Be Agile. Scale Up. Stay Lean. And Have More Fun by Dean Leffingwell

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Scrum, XP, and Kanban have been proven to provide step changes in productivity and quality for software teams. However, these methods do not have the native constructs necessary to scale to challenges …

Scrum, XP, and Kanban have been proven to provide step changes in productivity and quality for software teams. However, these methods do not have the native constructs necessary to scale to challenges of building enterprise class software systems. What the industry desperately needs is a solution that moves from a set of simplistic, disparate, development-centric methods, to a scalable, unified approach that addresses the complex constructs and additional stakeholders in the organization- and enables realization of enterprise-class product or service initiatives via aligned and cooperative solution development.

In this talk, Dean Leffingwell describes how to accomplish this with the Scaled Agile Framework, a publicly - accessible knowledge base of proven Lean and Agile practices for enterprise-class software development. He approaches the problem from the perspectives of Lean thinking and principles of product development flow, illustrating how these core principles help deliver business results at scale, while keeping the development system - and the enterprise - lean and responsive to rapidly changing market needs. And since winning is more fun, he’ll also describe some of the personal benefits that come when teams master the art of delivering better enterprise-class software, at an ever faster pace.

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  • 1. 1© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. © 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. Scaled Agile Framework ® is a trademark of Leffingwell, LLC. By Dean Leffingwell Leading the Lean|Agile Enterprise: Be Agile. Scale Up. Stay Lean. 2© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Keeping Pace !  Our modern world runs on software. !  What doesn't now, likely will soon !  We’ve had Moore’s Law for hardware, and Moore’s Law + for envisioning what software could do !  But, our prior development practices haven’t kept pace !  Agile shows the greatest promise, but was developed for small teams !  We need a new approach – one that harnesses the power of Agile and Lean – but applies to the needs of the largest software enterprise Our development methods must keep pace with an increasingly complex world
  • 2. 3© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. We Thought We’d be Programming Like This 4© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. But Sometimes It Feels Like This
  • 3. 5© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. We Have a Choice of Approaches 4 444 : Documents Documents Unverified Code Software 6© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Accelerating Value Delivery Early value delivery accumulates and accumulates Time ValueDelivery
  • 4. 7© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Makes Money Faster TIME VALUEDELIVERY 8© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. First, Some Thoughts on Agile Methods !  Scrum –  Works great. Less filling. Ubiquitous. Scrumptious. Let’s Sprint. !  Extreme Programming –  Really great code from really great coders. We can scale great code. Extremely useful. Let’s Program with it. !  Kanban –  Clear thinking on flow, demand management and limiting wip. Let’s flow, limit WIP and manage demand with it. !  But if these innovative methods don’t have the native constructs to address the view beyond the team − the systems view − shouldn’t we do something about that? !  And, on behalf of millions of practitioners, working on really big systems in really big companies, and struggling badly with existing approaches, don’t we have an obligation to try?
  • 5. 9© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Scaling, You Have a Choice You have a blank slate. Figure it out what works and grow it to suit you. 10© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Or Start with A Proven Framework A proven, publicly-facing framework for applying Lean and Agile practices at enterprise scale ! Synchronizes alignment, collaboration and delivery for large numbers teams Core values: 1.  Code Quality 2.  Program Execution 3.  Alignment 4.  Transparency http://ScaledAgileFramework.com
  • 6. 11© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. What’s Behind the Framework? 12© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. SAFe Roots Lean, Systems Thinking Principles of Product Development FlowAgile Development Field experience at enterprise scale Iterative and Incremental Development
  • 7. 13© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Lean Thinking Provides Thinking Tools Respect for People Product Development Flow Kaizen 14© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Goal: Speed, Value, Quality THE GOAL !  Sustainably shortest lead time !  Best quality and value to people and society !  Most customer delight, lowest cost, high morale, safety All we are doing is looking at the timeline, from the where the customer gives us an order to where we collect the cash. And we are reducing the time line by reducing the non-value added wastes. – Taiichi Ohno We need to figure out a way to deliver software so fast that our customers don’t have time to change their minds. ̶ Mary Poppendieck Most software problems will exhibit themselves as a delay. – Al Shalloway Respect for People Product Development Flow Kaizen
  • 8. 15© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Product Development Flow 1.  Take an economic view 2.  Actively manage queues 3.  Understand and exploit variability 4.  Reduce batch sizes 5.  Apply WIP constraints 6.  Control flow under uncertainty: cadence and synchronization 7.  Get feedback as fast as possible 8.  Decentralize control Reinertsen, Don. Principles of Product Development Flow Respect for People Product Development Flow Kaizen 16© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Reduce Batch Size Small batches go through the system faster with lower variability !  Large batch sizes increase variability !  High utilization increases variability !  Severe project slippage is the most likely result ! Reducing batch size –  Reduces cycle time; faster feedback –  Decreases variability and risk ! Most important batch is the transport (handoff) batch ! Proximity (co-location) enables small batch sizesProject slippage rises exponentially with duration Fig. Source: Poppendieck. Implementing Lean Software Development Reinertsen, Don. Principles of Product Development Flow
  • 9. 17© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Actively Manage Queues !  Understand Little’s Law (Avg wait time = avg queue length / avg processing rate) !  Faster processing time decreases wait !  Control wait times by controlling queue lengths Reinertsen, Don. Principles of Product Development Flow Email from a client service organization: “Thank you for contacting us. We are experiencing increased volumes and apologize in advance for the delay. Our goal is to contact you within...” 18© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Apply WIP Constraints WIP constraints force capacity matching, increases flow When WIP and utilization become too high, you will see a sudden and catastrophic reduction in throughput! Apply WIP constraints Force capacity matching Accelerate delivery Timebox Prevent uncontrolled expansion of work Make waiting times predictable Purge lower value projects when WIP is too high Increase efficiency and throughput of remaining work Constrain local WIP pools Constrain global WIP pools Make WIP continuously visible 1) Understand 2) take action Reinertsen, Don. Principles of Product Development Flow
  • 10. 19© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Visibility and WIP Constraints Story10Story11 Story 8 Story 9 Story 7 Story 6 Story 5 Story 3 Story 4 Story 2 Story 1 Today Without WIP Constrains – a waterfall sprint 20© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Let’s Look at the Framework
  • 11. 21© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Nothing Beats an Agile Team !  Empowered, self-organizing, self-managing cross- functional teams !  Valuable, fully-tested software increments every two weeks !  Scrum project management practices and XP-inspired technical practices !  Teams operate under program vision, system, architecture and user experience guidance !  Value description via User Stories 22© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. That Focuses on Code Quality You can’t scale crappy code Agile   Architecture   Con/nuous   Integra/on   Test-­‐First   Refactoring   Pair  Work   Collec/ve   Ownership   Code Quality Provides: !  Higher quality products and services, customer satisfaction !  Predictability and integrity of software development !  Development scalability !  Higher development velocity, system performance and business agility !  Ability to innovate Code Quality
  • 12. 23© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Systems Must be Managed A system must be managed. It will not manage itself. Left to themselves, components become selfish, competitive, independent profit centers, and thus destroy the system. . . . The secret is cooperation between components toward the aim of the organization. – W. Edwards Deming 24© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Scale to the Program Level ! Common sprint lengths and estimating ! Face-to-face planning cadence for collaboration, alignment, synchronization, and assessment ! Value description via Features and Benefits ! Self-organizing, self-managing team-of-agile-teams ! Continuous value delivery ! Aligned to a common mission via a single backlog
  • 13. 25© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Synchronize to Assure Delivery PSI Sys 1 Sys 2 Sys 3 Sys 4 Sys 5 Sys 6 Sys 7 Sys 8 Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate Iterate PSI PSI PSI Continuous Integration Continuous Integration PSI 26© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Develop on Cadence. Deliver on Demand. Development occurs on a fixed cadence. The business decides when value is released. Deliver on Demand Major Release Customer Upgrade Customer Preview Major Release New Feature Develop on Cadence PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI
  • 14. 27© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Scaling to the Portfolio “A system is a network of interdependent components that work together to try to accomplish the aim of the system. A system must have an aim. Without an aim, there is no system.” – W. Edwards Deming 28© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Scale to the Portfolio !  Centralized strategy, decentralized execution !  Investment themes provide operating budgets for trains !  Kanban systems provide portfolio visibility and WIP limits !  Objective metrics support governance and kaizen !  Value description via Business and Architectural Epics
  • 15. 29© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Agile Program Portfolio Management Supporting lean and agile practices for business results 4.  Decentralized, rolling-wave planning 5.  Agile estimating and planning 6.  Self-managing Agile Release Trains 1.  Decentralized decision-making 2.  Demand management; continuous value flow 3.  Lightweight epic business cases 7.  Objective, fact- based measures and milestones 30© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. How would you measure a framework, a method, a process?
  • 16. 31© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Better Quality is More Fun ü  44% decrease in post release defects ü  76%+ decrease in time to respond to customer request ü  “greatest thing Mitchell has done in my 14 years here” 32© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. More Engaging Work Environments ü  Average delivery cycle time down from 12 month to 3 months ü  6X increase in delivery frequency ü  50% cost to deliver reduction ü  95% decrease in product defects ü  100% projects delivered on time and on budget ü  Happy project sponsors ü  Happy teams
  • 17. 33© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Faster Time to Market with Higher Quality ü  Field issue resolution time: down 42% ü  Warranty Expense: down 50% ü  Time to production: down 20% ü  Time to market: 20% faster ü  Employee engagement: Up 9.8% 34© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Higher Engagement is More Fun ü  Substantially improved communication with peer teams, program stakeholders, and domain and technical experts ü  Teams were able to commit to a realistic plan ü  Better alignment to the key program priorities ü  Teams understand “why are we doing this important work”
  • 18. 35© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. The Management Challenge It is not enough that management commit themselves to quality and productivity, they must know what it is they must do. If you can’t change the system who can? - W. Edwards Deming 36© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Lean Foundation: Leadership 1.  Take an economic view of the full value chain 2.  Embrace the Agile Manifesto 3.  Develop people, not things 4.  Own the system of which they speak 5.  Decentralize control 6.  Unlock the intrinsic motivation of knowledge workers 7.  Implement software development flow. Visualize work. Manage work in process. 8.  Build high-performing Agile teams Respect for People Product Development Flow Kaizen Lean Thinking Manager-Teachers !  Management is trained in lean thinking !  Bases decisions on this long term philosophy
  • 19. 37© 2008 - 2013 Scaled Agile, Inc. and Leffingwell, LLC. All rights reserved. Conclusion ! The foundation of Lean is leadership ! The foundation of SAFe is you