Deep Kanban
worth the investment?

Assessing the
increasing
sophistication of
your Kanban
implementation
London Lean Kanba...
What is the Kanban Method?

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Kanban Method
A management & cultural approach to
improvement

View creative knowledge work as a set
of services
Encourage...
Kanban Method
Uses visualization of invisible work and
virtual kanban systems

Installs evolutionary “DNA” in your
organiz...
6 Practices for Evolutionary DNA
The Generalized Version
Visualize
Limit Work-in-progress
Manage Flow
Make Policies Explic...
Assessing Kanban
Implementations

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Are we doing Kanban or not?
It isn’t a question of evaluating practice
usage but rather a question of intent?
Do you inten...
If the intent is there, then the question
should be….
How Deep is your Kanban?

Depth

Shallow

Visualize
Limit Work-in-pr...
In reality it isn’t so easy, practice adoption isn’t
linear nor does it follow a predictable sequence
Improvements

No Imp...
In reality it isn’t so easy, practice adoption isn’t
linear nor does it follow a predictable sequence
Improvements

Visual...
This raises the question, how do we put
a scale on the six axes?

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Visualize
Work
Different Work Item Types
Workflow
Kanban Limits
Ready for pull ("done")
Blocking issues (special cause var...
Limit WIP
• Deferred commitment & dynamic staff assignment (no WIP
limits) aka “last responsible moment”
• Proto-kanban
•
...
Proto-Kanban
Pool
of
Ideas

Next

G
I

GY

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja

Done

3

F

Testing

Development
Ongoing

5

∞

Deploy...
Manage Flow
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Daily meetings
Cumulative Flow Diagrams
Delivery rate (velocity/throughput) control chart
SLA o...
Make Policies Explicit
• Workflow/Kanban System policies
explicit
• Pull criteria (definition of done, exit
criteria)
• Ca...
Feedback Loops
The Kanban Kata
Operations
Review

Improvement
Kata

Standup
Meeting

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Standup Meeting

Disciplined conduct
and acts of leadership
lead to improvement
opportunities
Kaizen events happen
at afte...
Improvement Kata

A mentor-mentee relationship
Usually (but not always) between a superior and a sub-ordinate
A focused di...
Operations Review

Meet monthly
Disciplined review of
demand and capability
for each kanban system
Provides system of
syst...
Improve collaboratively, evolve
experimentally (using models & scientific method)
• Evidence of local process evolution - ...
Map evaluation criteria onto chart
Improvements

Visualize
10+

Ops review
coached

Allows
multidimensional
assessment

Mo...
We can now map known Kanban case studies onto this
framework for assessment

Corbis from 2007

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Corbis IT department circa October 2007
Improvements

Visualize
10+

Very deep
implementation

Ops review
coached
Model-dr...
XIT Microsoft 2005

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
XIT Microsoft 2005
Improvements

Visualize
10+

Much
shallower early
implementation

Ops review
coached
Model-driven
Impl ...
A Typical Proto-Kanban Implementation
Very shallow
Improvements

Visualize
10+

Ops review
coached

Shallower than
origina...
6 Practices for Evolutionary DNA
The More Specific Version

Visualize work, workflow & business
risks
(using large physica...
Scaling out across an
organization

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Treat each service separately
Demand

Observed
Capability

Demand

Observed
Capability

Demand

Observed
Capability

dja@d...
Some systems have dependencies on
others
Demand

Observed
Capability

Demand

Observed
Capability

Demand

Observed
Capabi...
Organizational Improvements Emerge

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Scaling Kanban
Each Kanban System is designed from
first principles around a service
provided
Scale out in a service-orien...
Relative vs Absolute
Assessment

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Practitioners in smaller organizations have tended
to adopt a relative assessment model
Improvements

Visualize

Outer edg...
Relative model usage
Pioneered by Pawel Brodzinski
The relative model is used with the
Improvement Kata to help drive a sp...
Pawel Brodzinski,
http://blog.brodzinski.com/wp-content/uploads/kanban-radar-chart-6.png

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Absolute model adoption
The absolute model is gaining traction with
larger organization such as space & defense
and public...
Jack Vinson, http://limitedwipsociety.ning.com/photo/kiviat-radar-spider-depth-ofimplementation?context=album&albumId=6474...
Bernadette Dario,
http://limitedwipsociety.ning.com/photo/kiviat4?context=album&albumId=6474535%3AAlbum%3A4302

dja@djaa.c...
Extending the Framework
Some larger firms have customized and
extended the framework adding a 7th
axes…

dja@djaa.com, @dj...
Increasing depth, increasing
benefits

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
A Typical Proto-Kanban Implementation
Very shallow
Benefits Visualize

Improvements

10+

Transparency
Model-driven
Engage...
XIT Microsoft 2005
A little Deeper
Benefits

Improvements

Visualize
10+

Predictability
Model-driven
Shorter Lead Times
I...
Corbis IT department circa October 2007
Very deep

Benefits
Improvements

Cultural shift
Ops review

Visualize
10+

Busine...
Thank you!
dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
About

David Anderson is a thought
leader in managing effective
software teams. He leads a
consulting, training and
publis...
Acknowledgements

Hakan Forss of Avega Group in Stockholm has been instrumental in
defining the Kanban Kata and evangelizi...
David J Anderson
& Associates, Inc.

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Appendix

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Can you draw this chart for your team
or organization?

dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
Use this template…
Improvements

What shape is
your Kanban
implementation?

Visualize
10+

Ops review
coached
Model-driven...
dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja

Fixed Date

Intangible

Standard

Expedite

Example Distributions
dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
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Key Note - London Lean Kanban Day - Deep Kanban - Worth the investment?

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Most Kanban implementations are internally focused and intended aid coordination, visibility, decision making and provide relief from over-burdening. These shallow implementations miss the opportunity to improve business agility and service delivery. The Depth of Kanban Assessment Framework helps managers assess the depth of a Kanban implementation and explains the value in deeper implementations that are externally focused and deliver real business benefits

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Key Note - London Lean Kanban Day - Deep Kanban - Worth the investment?

  1. 1. Deep Kanban worth the investment? Assessing the increasing sophistication of your Kanban implementation London Lean Kanban Day London, March 2013 dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  2. 2. What is the Kanban Method? dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  3. 3. Kanban Method A management & cultural approach to improvement View creative knowledge work as a set of services Encourages a management focus on demand, business risks in, and capability of each service to supply against, that demand dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  4. 4. Kanban Method Uses visualization of invisible work and virtual kanban systems Installs evolutionary “DNA” in your organization Enables adaptability to respond successfully to changes in your business environment dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  5. 5. 6 Practices for Evolutionary DNA The Generalized Version Visualize Limit Work-in-progress Manage Flow Make Policies Explicit Implement Feedback Loops Improve Collaboratively, Evolve Experimentally (using models & the scientific method) dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  6. 6. Assessing Kanban Implementations dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  7. 7. Are we doing Kanban or not? It isn’t a question of evaluating practice usage but rather a question of intent? Do you intend to use visualization & virtual kanban systems as a core driver of a culture of continuous improvement? Do you view your organization as a network of service-oriented workflows and seek to improve the balance of capability against demand? dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  8. 8. If the intent is there, then the question should be…. How Deep is your Kanban? Depth Shallow Visualize Limit Work-in-progress Manage Flow Make Policies Explicit Implement Feedback Loops Improve Collaboratively, Evolve Experimentally Deep (using models & the scientific method) dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  9. 9. In reality it isn’t so easy, practice adoption isn’t linear nor does it follow a predictable sequence Improvements No Implied sequence Visualize Limit WIP Feedback Loops Shallow Deep Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja Manage Flow
  10. 10. In reality it isn’t so easy, practice adoption isn’t linear nor does it follow a predictable sequence Improvements Visualize Larger implies Deeper Limit WIP Feedback Loops Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja Manage Flow
  11. 11. This raises the question, how do we put a scale on the six axes? dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  12. 12. Visualize Work Different Work Item Types Workflow Kanban Limits Ready for pull ("done") Blocking issues (special cause variations) Capacity Allocation Metrics-related aspects such as - lead time, local cycle time, SLA target • Inter-work item dependency (incl hierarchical, parent-child dependency) • Inter-workflow dependency • Other risk dimensions - cost of delay (function shape & order of magnitude), technical risk, market risk • • • • • • • • dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  13. 13. Limit WIP • Deferred commitment & dynamic staff assignment (no WIP limits) aka “last responsible moment” • Proto-kanban • • • personal kanban WIP limit per person workflow with infinite limits on "done" queues • Single workflow full pull system with WIP limits • Multiple interdependent workflows with pull system dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  14. 14. Proto-Kanban Pool of Ideas Next G I GY dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja Done 3 F Testing Development Ongoing 5 ∞ Deployment Ready Ongoing 3 Done ∞ I am a buffer! Infinite limits on done columns D P1 means that there really isn’t a The clue is in my name – “… E kanban pull system present. PB Ready” DE MN proto-kanban AB This style of I am buffering non-instant controls multi-tasking but availability or activity with a doesn’t limit workflow WIP cyclical cadence ∞ Done
  15. 15. Manage Flow • • • • • • • Daily meetings Cumulative Flow Diagrams Delivery rate (velocity/throughput) control chart SLA or lead time target Flexible staff allocation or swarming behavior Deferred pull decisions, or dynamic prioritization Metrics for assessing flow such as number of days blocked, lead time efficiency dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  16. 16. Make Policies Explicit • Workflow/Kanban System policies explicit • Pull criteria (definition of done, exit criteria) • Capacity allocation • Queue replenishment • Classes of service • Staff allocation / work assignments • Explicit over-ride and modify authority • More?... dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  17. 17. Feedback Loops The Kanban Kata Operations Review Improvement Kata Standup Meeting dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  18. 18. Standup Meeting Disciplined conduct and acts of leadership lead to improvement opportunities Kaizen events happen at after meetings dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  19. 19. Improvement Kata A mentor-mentee relationship Usually (but not always) between a superior and a sub-ordinate A focused discussion about system capability Definition of target conditions Discussion of counter-measures – actions taken to improve capability dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  20. 20. Operations Review Meet monthly Disciplined review of demand and capability for each kanban system Provides system of systems view and understanding Kaizen events suggested by attendees dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  21. 21. Improve collaboratively, evolve experimentally (using models & scientific method) • Evidence of local process evolution - changes to workflow, policies, WIP limits • Evidence of increasing depth of Kanban implementation on other 5 practices • Evidence that process evolution was model-driven - use of metrics, identification of bottlenecks, common/special cause variation, transaction/coordination costs, other models not specified in current literature • Evidence of process or management policy evolution as a result of mentor-mentee relationship • Evidence of inter-workflow process or management policy evolution as a result of operations review dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  22. 22. Map evaluation criteria onto chart Improvements Visualize 10+ Ops review coached Allows multidimensional assessment Model-driven Impl deepening Observed evo Feedback Loops (Kata)Ops review 1 LRM improv team kanban proto 1 1 multi Limit WIP 7 5+ Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja Manage Flow
  23. 23. We can now map known Kanban case studies onto this framework for assessment Corbis from 2007 dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  24. 24. Corbis IT department circa October 2007 Improvements Visualize 10+ Very deep implementation Ops review coached Model-driven Impl deepening Observed evo Feedback Loops (Kata)Ops review 1 LRM improv team kanban proto 1 1 multi Limit WIP 7 5+ Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja Manage Flow
  25. 25. XIT Microsoft 2005 dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  26. 26. XIT Microsoft 2005 Improvements Visualize 10+ Much shallower early implementation Ops review coached Model-driven Impl deepening Observed evo Feedback Loops (Kata)Ops review 1 LRM improv team kanban proto 1 1 multi Limit WIP 7 5+ Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja Manage Flow
  27. 27. A Typical Proto-Kanban Implementation Very shallow Improvements Visualize 10+ Ops review coached Shallower than original (2005) implementation Model-driven Impl deepening Observed evo Feedback Loops (Kata)Ops review 1 LRM improv team kanban proto 1 1 multi Limit WIP 7 5+ Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja Manage Flow
  28. 28. 6 Practices for Evolutionary DNA The More Specific Version Visualize work, workflow & business risks (using large physical or electronic boards in communal spaces) Implement Virtual Kanban Systems Manage Flow Make Policies Explicit Implement Kanban Kata Educate your workforce to enable collaborative evolution of policies & ways of working based on models of workflow from bodies of knowledge such as Theory of Constraints, Deming’s Profound Knowledge, dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  29. 29. Scaling out across an organization dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  30. 30. Treat each service separately Demand Observed Capability Demand Observed Capability Demand Observed Capability dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  31. 31. Some systems have dependencies on others Demand Observed Capability Demand Observed Capability Demand Observed Capability dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  32. 32. Organizational Improvements Emerge dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  33. 33. Scaling Kanban Each Kanban System is designed from first principles around a service provided Scale out in a service-oriented fashion Do not attempt to design a grand solution at enterprise scale The Kanban Kata are essential! Allow a better system of systems to emerge over time dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  34. 34. Relative vs Absolute Assessment dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  35. 35. Practitioners in smaller organizations have tended to adopt a relative assessment model Improvements Visualize Outer edge defines specific local goals Limit WIP Feedback Loops Activity Not present Where we would like to be Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja Manage Flow
  36. 36. Relative model usage Pioneered by Pawel Brodzinski The relative model is used with the Improvement Kata to help drive a specific local improvement under supervision of a coach Avoids concerns of a “CMMI levels” style model for Kanban and pursuit of practice adoption for the sake of it IMO, requires an expert coach with deep knowledge of Kanban (and other concepts) to drive it. dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  37. 37. Pawel Brodzinski, http://blog.brodzinski.com/wp-content/uploads/kanban-radar-chart-6.png dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  38. 38. Absolute model adoption The absolute model is gaining traction with larger organization such as space & defense and public sector in USA, Canada and Sweden. Provides a clear framework to guide deep Kanban adoption. Allows wider audience to understand why their coach is steering them in a direction. Helps management to adopt appropriate expectations of outcomes based on appraised depth dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  39. 39. Jack Vinson, http://limitedwipsociety.ning.com/photo/kiviat-radar-spider-depth-ofimplementation?context=album&albumId=6474535%3AAlbum%3A4302 dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  40. 40. Bernadette Dario, http://limitedwipsociety.ning.com/photo/kiviat4?context=album&albumId=6474535%3AAlbum%3A4302 dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  41. 41. Extending the Framework Some larger firms have customized and extended the framework adding a 7th axes… dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  42. 42. Increasing depth, increasing benefits dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  43. 43. A Typical Proto-Kanban Implementation Very shallow Benefits Visualize Improvements 10+ Transparency Model-driven Engage people Impl deepening emotionally Observed evo Collaboration 1 LRM Greater empathykanbanmulti team proto improv Reduced 1 1 multitasking Ops review coached Feedback Loops (Kata) Ops review Limit WIP 7 Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja 5+ Manage Flow
  44. 44. XIT Microsoft 2005 A little Deeper Benefits Improvements Visualize 10+ Predictability Model-driven Shorter Lead Times Impl deepening Increased Throughput Observed evo 1 Improved trust with Feedback Loops LRM business stakeholderskanbanmulti team proto (Kata) Ops review improv 1 Eliminated Disruptions 1 Measurable Benefits Ops review coached Limit WIP 7 Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja 5+ Manage Flow
  45. 45. Corbis IT department circa October 2007 Very deep Benefits Improvements Cultural shift Ops review Visualize 10+ Business unit wide implementation coached (across whole business) Model-driven Managers Managing Impl deepening Empowerment Observed evo 1 Autonomy Feedback Loops LRM team proto (Kata) Ops review improvContinuous 1 1 Improvement Viral Spread kanban multi Limit WIP 7 Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja 5+ Manage Flow
  46. 46. Thank you! dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  47. 47. About David Anderson is a thought leader in managing effective software teams. He leads a consulting, training and publishing and event planning business dedicated to developing, promoting and implementing sustainable evolutionary approaches for management of knowledge workers. He has 30 years experience in the high technology industry starting with computer games in the early 1980’s. He has led software teams delivering superior productivity and quality using innovative agile methods at large companies such as Sprint and Motorola. David is the pioneer of the Kanban Method an agile and evolutionary approach to change. His latest book, published in June 2012, is, Lessons in Agile Management – On the Road to Kanban. David is a founder of the Lean-Kanban University Inc., a business dedicated to assuring quality of training in Lean and Kanban for knowledge workers throughout the world. dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  48. 48. Acknowledgements Hakan Forss of Avega Group in Stockholm has been instrumental in defining the Kanban Kata and evangelizing its importance as part of a Kaizen culture. He also challenged the incremental sequence of practice adoption and catalyzed the discussion that led directly to adoption of the multi-dimensional depth of Kanban assessment framework. Pawel Brodzinski has led the healthy debate on relative versus absolute assessment. dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  49. 49. David J Anderson & Associates, Inc. dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  50. 50. Appendix dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  51. 51. Can you draw this chart for your team or organization? dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
  52. 52. Use this template… Improvements What shape is your Kanban implementation? Visualize 10+ Ops review coached Model-driven Impl deepening Observed evo Feedback Loops (Kata) Ops review 1 LRM improv team kanban proto 1 1 multi Limit WIP 7 Explicit Policies dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja 5+ Manage Flow
  53. 53. dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja Fixed Date Intangible Standard Expedite Example Distributions
  54. 54. dja@djaa.com, @djaa_dja
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