • A Selection Interview is designed to predict future job performance based on candidate’s answers
  • Types of Selection Interviews
    • Non-structured (questions are asked as you think of them) versus structured interviews (questions are known and the order specified in advance)
    • There are different types of questions for different types of interviews
      • Situational interviews ask what would the candidate’s behavior be in a given situation
      • Behavioral interviews ask how the candidate has reacted in a similar situation in the past
    Types of Selection Interviews, cont.
    • Interviews are also One-on-one interviews were two people meet alone and one interviews the other
    • Sequential interviews occur when several people interview the applicant in sequence before a decision is made
    Types of Selection Interviews, cont.
      • Panel interviews are when the candidate is interviewed simultaneously by a group
      • Interviews can also occur via video or phone
    Types of Selection Interviews, cont.
  • How Useful Are Interviews?
    • Statistical evidence regarding validity is mixed indicating that the key to usefulness depends on type of interview employed
      • When predicting job performance the situational interview yields more accurate results
      • Structured interviews , regardless of content, are more valid for predicting job performance
      • One-on-one interviews tend to be more valid than panel interviews
  • Avoiding Common Interview Mistakes
    • Do not make snap judgments
    • Do not emphasize the negative
    • Make sure you know the job for which you are interviewing the candidate
    • Do not let the pressure to hire color your opinions
    • Do not allow candidate order (contrast) error to influence the interview
    • Take into consideration the influence of nonverbal behavior and guard against bias
    • Remember to look beyond the candidate’s physical attractiveness
    • Be wary of ingratiating and self-promoting behaviors
    Avoiding Common Interview Mistakes, cont.
    • Prepare and plan for the interview
    • Establish rapport with the candidate
    • Ask appropriate questions
    Avoiding Common Interview Mistakes, cont.
  •  
  •  
  • The Dos and Don’ts of Interview Questions
    • Don’t ask questions that can be answered “yes” or “no”
    • Don’t put words in the applicant’s mouth or telegraph the desired answer by nodding or smiling when the right answer is given
    • Don’t interrogate the applicant as if the person is a criminal
  • Interview Role Play
    • One will act as the Applicant/Candidate
    • One will act as the Interviewer using Competency based questions
    • Don’t be patronizing, sarcastic or inattentive
    • Don’t monopolize the interview by rambling nor let the applicant dominate the interview so you can’t ask all your questions
    • Do ask open-ended questions
    • Do listen to the candidate to encourage him or her to express thoughts fully
    The Do’s and Don’ts of Interview Questions, cont.
    • Do draw out the applicant’s opinions and feelings by repeating the person’s last comment as a question
    • Do ask for examples
    The Do’s and Don'ts of Interview Questions, cont.
  • Closing the Interview
    • Leave time to answer any questions the candidate may have
    • If appropriate advocate your firm to the candidate
    • Try to end the interview on a positive note
    • Tell the applicant whether there’s interest and what the next step will be
    • Make rejections diplomatically
  • Selection Tests
    • Written Applications gauge an employee’s reading and writing abilities and get at background information like years of experience and education.
    • Written Tests can evaluate an applicant’s technical knowledge.
    • Practical Tests gauge an applicant’s hands-on ability by giving them actual tasks to work through: sorting a pen of cattle, driving a truck, repairing equipment. Other employees may be used to set up or grade the tests. Employers should be very careful when using practical tests, however. If, at any point, the applicant appears to be at risk of injuring anyone or anything, the test should be stopped immediately.
  • Using Tests at Work
    • Employers have long used tests to predict behavior and performance
    • Example: Are you prone to on-the-job accidents?
  • Using Tests as Supplements
    • Do not use tests as your only selection method - use tests to supplement other methods like interviews and background checks
    • Remember that tests are not infallible
    • Most tests are more predicative at identifying candidates that will likely fail rather than succeed
  •  
  • Computerized and Online Testing
    • Replacing conventional paper-and-pencil and manual tests
    • Computerized tests usually score individuals the same as manual tests
  • How Are Tests Used at Work?
    • Online and off-line computerized tests or aptitude tests could be used to measure a wide range of candidate attributes including:
        • Cognitive abilities
        • Motor and physical abilities
        • Personality and interests
        • Achievement
  • Tests of Cognitive Abilities
    • Employers often assess a candidate’s cognitive or mental abilities, for example: Is the bookkeeping candidate good with numbers?
    • Intelligence or IQ tests look at general intellectual abilities including memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency and numeric ability
    • Aptitude tests measure specific mental abilities
  •  
  • Tests of Motor and Physical Abilities
    • Motor or physical abilities might need to be measured for specific jobs
      • Finger dexterity
      • Strength
      • Manual dexterity
      • Reaction time
      • Speed of finger, hand or arm movements
  • Measuring Personality
    • Personality tests and interest inventories measure and predict intangibles such as attitude, motivation and temperament
    • A sample personality item:
    It does not make sense to work hard on something if no one will notice:
    • Definitely true D. Somewhat false
    • Somewhat true E. Definitely false
    • Neither true nor false
  • Personality Test Effectiveness
    • Difficulties notwithstanding – studies confirm that personality tests can help companies hire more effective workers
    • Measure relationships between the five personality dimensions below with job performance criteria:
      • Extroversion
      • Emotional stability
      • Agreeableness
      • Conscientiousness
      • Openness to experience
    Personality Test Effectiveness, cont.
  • Sample Personality Test Result
  •  
  • Interest Inventories and Achievement Tests
    • Interest inventories compare one’s interests with those of people in various occupations
    • Achievement tests basically measure what a person has learned
  • Individual Rights of Test Takers and Test Security
    • Test takers have various privacy and information rights
    • The American Psychological Association’s standards for educational and psychological tests include
      • The right to confidentiality of results
      • The right to informed consent regarding use of results
  • Individual Rights of Test Takers and Test Security, cont.
      • The right to expect only qualified individuals will have access to the results
      • The right to expect the test is secure
  • VALIDITY OF SELECTION METHODS In the selection context, VALIDITY refers to the appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness of the inferences made about applicants during the selection process.
  • VALIDITY OF SELECTION METHODS,cont. Validity often refers to evidence the test is job-related and test performance is a valid predictor of job performance
  • VALIDITY OF SELECTION METHODS It is concerned with the issue of whether applicants will actually perform the job as well as expected based on the inferences made during the selection process.
  • VALIDITY OF SELECTION METHODS The closer the applicants' actual job performances match their expected performances, the greater the validity of the selection process. ACTUAL vs EXPECTED equals > validity
  • ACHIEVING VALIDITY The organization must have a clear notion of the job requirements and use selection methods that reliably and accurately measure these qualifications.
  • ACHIEVING VALIDITY Some qualifications—such as technical KSAs and nontechnical skills—are job-specific, meaning that each job has a unique set
  • ACHIEVING VALIDITY The other qualifications are universal in that nearly all employers consider these qualities important, regardless of the job. For instance, employers want all their employees to be motivated and have good work habits.
  • ACHIEVING VALIDITY By basing qualifications on job analysis information, a company ensures that the qualities being assessed are important for the job. Job analyses are also needed for legal reasons. In discrimination suits, courts often judge the job-relatedness of a selection practice on whether or not the selection criteria was based on job analysis information.
  • STRATEGIES TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF A SELECTION METHOD
    • CONTENT-ORIENTED STRATEGY:
    • Demonstrates that the company followed proper procedures in the development and use of its selection devices.
    • most appropriate for selection devices that directly assess job behavior
  • What company does in Content-Oriented Strategy?
    • a firm gathers evidence that it followed appropriate procedures in developing its selection program
    • the employer must demonstrate that the selection devices were chosen on the basis of an acceptable job analysis and that they measured a representative sample of the KSAs identified
  • STRATEGIES TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF A SELECTION METHOD CRITERION-RELATED STRATEGY: Provides statistical evidence showing a relationship between applicant selection scores and subsequent job performance levels
  • CRITERION-RELATED STRATEGY:
    • attempts to demonstrate statistically that someone who does well on a selection instrument is more likely to be a good job performer than someone who does poorly on the selection instrument.
    • most appropriate when the connection between the selection device and job behavior is less direct
  • What company does in Criterion-Related Strategy?
    • the HR professional needs to collect two pieces of information on each person: a predictor score and a criterion score
  • Predictor Score vs Criterion Score
    • Predictor scores represent how well the individual fared during the selection process as indicated by a test score, an interview rating, or an overall selection score.
    • Criterion scores represent the job performance level achieved by the individual and are usually based on supervisor evaluations.
  • For example ( Validity coefficient , r ) To be considered valid, R MUST BE STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT and its magnitude must be sufficiently large to be of practical CORRELATION RULE OF THUMB: R > 0.3 CONCLUSION: applicants who score well during selection turn out to be good performers, while those who do not score as well become poor performers.
  • STRATEGIES TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF A SELECTION METHOD VALIDITY GENERALIZATION STRATEGY: Demonstrates that other companies have already established the validity of the selection practice.
  • VALIDITY GENERALIZATION STRATEGY: established by demonstrating that a selection device has been consistently found to be valid in many other similar settings
  • TO USE VALIDITY GENERALIZATION EVIDENCE, AN ORGANIZATION MUST PRESENT THE FOLLOWING DATA
    • Studies summarizing a selection measure's validity for similar jobs in other settings.
    • Data showing the similarity between the jobs for which the validity evidence is reported and the job in the new employment setting.
    • Data showing the similarity between the selection measures in the other studies composing the validity evidence and those measures to be used in the new employment setting.
  •  
  •  
  • Reliability of the Selection Method
    • Reliability here means that the selection methods, tests and ensuing results are consistent and do not vary with time, place or different subjects
  • Example : Reliability of a Ruler a ruler is reliable as an instrument for measuring dimensions   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15                                       I AM A RULER      
  • By this criterion, human selectors of employees are inherently not reliable because standards may vary between selectors and within one selector over a period of time. The issue is the degree of unreliability.   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15                                       As a ruler, am I reliable in measuring dimensions?      
  • SOLUTION
    • This may be reduced by using a variety of measuring devices (tests, interviews), and by training assessors, and using more than one assessor.
    •  
  • Testing for Reliability- TEST AS A DEVICE
    • Reliability is the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with the identical test or an equivalent form of the test
      • Retest estimate compares two test scores taken by the same individual at different times
      • Equivalent-form estimate compares the original test with a different but equivalent test taken by the same individual at a different time
      • Internal comparison estimates look at question groupings to statistically analyze the degree to which responses to this group vary together
  • Management Assessment Centers
    • In a Management Assessment Center management candidates take tests and make decisions in simulated situations while observers score their performance
    • Average time at center is usually 2 or 3 days and involves 10 to 12 candidates
    • Examples of simulated realistic exercises include:
      • The in-basket creates a situation where the candidate is faced with an accumulation of reports, memos, phone messages, letters, etc., of the simulated job he or she is to take over while being evaluated on what action he or she takes for each of these materials
    Management Assessment Centers, cont.
      • The leaderless group discussion occurs when a leaderless group is given a discussion question and told to arrive at a group decision while observers evaluate leadership ability, acceptance by group, etc.
      • Individual presentations used to evaluate a participant’s communication skills and his or her persuasiveness by orally presenting on an assigned topic
    Management Assessment Centers, cont.
  • Reference and Background Analysis
    • Conduct background investigations
      • Check social networking sites
      • Talk to current and previous supervisors to discover more about person’s motivation, competence and ability to work with others
      • Perform credit check or use employment screening services
    • Perform reference checks
      • Make sure the candidate has signed a release
      • Always get two forms of identification and make applicants fill out job applications
      • Use a structured reference checking form
      • Use given references as a source for others
      • Ask the right questions and judge whether the reference’s answers are evasive
    Reference and Background Analysis, cont.
      • Ask open-ended questions and listen carefully
      • Make sure checking references is done by authorized managers
      • Can be ineffective due to legal repercussions or a current supervisor might give a bad employee a good reference to get rid of the employee
    Reference and Background Analysis, cont.
  • Honesty Testing
    • The Polygraph or lie-detector is a device that measures physiological changes such as increased perspiration
      • Results are interpreted assuming that such changes reflect emotional stress
      • Employee Polygraph Protection Act prohibits most employers from conducting polygraph exams on applicants and most employees
    • Paper-and-pencil honest tests
      • Measure attitudes regarding tolerance of others who steal
      • Acceptance of rationalizations for theft
      • Admission of theft- related activities
    Honesty Testing, cont.
  • Spotting Dishonesty
    • Ask blunt questions
    • Listen, rather than talk
    • Ask for a credit check
    • Check all references
    • Consider using a paper-and-pencil test
    • Test for drugs
    • Conduct searches
    • Communicate with employees
    • Use caution
    Spotting Dishonesty, cont.
  • More Steps to Selecting Candidates
    • Graphology is also known as handwriting analysis and has questionable validity
    • Physical exams can confirm the applicant qualifies for the physical requirements of the position or possibly detect communicable diseases unknown to the applicant
      • Must comply with ADA regulations
      • Only permitted if such exams are standard practice
    • Drug screening
      • Commonly done before candidates are formally hired
      • Many firms test current employees after a work accident or when there are obvious behavioral symptoms
      • Some companies administer drug tests randomly on a periodic basis
      • Some firms only administer drug tests when transferring or promoting employees
    More Steps to Selecting Candidates, cont.
    • Problems with drug testing
      • Doesn’t correlate with actual impairment levels and there are many products that exist to help employees beat drug tests
      • Some argue drug testing violates employees right to privacy and due process while others feel the procedures are degrading and intrusive
      • Some say positive results are irrelevant to performing the job
    More Steps to Selecting Candidates, cont.
    • Legal issues with drug screening
      • Under our Labor Code, applicant who is a former drug user can be viewed as a qualified applicant with disability
      • Some regulations require testing of workers with sensitive or safety-related jobs
    More Steps to Selecting Candidates, cont.
  • Evaluating the Selection Process
  • Job Offer
    • Presentation of company offer:
      • Basic Salary
      • Regular Bonuses and Benefits
      • Signing Bonus
      • Performance Bonus
    • Company KPI or KRA
    • Employee Training Program
    • Probationary Period
    • Rewards and Recognition
    • Career Growth Opportunities
  • Employment Contract
  • THANK YOU!!!