2010 ATA presentation


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Transforming Science into Dreams: Taking a Closer Look at Marketing Translations for the Cosmetics Industry

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  • 2010 ATA presentation

    1. 1. Transforming Science Into Dreams: Taking A Closer Look by Agnes Meilhac www.beautyterm.com
    2. 2. from the Greek “kosmetikos” or skilled at adornment Cosmetics “articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body… for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance” FD&C Act
    3. 3. Cosmetics: Part of Our Culture and Civilization
    4. 4. Global Overview: the Cosmetics Industry Today The Worldwide Cosmetics Market 1993 – 2009 Average annual growth rate + 4.2% Source: L’Oreal estimates, September 2010
    5. 5. Market Structure and Size Source: L’Oreal, 2008
    6. 6. Top 10 Global Cosmetics Companies: 55% Total Market Sales Source: L’Oreal, June 2009
    7. 7. Main Business Segments Source: L’Oreal estimates, 2008, excl. soap, toothpaste and razors
    8. 8. Defining Factors
    9. 9. An Industry Geared Toward Exports 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% EU27 US Japan China Germany France UK Italy Spain Size of exports in € by country relative to the size of the domestic market (2006)
    10. 10. Cosmetics Industry: R & D and Innovation 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 China Japan US EU27 Source: European Patent Office (EPO) Progression in the number of patents published
    11. 11. Advertising Over Sales Ratio 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% cosmetic food pharmacy wireless communication software semiconductor lifeinsurance Advertising / sales ratio across different industries in the US (2005) Cosmetic advertising expenditure = $2.2 bn (2005)
    12. 12. What Innovation? What Technology? Waterproof mascara that does not run Anti-dandruff shampoos Face powder that eliminates shiny skin Light-reflecting pigments concealing shadows under the eyes Sun creams (protection against harmful UV rays) Self-tanning products
    13. 13. Today’s Brands Are Defined by INNOVATION (Handout p. 4)
    14. 14. Lexical Syntactic Rhetorical Language of Cosmetics Loan words Neologisms Verbs Verbal adjectives Buzzwords Present tense Active vs. Passive Tone Impersonal Imperatives Metaphors, similes and metonymy Personification Superlatives Innovation: from Science to Language
    15. 15. The Language of Cosmetics: Scientific, Technical, Advertising or Patchwork? science / technology advertising (Handout p. 1)
    16. 16. Borrowings Neologisms Buzzwords & catchphrases Role of verbs Lexical Features What Makes the Difference?
    17. 17. Loan Words in Translation: Intentional Strategy 1. From another language (culturally-bound concepts difficult to translate) 2. From another field of expertise Last resort for want of a better solution or preserving elements of SL culture -> flacon, ampoule, pipette, burette, crème, enfleurage, camouflage makeup, fondant (*) Vinay & Darbelnet (1958): The simplest of all translation methods to overcome a lacuna (gap), usually a metalinguistic one (e.g. a new technical process, an unknown concept) -> stem cells, growth factor, DNA, free radicals, oxidative stress
    18. 18. MAT-CHRONO Moisturizing emulsion Enriched with moisturizing and instant- action mattifying agents, this astonishingly fresh-textured, fondant emulsion leaves skin looking ideally shine-free and feeling moisturized from the moment of application. Soft-focus pigments work to conceal the appearance of skin irregularities. The skin’s texture looks more refined. http://www.lierac.com/UK/products/face/hydration/mat-chrono_hydrationanti-shine/moisturizingemulsion.html UKcompanywebsite “Fondant” Buttery, meltaway, vanishing, rich and creamy, divinely luscious, luxurious, sumptuous?
    19. 19. Mat-Chrono Émulsion Moisturizing Emulsion Exclusively formulated to prevent and treat shiny skin and enlarged pores, this cream for day time contains a Triple Action Complex that improves skin’s elasticity, regulates the t-zone and tightens pores. Oil-Free. $44.00 1.42 OZ http://www.lierac-usa.com/Products/Mat-Chrono%20Emulsion.aspx UScompanywebsite
    20. 20. Linguistic Mutation or Frenglish / Denglish / Spanglish? Language evolves over time as usage changes. “... many borrowings enter a language through translation...” * * Vinay & Darbelnet (1958)
    21. 21. Loan Words in Translation: Intentional Strategy 1. From another language (culturally-bound concepts difficult to translate) 2. From another field of expertise Last resort for want of a better solution or preserving elements of SL culture -> flacon, ampoule, pipette, burette, crème, enfleurage, camouflage makeup, fondant Vinay & Darbelnet (1958): The simplest of all translation methods to overcome a lacuna (gap), usually a metalinguistic one (e.g. a new technical process, an unknown concept) -> stem cells, growth factor, DNA, free radicals, oxidative stress
    22. 22. - Aquacurrent Science: Moving Moisture Where It's Needed. Water is the universal solvent - central to life on earth and essential to overall health, beauty and wellness. While skin care and hair care products have traditionally focused on "locking-in" water moisture, the recent discovery of micro- channels underneath the skin's surface underscores the importance of releasing and channeling water to maintain healthy skin. Aquacurrent Science by P&G The Nobel Prize-winning discovery of aquaporins, proteins consisting of tiny micro-channels embedded in the skin cell walls underneath the skin's surface, is providing scientists with a new and better target to retain and enhance moisture in the skin. Aquacurrent Science, inspired by the discovery of aquaporins, is the basis of unique product formulations that utilize the natural properties of water to help move moisture where it's needed for the best possible results. Click below to learn more about applications of this innovative science. http://www.pgbeautygroomingscience.com/aquacurrents.html =
    23. 23. Aquaporin Technology by DIOR Dior adds a luxurious helping hand to dry, parched skin with their legendary HydrAction Collection—the ultimate moisturizing arsenal for normal, dry, and combination skin. From sorbet-light crèmes to effective refining treatments, Dior's skin-soothing secret weapon—Aquacapt™ Complex—helps reinforce your complexion's natural moisture reserves to keep it feeling soft and hydrated all day long.
    24. 24. 2003 5 phrases for talking about HYDRACTION ? Aquaporin in 1 second, encourages the passage of 1 billion water molecules DEEP WITHIN: Long-term hydration ON THE SURFACE: Immediate hydration The cells are brimming with moisture Water circulation is activated, skin replenished with moisture INTENSE AND ACTIVE HYDRATION TEST RESULTS after only 1 application to the skin + 77% in immediate hydration + 30% in 24-hour hydration Dehydration lines disappear, the skin feels suppler, refreshed, plumper, more luminous and comfortable. 2005 21 3 4 5 Activity
    25. 25. Loan Words: Borrowed from Science • hydratemoisturize • exfoliatescrub • regeneraterevitalize dehydration, keratinization, detoxification, hyperpigmentation, comedogenicity, post-inflammatory response, phototoxic reaction, free radicals, antioxidants, trophicity, dystrophy, collagen synthesis, cellular metabolism, lipolysis, lipogenesis, sebum secretion, enzymatic trigger, glycation, keratolytic, extracellular matrix, dermis, epidermis, stratum corneum, etc.
    26. 26. Calques Vinay & Darbelnet (1958): A special kind of borrowing, resulting in either: • A lexical calque (borrowed word translated literally): dermocosmetics, cosmeceuticals, mattify, photo-aging (short for photo-induced aging), de-stress, de-wrinkle... • A structural calque (borrowed expression with each of its elements translated into TL): optical corrector pigments (pigments correcteurs optiques, Nuxe), head note (also: top note), heart note (also: middle note), palpate and roll massage (palper rouler), external aggressions (stress factors), cosmeto-clinical trial, barrier function, ...
    27. 27. Calques: Examples de-wrinkle (FR: dérider): “L’Oréal Dermo Expertise Age Perfect Cleansing Milk Enriched with magnesium, known for its revitalizing properties and vitamin C known for its energizing properties, the formula: --Helps to de-wrinkle the skin and reduce the signs of fatigue in mature skin. --Hydrates the skin” de-stress (FR: déstresser): “Elemis Soothing Chamomile Cleanser is a hypoallergenic, cooling, cleansing milk that removes impurities and make-up whilst calming and de-stressing the most sensitive skins. It is formulated with harmonizing extracts of German Chamomile that soothe and de-stress the skin. Good for extra sensitive, delicate and hormonal skin.”
    28. 28. The Alternative: Paraphrasing FR: décongestionner eliminate / remove / clear embedded impurities and toxins, calm swollen areas FR: désincruster deep-cleanse (unclog the pores) FR: défatiguer revitalize, invigorate, stimulate FR: désinfiltrer eliminate excess fluids, reduce dégonfler puffiness, reduce edema/swelling désengorger by improved re-absorption and drainer drainage of retained liquids and toxins, calm swollen areas (Nuxe)
    29. 29. Neologisms: New Word Formations / New Meaning “newly coined lexical units or existing lexical units that acquire a new sense” (Newmark, 2001:140) Established: moisturizer / concealer More recent coinages: bronzer, volumizer, luminizer / luminizing (YSL), highlighter, complexion-brightener (Dior), booster, corrector, crepiness, glide-on, cosmeceuticals, nanoparticulate, MYO-aging (L'Oréal), photoaging, dermobiotic (LRP), Lipo-Hydroxy-Acid or LHA (LRP for capryloyl salicylic acid),
    30. 30. Creative Compounding: Extensive Use in English Advertising Language body-enhancing, body-sculpting, body-contouring, figure-slimming, FR: amincissant skin-tensing, slimming shine-free acne-prone (instead of acneic) longer-lasting quick-absorbing brush-on must-have light-reflecting, natural-looking bring-along take-anywhere on-the-go (FR: nomade) radiance-boosting skin-lifting pore-clarifying lipid-replenishing (FR: relipidant) wrinkle-filling film-forming (= filmogenic) pick-me-up (noun and adj) touch-up fatigue-busting (défatiguant)
    31. 31. Translating brand-specific concepts = translating culture-specific concepts (CSCs) Possibilities: Paraphrase: explain the meaning of the SL expression instead of translating it Modulation: use a TL term that seems similar to or has the same "relevance" as the SL term Loan / borrowing: preserve the SL term intact Neologism: make up a new word Brand-Specific Concepts: a Question of “Corporate Culture”
    32. 32. Venuti (1995): To domesticate or to foreignize? The Never-Ending Struggle: Finding the Right Balance hypersensitive skin intolerant skin “peau intolérante” (Handout p. 5)
    33. 33. Venuti (1995): To domesticate or to foreignize? The Never-Ending Struggle: Finding the Right Balance reflect light hold light “fixer la lumière”
    34. 34. « Chaque harmonie se compose de six teintes, parmi trois familles de couleurs, spécifiquement choisies pour recréer un éclat sur mesure : -- Des couleurs correctrices pastel pour rectifier la tonalité de la peau. Le vert atténue le trop de rose des teints clairs ; le rose dégrise les teints ternes ; le bleu déjaunit les teints fatigués ; le mauve fixe la lumière et éclaircit les zones d’ombres de tous les teints. » “Each color harmony is comprised of six shades, from three different color families, which were specially chosen to recreate customized radiance: - Corrective pastel colors to even out skin tone. Green diminishes the excessive pink hue in fair skin; pink adds a healthy glow to a dull complexion; blue takes the yellow tone out of tired skin; mauve reflects / sets or holds light and adds brightness to shadowed areas in all complexions.”
    35. 35. Brand-Specific Choices: Combinations vs. Consistency puffiness and swelling puffy, baggy eyes undereye bags dark [ (under)eye ] circles / shadows puffy bags under eyes
    36. 36. Buzzwords and Catchphrases: Dynamic Equivalence in Action anti-aging: age-decelerating (Clinique), age-defying, age-reversing, age-perfecting, age-deflecting, de-aging anti-aging, the Baby Boomer version: pro-youth, pro-age, preserving, image extending, youth extending Translation approach based on the “principle of equivalent effect” and tailoring the message to the receptor’s linguistic needs and cultural expectations… (Nida, 1964)
    37. 37. L’OrdeViebyDior
    38. 38. Product Benefits and Results: Verbs and Verbal Adjectives C u stomers do n ot bu y a produ ct; th ey bu y th e benefits and results it affords them. “Up” verbs “Down”verbs activate, boost, accelerate, energize reduce, diminish, lessen, decrease ease, alleviate, soothe, appease, relieve attenuate, minimize, soften, erase fortify, strengthen, nourish, nurture rid / free (the skin), eliminate, remove stimulate, invigorate relax, de-stress, de-wrinkle smooth, even out, plump up, firm mask, hide, conceal, disguise, improve, enhance, emphasize fight, combat, battle illuminate, brighten, suffuse with… de-emphasize
    39. 39. Verbs with the prefix –re (intention to produce a better result): r e d e s i g n t h e f a c i a l o u t l i n e s r e s t r u c t u r e t h e i n t e r c e l l u l a r c e m e n t , r e p l e n i s h m o i s t u r e r e s e r v e s , r e n e w c o l l a g e n f i b e r s , r e j u v e n a t e , r e a c t i v a t e t h e s k i n ’ s r e p a i r p r o c e s s , r e t e x t u r i z e / r e f i n i s h t h e s k i n ’ s s u r f a c e , r e f i n e t h e s k i n ’ s t e x t u r e , r e g e n e r a t e d a m a g e d c e l l s , r e b a l a n c e d e e p h y d r a t i o n , Product Benefits and Results: Verbs and Verbal Adjectives
    40. 40. Participal / verbal adjectives (same form as the participle of a verb) -ing (properties/qualities): relaxing, stimulating, invigorating, exfoliating, nourishing, deep-cleansing, brightening, whitening, skin-lifting, pore-clarifying… -ed (beauty results): relaxed, stimulated, reinvigorated, exfoliated, lifted, plumped up, enhanced in appearance, replenished… Product Benefits and Results: Verbs and Verbal Adjectives
    41. 41. Spotlight on Adjectives and Adverbs: Extensive use of: Evaluative /comparative adjectives: “For the first time, there’s a remarkable gel that can give your hair any look you want – sleeker, fuller, straighter, curlier, more natural, even wet – without a drop of alcohol or oil.” Adverbs (adjective or verb modifiers): thoroughly moisturized / ideally hydrated skin, carefully selected ingredients, expertly formulated skin care products, beautifully youthful complexion, lastingly nourished, flawlessly smoothed, intensely replenished, genuinely more even-toned, etc.
    42. 42. Terminology Choices (Register) Distinguishing features of language associated with variations in context and relating to the language user (jargon) and/or language use: 1. field = subject matter 2. tenor = writer-reader relationship 3. mode = formal/informal efficacy (FR: efficacité) effectiveness technicity (FR: technicité) technical expertise technical sophistication superfatting extra rich, (FR: agent surgraissant, high-lipid, gel surgras) lipid-enriched
    43. 43. Present tense, active voice Imperative, interrogative and cond. sentences Avoidance of negatives Ellipsis (elliptical sentences) Syntactic Features What Makes the Difference? For Future Discussion…
    44. 44. Metaphor, simile, metonymy Personification Superlatives (hyperbole) Euphemisms, semantic ambiguity Rhetorical Features What Makes the Difference? For Future Discussion…
    45. 45. Thank you for your attention! Agnes Meilhac www.beautyterm.com
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