Kanban - an alternative path to agility (Lean Kanban Southern Europe 2014)

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Kanban offers an alternative evoltionary approach to improving fitness for purpose and agility of a business. This pr

Kanban offers an alternative evoltionary approach to improving fitness for purpose and agility of a business. This pr

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  • There are some parallels in the story of Bruce Lee and the emergence of his approach to Kung Fu.
    Lee rejected the idea of following a particular style of Chinese Martial Arts.
  • Lee rejected these for various reasons, mainly that they gave the practitioners a false sense of ability and put them at risk in real combat situations. He was against Kata (learning patterns without an opponent) and described them in derogatory terms such as "dry land swimming."
  • The Jeet Kune Do emblem incorporates the words...
    "having no way as way." There would be no specific style or school to his approach. It is not fixed or patterned but guided by a set of principles. An individual would adapt their own style that worked best for them by learning the principles and practicing different types of kicking, punching, trapping and grappling.
    "having no limitation as limitation." In other words, Lee would be prepared to pull ideas from any source if it made the (martial) art better and made the individual a better practitioner. His concern was the logical improvement of the method rather than loyalty to any one tradition or tribe. He was happy to borrow ideas from Western traditions as much as Eastern.
  • While Jeet Kune Do is often described as a framework from which an individual can pick and choose to develop their own style, it is also an evolutionary approach. Lee referred to "absorb what is useful" and discard the remainder. And this was at the personal level for an individual developing their own style. If they chose to discard "intercepting fist" this would be acceptable. They were following the philosophy faithfully and the inclusion of any one maneuver or set of maneuvers was not critical.
  • In Jeet Kune Do training is always with an opponent. This provides the core feedback loop and learning opportunity that allows a practitioner to select that which "is useful" and discard that which is not.
    Lee pursued ever more elaborate approaches to protected real combat training to enable the closed loop learning that was core to the evolutionary nature of JKD. In comparison patterned styles of martial arts taught with "kata" were open loop and not adaptive.
  • New roles (defined in the methodology) attack their identity
    New responsibilities using new techniques & practices attack their self-esteem and put their social status at risk
    Statistically, most people resist most change because individually they have more to lose than to gain. Probabilistically, it is safer to be conservative and stick to current practices and avoid shaking up the current social hierarchy. Only the brave or the reckless will pursue grand changes.
  • The Kanban Method rejects the traditional change management method and rejects the installation of a new style of working - a new methodology. It does this because it is better to avoid resistance than to push harder against it.
    The Kanban Method introduces an evolutionary approach to change that is humane. It is designed to work with carbon-based life forms processing change with system 1. The Kanban Method catalyzes improvement through the use of kanban systems and visual boards (also known as "kanban" in Chinese and in Japanese when written with Chinese characters). It is from the use of kanban that the method takes its name, but it is just a name. Anyone who thinks Kanban is just about kanban (boards & systems) is truly mistaken. The Kanban Method is an example of a new approach to improvement. It is a method without methodology.
  • The Kanban Method rejects the traditional change management method and rejects the installation of a new style of working - a new methodology. It does this because it is better to avoid resistance than to push harder against it.
    The Kanban Method introduces an evolutionary approach to change that is humane. It is designed to work with carbon-based life forms processing change with system 1. The Kanban Method catalyzes improvement through the use of kanban systems and visual boards (also known as "kanban" in Chinese and in Japanese when written with Chinese characters). It is from the use of kanban that the method takes its name, but it is just a name. Anyone who thinks Kanban is just about kanban (boards & systems) is truly mistaken. The Kanban Method is an example of a new approach to improvement. It is a method without methodology.
  • Bruce Lee was a philosopher. He majored in philosophy at the University of Washington, Seattle. His own personal philosophy was heavily influenced by Taoism and Buddhism. He brought this philosophy to his interpretation of Kung Fu and the heart of Jeet Kune Do.
    One of his key teachings was "to be like water". Water flows around the rock. The rock represents resistance - in fighting, the resistance is from the opponent.
  • In change management, resistance is from the people involved and it is always emotional.
    To flow around the rock, we must learn how to avoid emotional resistance.
  • The Kanban Method evolved with this principle in mind. That we must discover a way that enabled change while avoiding invoking sources of resistance - even better if we could motivate the people involved to advocate for the changes required.
    With Kanban you start with what you do now, and "kanbanize" it, catalyzing the evolutionary process into action. Changes to processes in use will occur and evaluating whether a change is truly an improvement can be done using fitness criteria that evaluate the external outcome.
  • Fitness criteria are metrics that measure things customer or other external stakeholders value such as delivery time, quality, predictability, conformance to regulatory requirements or metrics that value actual outcomes such as customer satisfaction or employee satisfaction
  • Traditional change is an A to B process. A is where you are now. B is a destination. B is either defined (from a methodology definition) or designed (by tailoring a framework).
    To get from A to B, a change agency* will guide a transition initiative to install destination B into the organization.
    *either an internal SEPG or external consultants

Transcript

  • 1. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Presents Presenter David J. Anderson Lean Kanban Southern Europe May 2014 Release 1.0 Kanban an alternative approach to agility
  • 2. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. An Unconventional Approach May Be Required
  • 3. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Bruce Lee rejected traditional teaching and styles of Chinese martial arts • There are some parallels in the story of Bruce Lee and the emergence of his approach to Kung Fu to how and why Kanban emerged as an alternative approach to agility • Lee rejected the idea of following a particular style of Chinese Martial Arts
  • 4. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Snake Monkey Mantis Tiger Kung Fu Panda simplified the art to only four styles
  • 5. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. There are in fact very many styles…
  • 6. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. “Dry land swimming” provides a false sense of capability • The only way to learn is to train with a live opponent • Lee rejected the many styles of martial arts for various reasons, mainly that they gave the practitioners a false sense of capability, putting them at risk in real combat situations • He was against Kata (learning patterns without an opponent) and described them in derogatory terms such as "dry land swimming.“
  • 7. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Jeet Kune Do Using no way as way Having no limitation as limitation
  • 8. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Jeet Kune Do encourages development of a uniquely personal style • a framework from which to pick & develop a personal style • an evolutionary approach where adoption of maneuvers is learned & reinforced by training with an opponent • Nothing was sacred "absorb that which is useful“ discard the remainder
  • 9. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Training with an opponent provides the core feedback loop to drive adaptation Lee pursued ever more elaborate approaches to protected real combat training to enable the closed loop learning that was core to the evolutionary nature of JKD
  • 10. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kata are not adaptive In comparison with JKD, patterned styles of martial arts taught with "kata" were open loop and not adaptive. There is no adaptive learning from practicing kata. The approach encourages conformance with a standard rather than innovation.
  • 11. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Lee’s genius was recognizing hand-to-hand combat is a complex problem • Patterned styles are perfectly good for controlled circumstances such as competition • Sporting combat is an ordered domain problem constrained by rules • Street fighting is not orderly and therefore emergent practice is required • This complex domain required a new philosophy
  • 12. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. So why might we need an unconventional approach to improving agility?
  • 13. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Motivation for the Kanban Method
  • 14. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Traditional Change is an A to B process • A is your current process. B is a desired new process. B is either… • defined (from a methodology definition) • Or, designed (by tailoring a framework or using a model based approach such as VSM*, TOC TP**, CMMI, etc…) • To get from A to B, a change agency*** will guide a transition initiative to install B into the organization ***either an internal process group or external consultants Current Process Future Process Defined Designed transition * Value stream mapping, ** Theory of Constraints Thinking Processes A B
  • 15. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Daniel Kahneman has given us a simple model for how we process information Daniel Kahneman System 1 Sensory Perception Pattern Matching System 2 Logical Inference Engine Learning by Experience Learning from theory FAST But slow to learn SLOW But fast to learn
  • 16. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. How we process change… Daniel Kahneman Silicon-based life form Carbon-based life form I logically evaluate change using System 2 I adapt quickly I feel change emotionally using System 1 I adapt slowly
  • 17. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Adopting new processes challenges people psychologically & sociologically • New roles attack identity • New responsibilities using new techniques & practices threaten self-esteem & social status • Most people resist most change because individually they have more to lose than gain • It is safer to be conservative and stick to current practices and avoid shaking up the current social hierarchy • Only the brave, the reckless or the desperate will pursue grand changes
  • 18. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Kanban Method… • Rejects the traditional approach to change • Believes, it is better to avoid resistance than to push harder against it • Don’t install new processes • Don’t reorganize • Is designed for carbon-based life forms • Evolutionary change that is humane
  • 19. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Kanban Method… • Catalyzes improvement through use of kanban systems and visual boards* • Takes its name from the use of kanban but it is just a name • Anyone who thinks Kanban is just about kanban (boards & systems) is truly mistaken *also known as "kanban" in Chinese and in Japanese when written with Chinese characters
  • 20. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Water flows around the rock “be like water” the rock represents resistance
  • 21. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kanban should be like water* In change management, resistance is from the people involved and it is always emotional (system 1) To flow around the rock, we must learn how to avoid emotional resistance * http://joecampbell.wordpress.com/2009/05/13/be-like-water/
  • 22. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Kanban Method
  • 23. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Principles behind the Kanban Method • Start with what you do now • Agree to pursue evolutionary change • Initially, respect roles, responsibilities and job titles • Encourage acts of leadership at all levels The first 3 principles were specifically chosen to address System 1 objections, to flow around the rock of emotional resistance in humans
  • 24. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Learn to view what you do now as a set of services (that can be improved): • What to look for… • Creative work is service-oriented • Service delivery involves workflow • Workflow involves a series of knowledge discovery activities • What to do… • Map the knowledge discovery workflow • Pay attention to how & why work arrives • Track work flowing through the service The Kanban Lens
  • 25. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. STATIK (systems thinking approach to introducing kanban) 1. Understand Sources of Dissatisfaction  From viewpoint of internal & external stakeholders  Sources of variability that cause dissatisfaction 2. Demand and Capability Analysis  (Ideally) By work item type & class of service 3. Model Workflow  Understand the knowledge discovery process by type 4. Discover classes of service 5. Design a Kanban System Visualization 6. Roll out Plan This process tends to be iterative For each service…
  • 26. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Understanding kanban systems
  • 27. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. F F O M N K J I Kanban can be physical Ideas D I Dev Ready G Development Testing Test Ready F B C UAT Release Ready In-progress Legend Done Blocked - issue Blocked - defect Physical token such as a magnet is a kanban Colors are used to denote state Moving done items down below a line is an optional enhancement seen in some implementations Override on kanban limit introduces additional “blocked – issue” kanban People working on blocked item “A” have been redirected to work on item “I”
  • 28. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. F F FF F F J I Kanban are often virtual! Ideas D I Engin- eering Ready G 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 F B CPull Pull These are the virtual kanban * These are the virtual kanbanThese are the virtual kanbanThese are the virtual kanban The board is a visualization of the service delivery workflow, work-in- progress and the kanban system UAT Deploy- ment Ready ∞ ∞
  • 29. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. F F O M N K J I Pull Kanban systems are pull systems Ideas D I Dev Ready G 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 F B CPull Pull * There is capacity here UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ Pulling work from development will create capacity here too – the pull signals move upstream! Now we have capacity to replenish our ready buffer
  • 30. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Commitment is deferred E I D Commitment point F F FF F F F Pull Wish to avoid aborting after commitment Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ We are committing to getting started. We are certain we want to take delivery. Ideas remain optional and (ideally) unprioritized G
  • 31. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Discard rates are often high E I D F F F F G I Reject Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ Discarded The discard rate with a team at Microsoft in 2004 was 48%. ~50% is commonly observed Options have value because the future is uncertain 0% discard rate implies there is no uncertainty about the future
  • 32. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Upstream Kanban Prepares Options Ready for Engin- eering F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Biz Case Dev 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Min & Max limits insure sufficient options are always available Committed WorkOptions Discarded O Reject P Q $$$ cost of acquiring options
  • 33. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Test Ready F F FF F F F Commitment Frequency E I G D Replenishment Discarded I Pull Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 35 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ The frequency of system replenishment should reflect arrival rate of new information and the transaction & coordination costs of holding a meeting Frequent commitment is more agile. On-demand commitment is most agile!
  • 34. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Test Ready F F FF F F F Defining Kanban System Lead Time E I G D Pull System Lead Time Discarded I Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 35 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ The clock starts ticking when we accept the customers order, not when it is placed! Until then customer orders are merely available options Kanban system lead time ends when the item reaches the first ∞ queue
  • 35. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Test Ready F F FF F F F Delivery Frequency E I G D Delivery Discarded I Pull The frequency of delivery should reflect the transaction & coordination costs of deployment plus costs & tolerance of customer to take delivery Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 35 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ UAT and Release buffer sizes can reduce as frequency of delivery increases Frequent deployment is more agile. On-demand deployment is most agile!
  • 36. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Service Delivery Agility Service Agility Commitment frequency Lead Time Delivery Frequency LeadTime Short Long Delivery Service Agility Commitment Frequent Seldom Frequent Seldom More Agile Less Agile Kanban system dynamics
  • 37. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Understanding the Kanban Method
  • 38. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Treat each service separately Demand Observed Capability Demand Demand Observed Capability Observed Capability
  • 39. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Feedback Loops Operations Review Service Delivery Review Standup Meeting The Kanban Kata daily weekly monthly
  • 40. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Standup Meeting Daily Meeting Disciplined conduct (kata) & acts of leadership identify problems Improvement discussions & process evolution happen at after meetings
  • 41. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Service Delivery Review Weekly Meeting Usually (but not always) between a superior and a sub-ordinate A focused discussion about demand, observed system capability, and fitness for purpose Comparison of capability against fitness criteria metrics and target conditions, such as lead time SLA with 60 day, 85% on-time target Discussion & agreement on actions to be taken to improve capability
  • 42. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Operations Review Monthly meeting Disciplined review of demand and capability for each kanban system Provides system of systems view and understanding Kanban system design changes & process evolution suggested by attendees
  • 43. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Organizational Improvements Emerge
  • 44. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Visualize work, workflow & business risks using large physical or electronic boards in communal spaces Implement Virtual Kanban Systems Manage Flow Make Policies Explicit Implement the Kanban Kata Educate your workforce to enable collaborative evolution of policies & ways of working based on models of workflow from bodies of knowledge such as Theory of Constraints, Deming’s Profound Knowledge, Lean, Risk Management ideas such as Real Option Theory & Liquidity Kanban’s 6 Specific Practices
  • 45. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Fitness Criteria
  • 46. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Start with what you do now • The Kanban Method evolved with the principle that it “should be like water” - enable change while avoiding sources of resistance • With Kanban you start with what you do now, and "kanbanize" it, catalyzing the evolutionary process into action. Changes to processes in use will occur • Evaluating whether a change is truly an improvement is done using fitness criteria that evaluate an external outcome
  • 47. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Fitness criteria are metrics that measure observable external outcomes • Fitness criteria are metrics that measure things customers or other external stakeholders value • Delivery time • Quality • Predictability • Safety (conformance to regulatory requirements) • or metrics that value actual outcomes such as • customer satisfaction • employee satisfaction
  • 48. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Which system is fitter? We don’t know! System B is faster but without understanding customer expectations, both may be fit enough 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Lead Time (Days) System A Frequency 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 10 15 20 25 30 More Lead Time in Days System B Frequency Mean 17 days Mean 12 days
  • 49. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Measuring delivery against expectation 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Lead Time (Days) System A Frequency 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Lead Time Expectation Spread (Days) System A Frequency 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 10 15 20 25 30 More Lead Time in Days System B Frequency 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 More Lead Time Expectation Spread (Days) System B Frequency Mean 17 days Mean 12 days System B is clearly fitter! System B delivers 5/7 within expectations System A only delivers 3/7 within expectations
  • 50. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Evolutionary change has no defined end point Evolving Process Roll forward Roll back Initial Process Future process is emergent Evaluate Fitness Evaluate Fitness Evaluate Fitness Evaluate Fitness Evalua Fitnes We don’t know the end-point but we do know our emergent process is fitter!
  • 51. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Business Agility ServiceDeliveryAgility Strong Weak Evolutionarychanges Respond Frequent Seldom More Agile Less Agile DefineFitnessCriteria Often Seldom KanbanKata Sense Strong Weak Business Agility Sense Fitness criteria by market segment Capability against demand Respond Service Delivery Time Evolutionary Changes
  • 52. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Conclusions
  • 53. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. 1. Kanban helps you manage your organization as an ecosystem of creative service workflows. 2. Kanban enables you to improve your business agility through evolutionary improvement with significantly reduced resistance to change. 3. Kanban improves the survivability of your business making it resilient to a rapidly changing external environment
  • 54. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Thank you!
  • 55. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Learn More http://www.limitedwipsociety.org http://edu.leankanban.com @leankanbanu
  • 56. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. About David Anderson is a thought leader in managing effective software teams. He leads a training, consulting, publishing and event planning business dedicated to developing, promoting and implementing sustainable evolutionary… He has 30 years experience in the high technology industry starting with computer games in the early 1980’s. He has led software teams delivering superior productivity and quality using innovative agile methods at large companies such as Sprint and Motorola. David is the pioneer of the Kanban Method an agile and evolutionary approach to change. His latest book, published in June 2012, is, Lessons in Agile Management – On the Road to Kanban. David is a founder of the Lean Kanban Inc., a business dedicated to assuring quality of training in the Lean Kanban Method for managers of those who must “think for a living.”
  • 57. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Joe Campbell first blogged about the similarity in philosophy between the Kanban Method and the teachings of Bruce Lee. He coined the phrase “Kanban should be like water”. The data on slides 48 & 49 was provided by Raymond Keating of CME Group. Hakan Forss of Avega Group in Stockholm has been instrumental in defining the Kanban Kata and evangelizing its importance as part of a Kaizen culture. Real options thinking inspired by the work of Chris Matts, Olav Maassen & Upstream Kanban pioneered by Patrick Steyaert. References to Sense & Respond are inspired by the work of Stephen Parry. Don Reinertsen first suggested using virtual kanban systems for service delivery. Acknowledgements
  • 58. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.