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The Subjunctive Mood
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The Subjunctive Mood

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  • 1. The Subjunctive Mood V.Rapa, M.Upmale ENGLISH NORMATIVE GRAMMAR IV Riga 2008
  • 2. The Subjunctive Mood
    • Moods in the English Language
    • the Indicative Mood
    • the Imperative Mood
    • the Subjunctive Mood
    The Use of the Subjunctive Mood in Simple Sentences Verb Forms in the Subjunctive Mood
    • The Synthetic Forms
    • the Present Subjunctive
    • the Past Subjunctive
    • the Perfect Subjunctive
    The Use of the Synthetic Forms
    • The Analytical Forms
    • should/would + the Infinitive
    • (simple, continuous, perfect,
    • perfect continuous)
    • may/might + the Infinitive
    • (simple, continuous, perfect,
    • perfect continuous)
    The Use of the Analytical Forms Definition
  • 3. Definition
    • Mood
      • is a grammatical category which indicates the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the verb from the point of view of its reality.
  • 4. Moods in the English Language
    • the Indicative Mood
    • - I do a lot of travelling, you know.
    • the Imperative Mood
    • - Please, help me!
    • the Subjunctive Mood
    • - Oh, if I were free now!
  • 5. Verb Forms in the Subjunctive Mood
    • The Synthetic Forms
    • the Present Subjunctive
    • - be, come, work
    • the Past Subjunctive
    • - were (was), came, worked
    • the Perfect Subjunctive
    • - had been, had come,
    • had been written
    • The Analytical Forms
      • should
      • would + the Infinitive
        • may
      • might
    • should go, may help,
    • may be playing,
    • would have done,
    • might have asked etc.
  • 6. Simple Sentences
    • Set expressions
    • Be it so!
    • To express an unreal wish
    • If I were free now!
    • To express a wish
    • May you be happy!
    • In oaths and imprecations
    • Manners be hanged!
  • 7. Unreal Conditional Clauses
    • Type I
    • If I were you, I would (should) do it.
    • Type II
    • If I had known it, I would (should) have warned you.
    • Type III
    • If I read much, I would (should) have read this novel by
    • John Fowles.
    • Type IV
    • If I had read it last week, I would (should) speak about it tomorrow.
  • 8. If I had been free last Sunday, I (should) would have gone to the seaside.
    • The Principal Clause
    • should (1 st pers.), would + the Perfect/the Perfect Continuous Infinitive
    The Subordinate Clause  the Perfect Subjunctive Type II the action in both parts refers to the past If I were free now, I (should) would go to the seaside.
    • The Principal Clause
    • should (1 st pers.), would + the Simple/the Continuous Infinitive
    The Subordinate Clause  the Past Subjunctive Type I the action in both parts refers to the present or future
  • 9. MIXED TYPES If Tim had read the novel last week, he would participate in the discussion today.
    • The Principal Clause
    • (should), would + the Simple/the Continuous Infinitive
    The Subordinate Clause  the Perfect Subjunctive Type IV the action in the subordinate clause refers to the past and in the principal clause – to the present/future If Tim read much, he would have read “ The Ebony Tower”.
    • The Principal Clause
    • (should), would + the Perfect/ the Perfect Continuous Infinitive
    The Subordinate Clause  the Past Subjunctive Type III the action in the subordinate clause refers to no particular time and in the principal clause – to the past
  • 10. Unreal Conditional Clauses Modal Cases
    • The meaning of the subordinate clause is
    • If it happened so… .
    • The meaning of the subordinate clause is
    • If you would be so kind… .
    • The subordinate clause can be substituted by
    • But for… .
  • 11. If you would help me, I should/would treat you to a cup of tea. The Principal Clause  should (1 st pers.) / would + the Infinitive The Subordinate Clause  would + the Infinitive 2. The meaning of the subordinate clause is If you would be so kind…
    • If you should meet him, tell him the news.
    • If I should get the book, I shall / will buy a copy for you.
    • If I should miss the train, I should / would go by bus.
    • Should I miss the train, I should / would go by bus.
    • If I were to get tickets to the show, I should / would buy one for you.
    • The Principal Clause:
    • the predicate–verb in the Imperative Mood
    • the predicate–verb in the Indicative Mood
    • the predicate–verb in the Subjunctive Mood
    • The Subordinate Clause
    • should + the Infinitive
    • were to + the Infinitive
    1. The meaning of the subordinate clause is If it happened so…
  • 12.
    • If it weren’t for Vivian, the conference wouldn’t be going ahead.
    • Were it not for Vivian, the conference wouldn’t be going ahead.
    • If it hadn’t been for my parents, I would never have gone to
    • university.
    • Had it not been for my parents, I would never have gone to
    • university..
    • The Principal Clause:
    • would (should) + the Infinitive
    • would (should) + the Infinitive
    The Subordinate Clause  were (a simultaneous action)  had been (a prior action) 3. The subordinate clause can be substituted by the phrase But for…
  • 13. The Use of the Synthetic Forms
    • The Predicative Clause
    • After the link verbs
    • the Past Subj. (a sim. action)
    • the Perfect Subj. (a prior action)
    The Subject/Attributive Clause It is time…  the Past Subj. The Adverbial Clause of Comparison After any verb (except the link verbs  the Past Subj. (a sim. action)  the Perfect Subj. (a prior action) The Object Clause After the verb wish  the Past Subj. (a sim. action)  the Perfect Subj. (a prior action)
  • 14.
    • He speaks English as if it were his native language. (a sim.
    • action)
    • He speaks English as if he had studied in Oxford. (a prior
    • action)
    The Subordinate Clause begins with as if / as though + the Past Subjunctive (a sim. action) + the Perfect Subjunctive (a prior action) The Principal Clause contains any verb in the Indicative Mood The Adverbial Clause of Comparison
    • He looks as if he were ill. (a simultaneous action)
    • He looks as if he had been ill. (a prior action)
    The Subordinate Clause begins with as if / as though + the Past Subjunctive (a sim. action) + the Perfect Subjunctive (a prior action) The Principal Clause contains one of the link verbs, i.e. be, seem, look, appear, feel , etc . The Predicative Clause
  • 15.
    • I wish I were free. (a sim. action)
    • I wish I hadn’t met her. (a prior action)
    • I wish they would go to London next spring.
    • (2 doers: I and they ; the action refers to the future: next spring )
    The Subordinate Clause begins with the conjunction that (it may be omitted) + the Past Subjunctive (a sim. action) + the Perfect Subjunctive (a prior action) NB If the action refers to the present/future and there are 2 different doers: + would + the Simple / Continuous Infinitive The Principal Clause contains the verb wish The Object Clause after the Verb wish
    • It is high time we went home.
    The Subordinate Clause begins with the conjunction that (it may be omitted) + the Past Subjunctive only The Principal Clause is as follows: It is (high) time… It is about time… The Subject / Attributive Clause
  • 16. The Use of the Analytical Forms
    • should / may / might +
    • the Infinitive (in Br.E.)
    • the Present Subjunctive (in Am.E.)
    • the Subject Clause
    • the Predicative Clause
    • the Attributive / Appositive Clause
    • the Object Clause ( I suggest... )
    • should + the Infinitive (in Br.E.)
    • the Present Subjunctive
    • (in Am.E.)
    • may/might + the Infinitive
    • the Adverbial Clause of Purpose
    • the Object Clause after the verbs denoting fear
    • may / might
    • + the Infinitive
    • the Adverbial Clause of Time
    • the Adverbial Clause of Place
    • the Adverbial Clause of
    • Concession
  • 17.
    • should + the Infinitive (in Br.E.)
    • the Present Subjunctive (in Am.E.)
    • The Subject Clause
    • It is suggested…
    • The Attribute / Appositive Clause
    • My suggestion that… is…
    • The Predicative Clause
    • My suggestion is…
    • The Object Clause
    • I suggest (that)…
  • 18.
    • My suggestion is that you should read this article. (Br.E.)
    • My suggestion is that you read this article. (Am.E.)
    The Subordinate Clause begins with the conjunction that + should + the Infinitive (in Br.E.) + the Present Subjunctive (in Am.E.) The Principal Clause begins with the phrase: My suggestion / request / proposal etc . is… The Predicative Clause
    • It is suggested that you should read this article. (Br.E.)
    • It is suggested that you read this article. (Am.E.)
    The Subordinate Clause begins with the conjunction that + should + the Infinitive (in Br.E.) + the Present Subjunctive (in Am.E.) The Principal Clause begins with the phrase: It is suggested / necessary / requested / important etc . The Subject Clause
  • 19.
    • I suggest that Tom should read this article . (Br.E.)
    • I suggest that Tom read this article . (Am.E.)
    The Subordinate Clause begins with the conjunction that + should + the Infinitive (in Br.E.) + the Present Subjunctive (in Am.E.) The Principal Clause contains the following predicate – verbs: suggest / propose / demand / request etc . The Object Clause
    • My suggestion that Tom should read this article was not
    • accepted. (Br.E.)
    • My suggestion that Tom read this article was not accepted. ( Am.E.)
    The Subordinate Clause begins with the conjunction that + should + the Infinitive (in Br.E.) + the Present Subjunctive (in Am.E.) The Principal Clause begins with the phrase: My suggestion / request / proposal etc. that… The Attributive / Appositive Clause
  • 20.
    • should the Infinitive
    • (in Br.E.)
    • the Present Subjunctive
    • (in Am.E.)
    • may/might + the Infinitive
    • The Object Clause
    • After the verb denoting fear
    •  lest + should + the Inf. (Br.E.)
    • lest + the Present Subj. (Am.E.)
    • that + may/might
    • + the Inf.
    • The Adverbial Clause of Purpose
    •  lest + should + the Inf. (Br.E.)
    •  lest + the Present Subj. (Am.E.)
    • that + may/might
    • + the Inf.
  • 21.
    • I fear lest I should miss the train . (Br.E.)
    • I fear lest I miss the train . (Am.E.)
    • I am afraid that I may/might be late for the train .
    The Subordinate Clause begins with the conjunctions lest (= lai ne) + should + the Infinitive (in Br.E.) + the Present Subjunctive (in Am.E.) or that + may / might + the Infinitive The Principal Clause contains the predicate-verb denoting fear: fear, tremble, dread, etc . The Object Clause
  • 22.
    • I opened the window lest it should be hot in the room. (Br.E.)
    • I opened the window lest it be hot in the room. (Br.E.)
    • I opened the door so that the cat might come in.
    The Subordinate Clause begins with the conjunctions lest (= lai ne) + should + the Infinitive (in Br.E.) + the Present Subjunctive (in Am.E.) or that, so that, in order that + may / might + the Infinitive The Principal Clause contains any predicate-verb, except the verbs denoting fear The Adverbial Clause of Purpose
  • 23. may / might + the Infinitive The Adverbial Clause of Time Whenever…  may / might + the Inf. The Adverbial Clause of Place Whenever…  may / might + the Inf. The Adverbial Clause of Concession Though/Although/Whatever/ No matter/etc. …  may / might + the Inf.
  • 24. The Adverbial Clause of Time The Subordinate Clause begins with Whenever… + may/might + the Infinitive
    • Whenever we may / might visit them, they seem to be busy.
    • (a sim. action)
    • Whenever he may / might have gone to London, we are expecting him
    • back for Christmas. (a prior action)
    • No matter how difficult it may / might be , I will do it. (a sim. action)
    • Whoever may / might have done it, we … (a prior action)
    The Subordinate Clause begins with Though… / Although… / No matter… / Whoever… / Whatever… / However… etc. + may/might + the Infinitive The Adverbial Clause of Concession
    • Wherever he may / might be now, he will be back soon. (a sim. action)
    • Wherever he may / might have gone , he will come back. (a prior action)
    The Subordinate Clause begins with Wherever… + may/might + the Infinitive The Adverbial Clause of Place
  • 25. The Emotional should
    • It is wonderful / nice / strange …
    • should + the Infinitive
    • It is wonderful
    • that you should …
    • I’m glad / sorry / pleased…
    • should + the Infinitive
    • I’m glad
    • that you should like…
    • It is a pity / pleasure …
    • should + the Infinitive
    • It is a pity that he should
    • have missed the train.
    • In some exclamatory sentences
    • should + the Infinitive
    • Who should I meet but you!
  • 26. Thank you and good luck!