How To Change The World
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How To Change The World

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How To Change The World How To Change The World Presentation Transcript

  • How to Change the World @jurgenappelo© Jurgen Appelo  version 1.20  management30.com
  • storyFor 15 years I failed to leave my mark in this world.Until I started writing...
  • http://agilescout.com/top-agile-blogs-200/
  • #ALE2011 unconference http://ale2011.eu/http://www.flickr.com/photos/mfloryan/sets/72157627519257013/
  • How did I do thatI often get questions like this...
  • How can I...• “Make” the rest of the organization more Agile?
  • How can I...• “Make” the rest of the organization more Agile?• “Motivate” my employees to develop themselves?
  • How can I...• “Make” the rest of the organization more Agile?• “Motivate” my employees to develop themselves?• “Convince” customers they should accept Scrum?
  • How can I...• “Make” the rest of the organization more Agile?• “Motivate” my employees to develop themselves?• “Convince” customers they should accept Scrum?• Etc...
  • How can I be successfulat influencing otherpeople to do what I want
  • It seems we all want to learn...How to change a social complex system
  • A software team is a complex adaptive system (CAS), because itconsists of parts (people) that form a system (team), and thesystem shows complex behavior while it keeps adapting to achanging environment.
  • It’s the same with brains, bacteria, immune systems,the Internet, countries, gardens, cities, and beehives.They’re all complex adaptive systems.
  • The Body of Knowledge of Systems Complex systems theory is the study of complex systems using multiple system theories
  • Management in the SystemManagers are just like the other people,only with a few “special powers”
  • Management in the Environment Or... managers are part of the team’s context, constraining and steering the system
  • System boundaries are fuzzy, so you can choose... System or Environment This depends on the problem you want to solve
  • Management 3.0
  • I am inspired by...
  • And discoveredthe facetsof social change...
  • Consider the system
  • Consider the individuals
  • Consider the interactions
  • Consider the environment
  • The mojito method Make something amazing out of existing ingredients that are good but boringhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/miamism/3956659923/
  • Consider the system
  • The SystemPDCA cycleDeming/Shewharthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDCA
  • • What Is Your Goal?• Where Is It Going Well?
  • Develop a vision,analyze wherethings are goingwell, and copythose behaviors.
  • The vision... pan-European collaborationGoing well... new initiatives born in meetupsTo be copied... getting together face-to-facehttp://ale2011.eu/
  • Goal checklistspecific and understandable relevant and usefulsimple and concise time-bound and time-specificmanageable and measurable tangible and realmemorable and reproducible excitable and ignitingattainable and realistic inspiring and visionaryambitious and stimulating value-based and fundamentalactionable and assignable revisitable and assessableagreed-upon and committable
  • Example 1Actionable As a company, and as individuals, we value integrity, honesty, openness,Ambitious personal excellence, constructive self-Inspiring criticism, continual self-improvement, and mutual respect. We areMeasurable committed to our customers andMemorable partners and have a passion for technology. We take on big challenges,Realistic and pride ourselves on seeing themRelevant through. We hold ourselves accountable to our customers,Simple shareholders, partners, and employeesTangible by honoring our commitments, providing results, and striving for theTime-bound highest quality.
  • Example 2Actionable Our mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universallyAmbitious accessible and useful.InspiringMeasurableMemorableRealisticRelevantSimpleTangibleTime-bound
  • https://picasaweb.google.com/114043888000663006020/ALENetworkWorldCafeAtXP2011Results
  • • What Are the Crucial Steps?• When and Where Do You Start?
  • Define simple steps to follow, and choose the rightmoment/place to start.http://www.flickr.com/photos/cs-jay/4668311333/
  • Simple step... gather at XP2011Right time and place... Madridhttps://picasaweb.google.com/OlafLewitz/ALENetworkWorldCafeAtXP2011Results?feat=directlink#5605477727341141010
  • • How Do You Get Feedback?• How Do You Measure Results?
  • Shorten the feedback cycles,so you learn faster.http://www.flickr.com/photos/mil8/2164167813/
  • The Feedback DoorFeedback... sticky notesMeasure... happiness indexhttp://www.noop.nl/2011/04/the-feedback-door.html
  • 3 Principles for good KPI’s / metrics1. The KPI relates to a stakeholder’s purpose2. The KPI helps improve an aspect of the system3. The KPI is part of the work of those who are interested in it
  • metrics targetsincentives
  • • How Do You Accellerate Results?
  • Try, again and again, until you have it right.(And learn from other people’s failures.)http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/04/15/history-tablet-pc-photos_n_538806.html
  • I’ve noticed that game design also takes many iterations...
  • The SystemA social system is complexand adaptive. Keep poking itwith ideas and see how itresponds and changes.
  • We cant control systems or figure them out. But we can dance with them. - Donella H. Meadows, Thinking in Systemshttp://www.amazon.com/Thinking-Systems-Donella-H-Meadows/dp/1603580557/
  • You want the organization to be more Agile?• What Is Your Goal?• Where Is It Going Well?• What Are the Crucial Steps?• When and Where Do You Start?• How Do You Get Feedback?• How Do You Measure Results?• How Do You Accellerate Results?
  • Consider the individuals
  • The IndividualsADKAR modelHiatthttp://www.change-management.com/
  • • How Will You Communicate?• How Will You Set an Example?
  • Choose ways to communicate...http://www.flickr.com/photos/ajnabee/18211729/
  • And set the right example...
  • • How Do You Make It Urgent?• How Do You Make It Desirable?
  • Address people’s intrinsic desires.http://www.globo.com/
  • “16 Basic Desires”Acceptance The need for approvalPhysical Activity Or exerciseCuriosity The need to thinkPower The need for influence of willEating The need for foodRomance The need for love and sexFamily The need to raise childrenSaving The need to collectHonor Being loyal to a groupSocial Contact The need for friendsIdealism The need for purposeStatus The need for social standingIndependence Being an individualTranquility The need to be safe Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic DesiresOrder Or stable environments That Motivate Our Actions and Define OurVengeance The need to strike back Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002
  • “16 Basic Desires”Acceptance The need for approvalPhysical Activity Or exerciseCuriosity The need to thinkPower The need for influence of willEating The need for foodRomance The need for love and sexFamily The need to raise childrenSaving The need to collectHonor Being loyal to a groupSocial Contact The need for friendsIdealism The need for purposeStatus The need for social standingIndependence Being an individualTranquility The need to be safe Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic DesiresOrder Or stable environments That Motivate Our Actions and Define OurVengeance The need to strike back Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002
  • “16 Basic Desires”Acceptance The need for approvalCuriosity The need to thinkPower The need for influence of willHonor Being loyal to a groupSocial Contact The need for friendsIdealism The need for purposeStatus The need for social standingIndependence Being an individualOrder Or stable environments Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002
  • “Self-Determination Theory”Acceptance The need for approvalCuriosity The need to thinkPower The need for influence of willHonor Being loyal to a groupSocial Contact The need for friendsIdealism The need for purposeStatus The need for social standingIndependence Being an individualOrder Or stable environmentsCompetence The need to feel capableAutonomy The need to choose one’s own actionsRelatedness The need to be socially involved Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan. The Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2004
  • “Self-Determination Theory”Acceptance The need for approvalCuriosity The need to thinkPower The need for influence of willHonor Being loyal to a groupSocial Contact / Relatedness The need for friendsIdealism The need for purposeStatus The need for social standingIndependence / Autonomy Being an individualOrder Or stable environmentsCompetence The need to feel capable Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan. The Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2004
  • 10 Intrinsic DesiresAcceptance The need for approvalCuriosity The need to thinkPower The need for influence of willHonor Being loyal to a groupSocial Contact / Relatedness The need for friendsIdealism The need for purposeStatus The need for social standingIndependence / Autonomy Being an individualOrder Or stable environmentsCompetence The need to feel capable
  • “Drive”Acceptance The need for approvalCuriosity The need to thinkPower The need for influence of willHonor Being loyal to a groupSocial Contact / Relatedness The need for friendsIdealism / Purpose The need for purposeStatus The need for social standingIndependence / Autonomy Being an individualOrder Or stable environmentsCompetence / Mastery The need to feel capable Daniel H. Pink, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. Riverhead, 2009
  • 10 Intrinsic DesiresCuriosity The need to thinkHonor Being loyal to a groupAcceptance The need for approvalMastery / Competence The need to feel capablePower The need for influence of willFreedom / Independence / Autonomy Being an individualRelatedness / Social Contact The need for friendsOrder Or stable environmentsGoal / Idealism / Purpose The need for purposeStatus The need for social standing
  • Curiosity Honor Acceptance Mastery Power Freedom Relatedness Order Goal StatusFind innovative ways to target human needs
  • • What Will You Tell Them?• Who Will Be Teaching?
  • Use experts to help people understand exactly what to do.http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0266697/
  • Gurus, coaches,mentors, trainers...
  • • What Makes It Easy?• How Can They Practice?
  • Make it as easy as possible for people to make a change.
  • Scrum... easy to start with (though not easy to do well)
  • • What Are the Short-Term Wins?• What Makes It Sustainable?
  • Build habits withsmall successes tomake behaviorssustainable.http://www.engadget.com/2008/04/11/nike-going-wifi-and-3g-headed-to-iphone/
  • Reinforcement through play, collaboration, competition...
  • The IndividualsSending rational messages isnot enough. Treat people asemotional beings who canuse a little help on the way.
  • Discover a few vital behaviors, change those, and problems—no matter their size—topple like a house of cards. - Kerry Patterson, Influencerhttp://www.amazon.com/Influencer-Change-Anything-Kerry-Patterson/dp/007148499X/
  • You want developers to educate themselves?• How Will You Communicate?• How Will You Set an Example?• How Do You Make It Urgent?• How Do You Make It Desirable?• What Will You Tell Them?• Who Will Be Teaching?• What Makes It Easy?• How Can They Practice?• What Are the Short-Term Wins?• What Makes It Sustainable?
  • Consider the interactions
  • The InteractionsAdoption Curve modelRogershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusion_of_innovations
  • • Are You Committed?• Who Is Assisting You?
  • Make sure you are not on your own.Ask other people for help.http://www.whitehouse.gov/photos-and-video/photogallery/august-2011-photo-day
  • Some of my heroes...http://twitter.com/#!/olaflewitzhttp://twitter.com/#!/duarte_vascohttp://twitter.com/#!/alexbolyhttp://twitter.com/#!/jacoporomei
  • • Who Will Be the Innovators?
  • Find the innovators who want tobe the first to try new things.http://www.iphone-ipod.org/
  • Some “innovators” interested in the Management 3.0 book...
  • • Who Are the Early Adopters?• How Will the Leaders Help?
  • Find influential people...
  • And let them convince early adopters...
  • • How Do You Reach the Early Majority?• How Will You Cross the Chasm?
  • Adapt your approach so that you are able to cross the “chasm” between early adopters and early majority.http://www.flickr.com/photos/runkalicious/5067038840/
  • From “Agile Management” to “concrete practices for managers”
  • • How Will You Deal with Skeptics?
  • Listen to the skeptics and understand what is holding them back.
  • “It will never work...” -> I must broadcast our successes.“There’s a hidden agenda...” -> I will be ridiculously transparent.“You are xenopohobic...” -> I must be careful of my language.
  • • How Do You Prevent a Relapse?• How Do You Deal with Resistance?
  • Don’t stop too soon! Keep monitoring things and don’tgive the laggards a chance to undo all your work.
  • “It seems Agile has succeeded. Let’s get out of here!”Ehm no, maybe stay around for a while...
  • The InteractionsBehaviors are transmittedfrom person to person in asocial network. Treat them asbeneficial viruses.
  • What distinguishes high performers are large and diversified personal networks. - Rob Cross, The Hidden Power of Social Networkshttp://www.amazon.com/Hidden-Power-Social-Networks-Understanding/dp/1591392705/
  • You want people to use your services?• Are You Committed?• Who Is Assisting You?• Who Will Be the Innovators?• Who Are the Early Adopters?• How Will the Leaders Help?• How Do You Reach the Early Majority?• How Will You Cross the Chasm?• How Will You Deal with Skeptics?• How Do You Prevent a Relapse?• How Do You Deal with Resistance?
  • Consider the environment
  • The EnvironmentFive I’shttp://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327225.700-triumph-of-the-commons-helping-the-world-to-share.html
  • • How Do You Make Things Visible?• How Do You Ease Communication?
  • Keep goals visible andmake people aware oftheir actual behavior.http://traversealive.com/
  • Use information radiatorsto stimulate progress.
  • • What Is the Group Identity?• How Can You Apply Peer Pressure?
  • Appeal to a higher identity that peoplewant to associate themselves with.http://www.wldcup.com/news/2008/06/20080620_49206_soccer_news.html
  • http://www.animalwallpaper.org/brown-bears-wallpaper-1-bear.html/brown_bears-1-2
  • A common tactic: them versus us
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/mfloryan/6135910482/
  • • Can You Incentivize Good Behavior?
  • Incentivize good behavior with small rewards.http://dolphinswimming.dolphindiscovery.com/index.php/tag/abc-animal-training/
  • A word of appreciation often works quite well...http://yfrog.com/z/gzy12hsj
  • • Which Barriers Will You Remove?• Which Guides Will You Place?
  • Remove obstacles and add guidanceto make things easier.http://www.azdot.gov/ccpartnerships/roundabouts/history.asp
  • Make required steps assimple as possible.
  • • Who Can Make the Rules?
  • Define and enforce rules of good conduct...http://www.flickr.com/photos/wordridden/53998367/
  • Through independent institutes, or communities of practice...
  • The EnvironmentBehavior is a function of aperson and his or herenvironment. Instead ofchanging a person, changethe environment.
  • Culture changes only after you have successfully altered peoples actions, after the new behavior produces some group benefit for a period of time. - John P. Kotter, Leading Changehttp://www.amazon.com/Leading-Change-John-P-Kotter/dp/0875847471/
  • You want your friends to go to a conference?• How Do You Make Things Visible?• How Do You Ease Communication?• What Is the Group Identity?• How Can You Apply Peer Pressure?• Can You Incentivize Good Behavior?• Which Barriers Will You Remove?• Which Guides Will You Place?• Who Can Make the Rules?
  • Change Management 3.0
  • Other models... Switch1) Direct the Rider Follow the Bright Spots Clone what is working well Script the Critical Moves Clearly define specific behaviors Point to the Destination Explain why it’s worth it2) Motivate the Elephant Find the Feeling Make people feel something Shrink the Change Make small steps easier Grow Your People Cultivate a sense of identity3) Shape the Path Tweak the Environment Change people’s situation Build Habits Encourage people’s habits Rally the Herd Develop contagious behavior
  • Other models... Switch 35%
  • Other models... Influencer Motivation AbilityPersonal Make the Undesirable Surpass Your Limits DesirableSocial Harness Peer Pressure Find Strength in Numbers Design Rewards andStructural Demand Accountability Change the Environment
  • Other models... Influencer 55%
  • Other models... Leading Change1. Establish a Sense of Urgency2. Create the Guiding Coalition3. Develop a Vision and Strategy4. Communicate the Change Vision5. Empower Employees for Broad-Based Action6. Generate Short-Term Wins7. Consolidate Gains and Produce More Change8. Anchor New Approaches in the Culture
  • Other models... Leading Change 65%
  • Other models... Fearless ChangeEarly LaterAsk for Help Corporate AngelConnector Dedicated ChampionDo Food Hometown StoryEarly Adopter Just EnoughGuru on Your Side Local SponsorIn Your Space MentorPiggyback Royal AudienceStay in Touch Smell of Successetc… etc…
  • Other models... Fearless Change 80%
  • Change Management 3.0
  • http://www.management30.com/change-management/
  • Thank You
  • slideshare.net/jurgenappelo@jurgenappelo (twitter)noop.nl (blog)jurgenappelo.com (site)management30.com (book)