Factor Analysis: Investigating ImportantAspects for Agile Adoption in Malaysia                       Presenter: Jeeson Dan...
OBJECTIVE   To identify clusters of the variables (or items) and    how they are inter-related to produce factors.   Fro...
Data Collection and Analysis   Online Questionnaire.   Received 207 responses.   For factor analysis: 27 questions rega...
Sample Size and Strength  of Relationship   The suitability to conduct factor analysis needs to    be checked.   Keiser-...
Factor Extraction   It is one of the procedures in factor analysis.   Involves determining the smallest number of    fac...
Factor Extraction: Determine How Many Factorsto Retain:(1) EIGENVALUES rules     Compone   Eigenvalues      Eigenvalues   ...
Factor Extraction: Determine How Many Factors to Retain:(2) SCREE PLOT               9               8       1            ...
Factor Rotation and  Interpretation   After deciding the number of factors to be      retained, the next step is to inter...
The Related Variables with Their Loadings                    (Taken from Pattern Matrix)Factor 1                          ...
Meanings for the 8 factors              Interpretation and Meaning for the 8 FactorsFactor 1:                           Fa...
Discussion and Conclusion   Factor analysis identified that organisational and software    developers’ involvement as the...
References   [1] H. F. Kaiser, "An Index of Factorial    Simplicity," Psychometrika, vol. 39, pp. 31-    36, 1974.   [2]...
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Invesstigating Important Aspects for Agile Adoption in Malaysia

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  • Reference[1] H. F. Kaiser, "An Index of Factorial Simplicity," Psychometrika, vol. 39, pp. 31-36, 1974.
  • Reference[2] A. Field, Discovering statistics using SPSS (introducing statistical methods series): Sage, 2009.
  • This is the first method, eigenvalues or kaiser criterion – will extract and retain the factors that have eigenvalues greater than 1 for further investigations.From the table above, it shows 8 factors that have eigenvalues greater than 1.
  • 1. Using Scree plot, the point at which the curve changes direction and becomes horizontal is checked.
  • Pattern matrix: contains the factor loadings after the rotation Structure matrix: describe the relationships between factors.The interpretation is mainly completed from the pattern matrix.
  • In oblique rotation, the pattern matrix contains the factor loadings after rotation while the structure describes the relationship between the factors. The variables that load into the factors (from the pattern matrix) are checked for their common themes; the reason is to interpret the variables relating to that factor. The loadings describe relationship strength of that variable to the factor.Normally the interpretation is conducted by referring to pattern matrix. Some loadings are left blank in the pattern matrix. This is so as the study had requested SPSS to show only loadings greater than 0.4; the purpose of which is to make interpretation simpler. Steven (2000) suggested only interpreting factor loadings with an absolute value greater than 0.4. Some variables are shown to have values of negative loadings. A negative sign of loading does not indicate any meaning regarding the strength of the variable to the factor. It gives meaning that the variable is related in the opposite direction with the factor.
  • Factor 1This factor shows the importance of the organisational aspects agreed by the Agile adopters in Malaysia. These include two loadings showing the importance of software developers’ roles and responsibilities and their involvement when applying Agile methods. These two loadings about software developers are higher than the other loadings in the factor. Besides, it is also agreed that the scope and suitability of the project needs to be emphasised. The organisational aspect is also concerned with the environment, openness and transparency within the organisation. Factor 2The second factor is loaded by three variables. The highest loadings tell us that the adopters have mixed races in their organisations. This factor indicates that mixed races in an organisation or a team is not a problem when introducing Agile methods as the loading is high enough for that variable to the factor. From the loadings, it can be seen that adopters are using the English language. The factor also describes that changes in the working mind set is important when practicing Agile.Factor 3The third factor resulting from factor analysis tells us about the customer-related aspect. A variable, ‘In my experience, practitioners with professional skills are needed when practicing Agile’ shows that the practitioners must have professional skills such as communication skills when dealing with the customers. Besides, it is also suggested that customers should have a professional skill such as soft skill for describing their software requirements. The rest of the loadings in this factor are clearly showing the importance of the customers’ role including the knowledge of Agile methods that they need to have when practicing the method. Factor 4The factor contains loadings that provide meanings about benefits or positive impact when using Agile methods. The benefit ranked highest in terms of importance is shown in customers’ satisfaction, followed by the results from work collaboration between customers and developers in Agile. Then the impact of Agile methods was also seen in the way it boosts the developers’ morale and provides quicker results in software development. The factor also tell us that the practitioners agreed that Agile methods help them to deliver quicker development. Factor 5This factor has two loadings representing the importance of training and learning when using Agile methods in Malaysia. However the loadings have negative values; an indicator that the items are describing the opposite sides of the factor. Alternatively, the negative values can be changed to positive values; but the wording of the loadings must be reversed. For example ‘In my experience, training helps correct practice of Agile methods in our organisation’ = -0.879 can have positive value by reversing it to ‘In my experience, training does not help correct practice of Agile methods in our organisation’ = 0.879. The variables in this factor suggest disagreement about the importance of training and learning when using Agile methods in Malaysia. Most respondents are those who attending the training when the questionnaire was given. This might be one reason for the disagreement as they were undergoing training while answering the questions. Because of that, they still would not know whether training can help them to use Agile correctly.Factor 6: Factor six is showing loadings about the technical or technological aspects. The loadings have negative values; therefore this factor is describing the lack of importance of the technical or technological aspects when using Agile methods from the Malaysian perspective. In this analysis, there is one loading in this factor (‘our organisationemphasises on achievement and goal accomplishment where aggresiveness and winning are common themes’) which is disregarded because it does not best describing the factor. Besides, it was considered that this variable should be excluded as it has less loading when compared to other variables in that factor. Therefore, the two negative loadings about the technical and technological aspects can be considered a sign of the ‘Lack Importance of Technical and Technological Aspects when using Agile methods’.Factor 7This factor has two loadings which are describing the importance of sharing knowledge etc. The first loading- ‘our organisational environment is a personal place where people share a lot of themselves’ indicates the importance of sharing, or in orther words – ‘I agree sharing is important in the organisation’. On the other hand, a negative value in loading relating to ‘In my experience, I think knowledge about Agile should be widely increased in the country’, could be a sign of ‘I agree not enough knowledge about Agile methods in the country’. This reflects the importance of knowledge sharing about Agile methods in the country. Factor 8In the last component (factor 8), all the three loadings are describing the needs and results from well functioning teams. It is important for the team to know their roles and to have the right attitude when using Agile methods- as a result of this, quicker results can be gained. All three loadings have positive values. It also shows that knowing roles and responsibilities, and having the right attitude are important to get the benefits Agile can deliver (for example- quick results).
  • Invesstigating Important Aspects for Agile Adoption in Malaysia

    1. 1. Factor Analysis: Investigating ImportantAspects for Agile Adoption in Malaysia Presenter: Jeeson Daniel J Authors: Ani Liza Asnawi, Andrew M Gravell & Garry B Wills University of Southampton, UK {ala08r, amg, gbw}@ecs.soton.ac.uk International Conference on Agile and Lean Software Development AgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
    2. 2. OBJECTIVE  To identify clusters of the variables (or items) and how they are inter-related to produce factors.  From here, dimensions and meanings of the variables from the questionnaire can be identified.  Factor analysis can help to provide a summary for data inter-relationship and places those variables into their groups accordingly.International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
    3. 3. Data Collection and Analysis  Online Questionnaire.  Received 207 responses.  For factor analysis: 27 questions regarding the adoption and completed responses equal to 88.  Each variables has a six point Likert-type scale ; strongly disgaree (1) to strongly agree (6).International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
    4. 4. Sample Size and Strength of Relationship  The suitability to conduct factor analysis needs to be checked.  Keiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) – a measure of sampling adequacy ranges from 0 to 1.  From the data, KMO of 0.755 was obtained – (value from 0.7 to 0.8 are good) [1].International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
    5. 5. Factor Extraction  It is one of the procedures in factor analysis.  Involves determining the smallest number of factors (or components) that can best represent the inter-relations among the sets of variables.  Here, principal component analysis is use as the extraction method.  In order to determine how many number of factors are extracted, eigenvalues (or Kaiser criterion) and scree plot can be referred to [2].International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
    6. 6. Factor Extraction: Determine How Many Factorsto Retain:(1) EIGENVALUES rules Compone Eigenvalues Eigenvalues Eigenvalues (cumulative nt (Total) (% of Variance) %) 7.852 29.080 29.080 1 2.534 9.385 38.465 2 1.937 7.173 45.637 3 1.638 6.067 51.704 4 1.543 5.716 57.420 5 1.182 4.378 61.798 6 1.080 4.000 65.798 7 1.028 3.809 69.607 8 0.890 3.295 72.902 9 . . . . . . . . 0.093 0.344 100.000 27 Table 1: Eigenvalues and Total Variance Explained
    7. 7. Factor Extraction: Determine How Many Factors to Retain:(2) SCREE PLOT 9 8 1 7 6 Eigenvalue 5 4 3 2 3 5 2 4 6 8 7 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Factor (or Component) Number Figure 1: Scree Plot
    8. 8. Factor Rotation and Interpretation  After deciding the number of factors to be retained, the next step is to interpret the variables that are loaded in those factors or components .  For this purpose: the factors are ‘rotated’.  Rotation provides a method for interpretation and from here the interpretability of the factors can be improved. There are two ways in doing rotation : (i) orthogonal (varimax) or (ii) oblique (oblimin)  Oblique rotation used in this analysis.  Oblique rotation produces 2 matrices – (i) pattern matrix and (ii) structure matrix.International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
    9. 9. The Related Variables with Their Loadings (Taken from Pattern Matrix)Factor 1 Factor 21. Software developers have responsibility related 1. We have mixed races in our organisation/team to the organisation’s Agile activities=0.816 (Malay, Indian, Chinese and other races) = 0.8452. Software developers are actively involve in 2. In our organisation, we communicate in the setting goals for Agile activities=0.805 English language = 0.8103. In our software development, identifying project 3. In my experience, a mind set change when scope and suitability of project is important using Agile is important as Agile practice is when using Agile methods =0.674 different from other software4. In our organisation we are encouraged to be methodologies=0.434 open and transparent at all levels=0.4975. Our organisational environment is a personal place where people share a lot of themselves=0.564Factor 3 Factor 41. In our software development, customers are 1. I see customers’ satisfaction when using Agile actively involved in setting goals for our Agile methods=0.881 activities=0.680 2. Our software development becomes easier2. In my experience, practitioners with because both parties (customers and professional skills are needed when practicing developers) are working together when using Agile=0.656 Agile=0.8673. In our software development, customers have 3. I see Agile boost developers’ morale=0.585 responsibility related to the organisation’s Agile 4. In sotware development, Agile methods provide activities=0.615 quicker results=0.4954. In my experience, when practicing Agile, customers also have knowledge of the methods=0.556Factor 5 Factor 61. In my experience, training helps the correct 1. In my experience, Agile methods are suitable for practice of Agile methods in our organisation= - certain technologies= -0.943 0.879 2. In my experience, tools are important to support2. In my experience, continuous learning helps the usage of Agile methods= -0.507 knowledge transfer occuring when using Agile 3. Our organisation emphasises on achievement and methods= -0.811 goal accomplishment where aggresiveness and winning are common themes= -0.414 (removed from the factor)Factor 7 Factor 81. Our organisational environment is a personal 1. In my experience, knowing roles and place where people share a lot of themselves = responsibilities is essential when practicing 0.614 Agile methods = 0.6942. In my experience, I think, knowledge about Agile 2. In my experience, attitude (such as team spirit Table 2: The Related Variables and Their Loadings
    10. 10. Meanings for the 8 factors Interpretation and Meaning for the 8 FactorsFactor 1: Factor 2:Developers’ Involvement and Organisational Culture and PeopleOrganisational-related Aspect Related AspectsFactor 3: Factor 4:Customers’ Involvement when Benefits/Impact when using AgilePracticing Agile methods methodsFactor 5: Factor 6:Disagreement over the Importance Lack of Importance of Technicalof Training and Learning when and Technological Aspects whenusing Agile methods in Malaysia. using Agile methods in MalaysiaFactor 7: Factor 8:Importance of Sharing, Knowledge- Team Commitment and Clarity ofrelated Aspects Purpose
    11. 11. Discussion and Conclusion  Factor analysis identified that organisational and software developers’ involvement as the top factor important in using Agile.  The results also shows ‘language’ as one of the important aspects when adopting Agile methods.  In terms of the impact and benefits Agile can deliver, high loadings (more than 0.8) were found in customer satisfaction and the ease of software development as a result of collaboration between developers and customers.  The results from factor analysis, for the factors (or dimension) important for Agile adoption can help software practitioners to consider these aspects when planning to use the methods – following their organisation and people suitability.International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
    12. 12. References  [1] H. F. Kaiser, "An Index of Factorial Simplicity," Psychometrika, vol. 39, pp. 31- 36, 1974.  [2] A. Field, Discovering statistics using SPSS (introducing statistical methods series): Sage, 2009. Thank you! Any questions please email to ala08r@ecs.soton.ac.ukInternational Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru

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