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The electronics industry is one of the fastest growing sectors of the global economic environment, but it is also one of the least researched businesses in regards to labor practices and worker …

The electronics industry is one of the fastest growing sectors of the global economic environment, but it is also one of the least researched businesses in regards to labor practices and worker conditions. The ubiquity of uninterrupted purchasing, using, and discarding of digital technology has inevitably increased demand for electronics manufacturing, which in turn fuels the need for cheaper, faster, and more efficient labor output. Consequently, many of these industries circumvent and violate national labor laws, mainly by outsourcing to developing countries, to maximize and maintain a high rate of production and distribution. In addition, many of these factories are incredibly “dirty” facilities, where workers are often unknowingly exposed to toxic chemicals that are used to make the electronic parts. The following presentation attempts to elucidate many secrets of the international electronics sector, focusing on the violation of human rights and the potential risk posed to human health and safety due to unethical labor practices.

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  • Under the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights
  • Definition of occupational health as delineated by the ILO and WHO
  • http://www.aflcio.org/issues/safety/memorial/upload/wmdfsheet_2009.pdfhttp://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_General_Facts/jobsafetyandhealth-factsheet.pdfhttp://www.ilocarib.org.tt/portal/images/stories/contenido/pdf/Fact%20Sheets/Fact%20Sheet%20OSH.pdf
  • (“New Technology Workers,” CEREAL Report 2006)Digital technology is an integral part of daily life—cars, cameras, audio players, medical and industrial instruments, toys, etc are components of the modern digital era. The electronics industry represents nearly 15% of total trading goods and it continues to expand and grow with an annual growth rate of around 9.4%. This number exceeds the growth rate of the global GDP, and is nearly double that of any other industrial sector. To satisfy world demand, companies readily outsource production of electronics to poor and developing countries where labor is cheap, efficient, and unlimited. This also allows the company to undermine strict labor standards in their home area and to hire inexpensive labor in which workers are subject to inhumane working conditions. Ironically, many of these people who spend a majority of their life producing the necessary parts for our daily electronics never have access to any of this technology. Although most of the manufacturing processes take place in developing countries wherein labor rights violations most often occur, these conditions still persist in even developed countries like the United States.
  • “New Technology Workers,” CEREAL Report 2006http://www.cafod.org.uk/content/download/8506/84449/version/4/file/Cereal+report.pdfThe ever increasing demand for more advanced technology has spurred the differentiation of production to all areas of the world. The “supply chain process” for computers, for example, shows how different components are manufactured in numerous countries including China, Philippines, Malaysia, India, Thailand, and Mexico. It’s important to remember that in many of these countries, labor laws are weakly, if at all, enforced.
  • There are extremely few electronics that are still manufactured in the United States. A majority of the time, digital products are manufactured and packaged in developing countries and finally shipped and assembled in the area where they are most highly consumed. Companies at the end of the supply chain, like Apple, are often times solely responsible for product design, and not even product assembly.
  • The rapid cycling of digital products in urbanized communities drives technology industries to demand higher, cheaper, and faster yield of electronics, urging companies to outsource production to foreign countries where this demand is met and labor laws are loose. On the flip side, local laborers are often forced to work under these harsh conditions due to their impoverished and uneducated background. Many of them are migrant workers who leave their homes and travel hundreds of miles away to factories in urban areas to support their families.
  • http://www.ewhn.eu/attachments/article/150/asian_electronic.pdfIn the United States, nearly 40 million jobs—one in three jobs—pay low wages (under $11/ hr). All over the world, including developed and third world countries, labor laws are consistently ignored and violated. Workers in Hongkai Electronics in China earn only about 138 USD a month. Subtracting expenses for dorms, utilities, food and transportation, this monthly wage can’t even support their daily living expenses. Short term contracts force people to remain as “temporary” workers forever, allowing the industry to avoid national labor standards and to deny benefits and compensations upon resignation.
  • Catholic Agency for Overseas Development (CAFOD) released a detailed study in 2004 regarding worker conditions in various electronic industries in Mexico, Thailand, and China. HP, Dell, Texas Instruments, Xerox and NEC outsourced to MexicoKnown for contract manufacturers such as SCI, Flextronic, Jabil, Solectron Workers are paid ~50-100 USD a week, but must do excessive overtime for $100 Compulsory overtime Most workers are women aged 18-25 years old (easy to control) Unions are blocked by agenciesFactories discourage colleagues from talking with one anotherDiscriminating recruitment practicesMandatory and intrusive health tests Forced to sign short term contracts 28 days to 3 months—”hire and fire” Foregone holidays and denial of social benefitsAlso allows company to avoid paying maternity benefits for pregnant woman
  • http://www.chinalaborwatch.org/pro/proshow-136.htmlChina is the largest exporter of all developing countries and the 4th largest industrial producer. Its success is based on the availability of low-cost labor. Wages are a fraction of its main counterparts, being only ¼ that of Malaysia, 1/8 of Mexico, and only 5% of Taiwan.Average manufacturing wage is $0.60/hrMany of them are young, migrant workers from rural areas of China, who are forced to live in dirty and damp dorms at factory sitesExcessive overtime and low wages. Chinese labor law says that workers are entitled to 1 day off a week and that overtime hours should not exceed 36 hours a month. The minimum wage is $54/mthBut enforcement is extremely week b/c the staff are under-resourced and lack training Example of TW company in Dongguan city~100-120 hours overtime a monthEarn $37/mth only with illegal amounts of overtime
  • (top left, right): Dormitories.Large manufacturers like Foxconn may house up to 400,000 workers.(bottom left): migrant workers in Hangzhou, China at a job fair (bottom right): Military-like organization at a Chinese factory
  • (top left, right): Dormitories.Large manufacturers like Foxconn may house up to 400,000 workers.(bottom left): migrant workers in Hangzhou, China at a job fair (bottom right): Military-like organization at a Chinese factory
  • Especially relevant to the electronics industry, the workplace may be a congregation of a number of extremely harmful chemicals, metals, and toxic gases that cause rare cancers, reproductive illnesses, neurological damage and more. Exposure to radiation and other ergonomic and occupational stressors also contribute to work-related diseases and injuries. However, the internal operations of these industries are well hidden from the public, severely limiting research into the industrial hygiene, occupational, environmental health and safety hazards of these industries. Asia and Europe have rarely reported accurate rates of illness and injury nor have they published institutional research on health and safety concerns.
  • (http://www.ilo.org/safework_bookshelf/english?content&nd=857171014)Although there is no extensive research into many health and safety issues of the electronics sector, there have been studies performed on semiconductor industries (i.e., computers and disk drives)in the Asia-Pacific regions, Europe, Latin America and the United States. Semiconductor industries are amongst the most dangerous workplaces in the electronics sector with regards to high rates of worker-related illness and disease. This graph compares the incidence rates of work days lost per 200,000 worker-hours per year in different countries.
  • (http://www.ilo.org/safework_bookshelf/english?content&nd=857171014)(“Clean Up Your Computer, CEREAL Report 2006) Excessive and compulsory overtime is a common root for many work-related injuries, causing fatigue, musculoskeletal injuries, and even psychological stress.A Taiwanese company with 5 factories in Dongguan, China, manufactures different computer parts, including circuit boards, cooling fans, power adapters and monitors. During peak season, people may work up to 15-16 hours a day, with an average of 100-120 hours overtime.
  • The demand to meet production quotas while delivering quality products forces many workers to stay in the same position, and to fully focus, for hours without breaks. Conveyor belts are often sped up to rush delivery on time. In a few semiconductor plants of Mexico and China, workers are prohibited from talking or looking around, and they may not leave the production line to use the toilet or drink water.
  • Along with excessively long hours and extreme occupational conditions, many factory laborers are also subject to harsh penalty systems and workplace abuse. A combination of these factors contribute strongly to immense psychological pressure for workers. People may be fined for talking while working, not sitting properly, being tardy, or leaving factory premises on non-designated days. Because workers not only have to be high-output but also produce high-quality items, they may have to sit at their workstation for 12 hours straight, with no breaks, fully concentrated to avoid mistakes. In addition, workers who make mistakes may have to wear a placard or other conspicuous symbols to distinguish themselves. Overload of stress leads to a number of physical consequences, including disturbances in mood and sleep, psychological distress, upset stomach and headaches. Stress has also been linked to development of graver, chronic diseases like cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and psychological disease. Foxconn, a Taiwanese company that manufactures many electronic components, most notably those of Apple products, has been experiencing a series of worker suicides since May 2010 in their plants in Shenzhen, China. Suspected reasons for suicide include “military style administration and harsh conditions.” In an attempt to curb these events, the company has required that all employees sign a “no suicide pledge,” which also delineates that upon suicide, family members will seek minimum legal compensation.
  • http://actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/osh/kemi/ciwmain.htm
  • http://www.familypracticenews.com/index.php?id=2934&type=98&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=43554&cHash=da03e20e36http://actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/osh/kemi/ciwmain.htmhttp://www.neoseeker.com/news/13976-foxconn-orders-massive-nets-to-catch-jumping-factory-workers/(Left) Organs and tissues that may be affected by different hazardous chemicals (Right, top) Dermatitis can occur through chemical exposure even with the usage of protective gloves. In one factory in China, workers exposed to solvents are only provided with cotton gloves. These gloves offer no protection against the solvents that soak through to the skin, resulting in rashes and spots on the hands. Instead of protecting the workers from dangerous chemical contact, these gloves serve to protect the solvents from cross-contamination by the workers’ sweat. In addition, workers are often never educated about the extreme dangers involved with the substances that they use.
  • http://scienceblogs.com/thepumphandle/2011/05/reducing_occupational_chemical.php
  • http://www.semiconductorlitigation.com/practiceareas/semiconductor.aspxOccupational illness are common among electron workers, especially for those working in the semiconductor industries because of their chemical-intensive environments. Semiconductor parts like chips, wafers and motherboards are made using hazardous etching materials, solvents and cleaning fluids. Other harmful exposures include electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation. Cancers and reproductive diseases are common health issues observed in this industry. A study in Malaysia showed that a majority of semiconductor workers had musculoskeletal pain and injuries that were correlated with prolonged sitting , bending, and standing. Workers are exposed to various carcinogens and reproductive toxicants including arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, glycol ethers, benzene, chloroform, formaldehyde and more. This is a particular concern because most semiconductor workers are women of childbearing age. A study in the of a Massachusetts industry showed that there were elevated rates of spontaneous abortions for women working in clean rooms. Semiconductor workers wear “bunny suits” in clean rooms to prevent contamination of digital parts. The biggest issue with the rooms is that the air is recirculated, not ventilated (which may allow contamination), concentrating static toxins in the air where these people work. These suits do less to protect the workers from chemical exposure than to protect the electronic parts from physical damage.
  • Used as solvents in the photoresist step of the chip-etching processOverexposure causes anemia, irritation to eyes, nose and skinEarly 1980s workers in San Jose experienced pattern of pregnancy loss, subfertility and birth defects Associated with decrease in sperm count and testicular size Animal studies have reported testicular damage, maternal toxicity, delayed development, early embryonic deathUsage has decreased, but no federal standard in place b/c OSHA claims that use of glycol ethers has completely stopped in the US; in contrast, European Union has banned glycol ethers since 1994
  • Wintek and n-Hexane PoisoningIn early 2011, Apple released a report on labor conditions of its global manufacturers, revealing that 137 workers, and possibly more, had been seriously injured by a toxic chemical called n-hexane at Wintek, a Taiwanese owned company responsible for touch screens of the iPhone and iTouch. N-hexane is used to clean the screens, and it is a narcotic substance that causes neurotoxicity and skin, eye, respiratory irritation. Workers first began suffering severe muscle cramps and later began losing balance, having blurred vision, and constant headaches. N-hexane was illegally used by Wintek for nearly a year as it dried up faster than alcohol and spend of the production process. Though Apple has asked Wintek to take on medical responsibility, victims were initially forced to resign by Wintek and paid with minimal compensation. As of now, many are still awaiting medical clearance. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90778/90860/7295214.htmlhttp://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703408604576163663992661764.htmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/23/technology/23apple.html?_r=1http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/china-and-its-neighbors/100312/apple-news-iPhone-asia-illnessLeukemia Victims Win in Court Case Against Samsung More than 120 Samsung workers have diseases of leukemia or lymphoma and no less than 40 people have died in the past decade. Suspected causes for this disproportionately high incidence of disease include exposure to hazardous chemicals (benzene, to name one) and radiation. This past June (2011), for the first time in the history of electronic industries, the federal court has ruled in favor of leukemia victims working at Samsung semiconductor plants in South Korea. Samsung will be held accountable for the deaths of 2 workers who died of leukemia and will compensate the families accordingly. However, Samsung has continually been investing in “distinguished third party research institution overseas” to determine the strength of correlation between working conditions and leukemia incidences. Read the latest news: http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-news/4217202/Samsung-leukemia-deathshttp://stopsamsung.wordpress.com/http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_national/484347.htmlhttp://goodelectronics.org/news-en/samsung-to-take-responsibility-for-lethal-hazards-of-semiconductor-manufacturing/?searchterm=samsung The Apple iPad, Foxconn, and Exploitation of Chinese Workers Foxconn, a Taiwanese company responsible for manufacturing Apple iPads as well as other electronics for Dell, HP, and Nokia, has been under intense international scrutiny for a series of worker suicides in 2010. Suspected reasons for suicide include severe working conditions, long hours, and workplace abuse. In addition, a recent explosion on May 20, 2011 at a company factory in Chengdu, China, attributed to excessive accumulation of combustible dust has brought attention to the potential threat of aluminum dust collection and workers’ respiratory health. Learn more: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V3YFGixp9Jw&feature=player_embeddedhttp://goodelectronics.org/news-en/the-truth-of-the-apple-ipad-behind-foxconn2019s-lies/http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/07/business/global/07suicide.htmlhttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/20/foxconn-explosion-china_n_864738.html 
  • http://www.wired.com/epicenter/2010/08/foxconn-rallies-workers-installs-suicide-nets/http://www.chinasmack.com/2010/pictures/foxconn-rallies-employees-pledge-to-cherish-their-lives.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+chinaSMACK+%28chinaSMACK%29
  • ANSI Z10 and OHSAS 1800 are management systems standards designed to aid companies in designing, planning, and implementing tools and practices that lower risks in the workplace. ANSI Z10 is an American standard governed by OSHA while OHSAS 18000 is an international standard. SA 8000 is a global social accountability standard for fair labor conditions. The Social Accountability International licenses and awards employers who comply with SA 8000. EICC (Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition) Code of Conduct is a set of standards that ensure safe and respectful working conditions and environmentally responsible business operations for the entire supply chain of an electronics industry. These standards were developed by many information and technology firms, including IBM, Dell, HP and Intel. To adopt the code, businesses must support and conform to the conditions as set forth by the code, and they are inspected under independent third-party auditors.
  • Most important is to reject and refuse the desire to purchase new products! Help to conserve resources by fully maximizing your electronic’s lifetime or buying used products. Recycling is the last thing that one should do, as e-waste is a critical environmental and public health problem that disproportionately affects many developing countries.Buying fair trade certified products may help promote better foreign labor practices and sustainable production. However, at the moment, there are no electronics that are labeled fair-trade. Do your research! Be knowledgeable about where your electronics are made While it is difficult to find popular high-tech products such as computers, mp3 players, and phones to be made in the U.S.A, other smaller electronics such as toys and kitchen appliances may still be manufactured in the states. While it is not entirely true, most developed countries are observed to have stricter command of labor laws. United Pepper is one of the first and only electronics company that strives to offer products that are fair trade and environmentally friendly. They partner with producers that adhere to fair trade principles including no child labor, fair wages, and direct trade.
  • Ranking of electronics by Greenpeace shows that Nokia and Sony Ericsson rank as one of the top, most environmentally conscious industries amongst the biggest electronics companies in the world. Companies were ranked based on the usage and management of chemical toxins, take back and recycling policies for e-waste, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and usage of alternative energy. Labor practices and occupational health data were not one of the factors considered. Because most electronics are outsourced to contract manufacturers in other countries, it is extremely difficult to extract details on labor conditions.


  • 1. Labor Rights & Occupational Health in the Electronics Industry
    A closer look at the dangers and risks of the global occupational environment
  • 2. Overview
    Introduction to Labor Rights and Occupational Health
    Labor Justice in the Electronics Field
    Global Supply Chain
    Case Studies
    Worker Health and Injury
    Psychological Stress
    Chemical Exposure
    Recent News
    What You Can Do
  • 3. True or False?
    ___ 30% of ICT products are produced in the United States
    ___ The most common workplace injury is caused by exposure to toxic chemicals.
    ___ The average Chinese electronics worker’s wage is $.60 per hour.
    ___ Overtime hours are especially desired because these wages are very high.
  • 4. What are Labor Rights?
    Labor rights are legal rights that pertain to the labor relationship between workers and employers.
    Labor rights aim to improve and establish suitable and fair work conditions, wages, benefits, for all workers .
    The International Labor Organization (ILO), founded in 1919, is a sector of the United Nations that seeks to establish international legal rights for all workers throughout the world.
  • 5. Labor Rights Continued
    The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights delineates that everyone, without discrimination, has the right to work, free choice of employment, equal pay for equal work and just and favorable conditions at work.
    Everyone has the right to form and join trade unions and the right to rest and leisure.
  • 6. Occupational Health
    Cross-disciplinary field concerned with the health, welfare and safety of working people.
    The goal of occupational health programs is to:
    encourage and maintain the highest level of social, physical, and mental well-being of people in their working environments
    to protect and prevent workers from employment-related risks that adversely affect health
    to place workers in an occupational environment that is suitable and adapted for their physiological and psychological capabilities.
  • 7. Why Should We Be Concerned?
    • Labor rights are basic human rights.
    • 8. People of color, immigrants and women most often work in the lowest-paying and dangerous jobs around the world.
    • 9. An estimated 211 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are working around the world.
    • 10. In the US alone, 5,657 workers were killed by traumatic injuries and more than 60,000 died from occupational diseases in 2007.
    • Approximately 4% of the world’s GDP is lost to the cost of medical treatment, work absence and survivor benefits that result from work-related injuries and death.
    • 11. Worldwide, toxic substances kill about 438,000 workers annually, and 10% of all skin cancers may be attributed to work-related exposures with hazardous chemicals.
    • 12. Most of the everyday products we buy, wear, use and eat are produced with labor from the developing world.
  • Labor Justice and the Global Electronics Industry
  • 13. The Truth Behind Electronics
    As one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy, the electronics industry must meet high consumer demand while simultaneously maximize profits through low-cost manufacturing.
    “When you are due for holidays, they never giveyou the days you are entitled …The agency always gives you only 4 days per year, no matter how long you have
    been working there”.
    Solectron Worker
    “…Iassemble five computer cards per minute. More than 3,000 cards in my 11-hour daily shift. But I have never used a computer myself, I don’t know how to; what’s more, I don’t even know what the computers I make look like when finished”.
    Mexican worker
  • 14. The Global Supply Chain Process
  • 15.
  • 16. Responsible Factors for Outsourcing and Worker Exploitation
    • Falling prices
    • 17. Quick turnover
    • 18. Advances in technology
    • 19. Lack of organized trading unions
    • 20. Accessibility of outsourcing
    • 21. Competitive job market
    • 22. Limited employment opportunities
    • 23. Overpopulation
    • 24. Poverty
    • 25. Poor education
  • 26. The Result
    • Wages below the legal minimum
    • 27. Compulsory overtime with no pay
    • 28. Child labor
    • 29. Inhumane working conditions
    • 30. Gender, age, racial, physical discrimination
    • 31. Non-union policies
    • 32. Forced short-term contracting
  • Case Studies: Mexico
    • Job stability
    • 33. Sexual harassment
    • 34. Discrimination
    • 35. Toxic exposure
    • 36. Work-related accidents
    • 37. Freedom of association
    “In this area we have passes to go to the bathroom, two passes for 70 workers. This becomes problematic because when you have to go to the bathroom, you have to wait until one of the passes is free. Otherwise, we can’t go to the bathroom.”
    On another occasion, someone knocked me down and my crutches broke, I went to the infirmary and the security guard told me: “I think you did this yourself to avoid working”, but, as on other occasions, minutes later I was at my place working again.
  • 38. Case Studies: China
    • Excessive Overtime
    • 39. Low Wages
    • 40. Psychological and Physical Stress
    • 41. Poor Dormitories
    • 42. Non-Union Policies
  • Dormitory conditions are oftentimes cramped and dirty, and residents only have a small locker with which to store a few personal items.
    Large manufacturesrs like Foxconn may house up to 400,000 workers on a daily basis. The company also constructs restaurants,
    recreational buildings, post offices, and shops to sustain the employees’ living needs.
  • 43. Migrant workers at a job fair in Hangzhou, China
    Military-like organization at a Chinese factory
  • 44. Toxic Technology: The Cost to Human Health
  • 45. Work Injuries and Illnesses amongst Semiconductor Workers
  • 46. …the highest income I have ever got is a little more than
    500 renminbi ($60).That was earned after having worked more than 100 OT
    [overtime] hours. … How can that money be enough for us?
    -Chinese worker, 20 years old
  • 47. “Our two hands keep on
    working every minute.
    Our brains keep on
    working as well. Your
    hands have to move as
    quickly as your brain. If
    you lose concentration for
    one second, you will make
    a faulty product. Points
    will be deducted and for
    sure the production bonus
    will shrink at the end of
    the month.”
    -Male worker in computer
    assembly plant
  • 48. Psychological Stress
    Foxconn’s “Cherish Your Life” pledge prohibits workers from committing suicide.
  • 49. Secrecy, propaganda and the truth behind hazardous substance exposure in the electronics sector
    Toxic Chemical Exposure
  • 50. Routes of Entry & Health Effects
    • inhalationthrough the lungs
    • 51. absorption through the skin
    • 52. ingestion through the mouth
    Toxic chemicals have various routes into the body, and upon entry, they can cause a multitude of acute or chronic effects which may not show up until many years after initial exposure. They may act as respiratory irritants, allergens, carcinogens, mutagens, and more.
  • 53.
  • 54. Common Chemical Exposures
    • Brominated flame retardants
    • 55. Mercury, lead, and other toxic metals
    • 56. Perflorinated compounds
    • 57. Acids (i.e., hydrochloric acid)
    • 58. Ionizing radiation
    • 59. Volatile organic compounds (solvents, cleaners)
  • The Semiconductor Industry
    Spontaneous Abortions (per 100 women)
  • Example: Glycol Ether
    • Used as solvents in the photoresist step of the chip-etching process
    • 72. Overexposure causes anemia, irritation to eyes, nose and skin
    • 73. Pregnancy loss, subfertility and birth defects
    • 74. Associated with decrease in sperm count and testicular size
    • 75. No regulation in U.S.
    • 76. Continued use in developing countries
  • Recent News
    • Wintek and n-Hexane Poisoning
    • 77. Spate of Cancer Outbreaks amongst South Korean Samsung Workers
    • 78. Foxconn and Worker Suicides
  • 79. What’s Happening Now
    • ANSI Z10
    • 80. Not actively implemented or encouraged by OSHA
    • 81. OHSAS 18000
    • 82. SA 8000
    • 83. EICC Code of Conduct
    • 84. Open membership
    • 85. Does not guarantee compliance
    • 86. “….Samsung Electronics supports EICC Code of Conduct and seeks to conform to the Code and its implementation methods across the company and its suppliers”
  • What You Can Do
    • Fair-Trade Certified Non-Electronic Products
    • 87. Do your research! Be knowledgeable about where your electronics are made
  • Ranking Criteria:
    Labor practices and worker health and safety are NOT considered in this ranking.
  • 90. Helpful Organizations
    • CEREAL(Mexico; Center for Reflection and Action on Labor Rights)
    • 91. SHARPS(South Korea; Supporters for the Health And Rights of People in the Semiconductor industry)
    • 92. China Labor Watch (China)
    • 93. IRLF(International; International Labor Rights Forum)
    • 94. SACOM(International; Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehavior)
  • Reach Out
    • Sign a petition to hold Samsung accountable for the deaths of leukemia victims working in South Korea: http://www.petitiononline.com/s4m5ung/petition.html
    • 95. Send a message to Apple to take a stand against Foxconn’sworker abuse: http://makeitfair.org/take-action/flashgame/take-action/message-to-apple
    • 96. Join and follow the MakeITFair Campaign: http://makeitfair.org/
  • True or FalseRevisited
    • 30% of ITC products are produced in the United States. False
    • 97. The most common workplace injury is caused by exposure to toxic chemicals. False
    • 98. The average Chinese electronics worker’s wage is $.60 per hour. True
    • 99. Overtime hours are especially desired because these wages are very high. False
  • References
    Smith, Ted, David Allan. Sonnenfeld, and David N. Pellow. Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2006. Print.
    Grossman, Elizabeth. High Tech Trash: Digital Devices, Hidden Toxics, and Human Health. Washington: Island, 2006. Print.
  • 100. Websites:
    • http://makeitfair.org/
    • 101. http://www.aflcio.org/issues/safety/memorial/upload/wmdfsheet_2009.pdf
    • 102. http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_General_Facts/jobsafetyandhealth-factsheet.pdf
    • 103. http://www.ilocarib.org.tt/portal/images/stories/contenido/pdf/Fact%20Sheets/Fact%20Sheet%20OSH.pdf
    • 104. http://www.cafod.org.uk/content/download/8506/84449/version/4/file/Cereal+report.pdf
    • http://www.ewhn.eu/attachments/article/150/asian_electronic.pdf
    • 105. http://www.chinalaborwatch.org/pro/proshow-136.html
    • 106. http://www.ilo.org/safework_bookshelf/english?content&nd=857171014
    • 107. http://www.ilo.org/safework_bookshelf/english?content&nd=857171014
    • 108. http://actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/osh/kemi/ciwmain.htm
    • 109. http://www.familypracticenews.com/index.php?id=2934&type=98&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=43554&cHash=da03e20e36
    • http://actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/osh/kemi/ciwmain.htm
    • 110. http://www.neoseeker.com/news/13976-foxconn-orders-massive-nets-to-catch-jumping-factory-workers/
    • 111. http://scienceblogs.com/thepumphandle/2011/05/reducing_occupational_chemical.php
    • 112. http://www.semiconductorlitigation.com/practiceareas/semiconductor.aspx
    • 113. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90778/90860/7295214.html
    • http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90778/90860/7295214.html
    • 114. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703408604576163663992661764.html
    • 115. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/23/technology/23apple.html?_r=1
    • 116. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/china-and-its-neighbors/100312/apple-news-iPhone-asia-illness
    • 117. http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-news/4217202/Samsung-leukemia-deaths
    • 118. http://stopsamsung.wordpress.com/
    • http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_national/484347.html
    • 119. http://goodelectronics.org/news-en/samsung-to-take-responsibility-for-lethal-hazards-of-semiconductor-manufacturing/?searchterm=samsung
    • 120. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V3YFGixp9Jw&feature=player_embedded
    • 121. http://goodelectronics.org/news-en/the-truth-of-the-apple-ipad-behind-foxconn2019s-lies/
    • 122. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/07/business/global/07suicide.html
    • 123. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/20/foxconn-explosion-china_n_864738.html
    • http://www.wired.com/epicenter/2010/08/foxconn-rallies-workers-installs-suicide-nets/
    • 124. http://www.chinasmack.com/2010/pictures/foxconn-rallies-employees-pledge-to-cherish-their-lives.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+chinaSMACK+%28chinaSMACK%29
    • 125. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/toxics/electronics/Guide-to-Greener-Electronics/