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International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic
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International Workshop on Higher Education - University of Vic

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  • 1. INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERACTIVEDOCUMENTARYDr. Arnau Gifreu CastellsUniversity of Vic, Catalonia, Spain26 - 30 November 2012
  • 2. Presentation steps- Presenting a first state of affairs on the lines of convergencebetween the two areas- Discussing a proposed definition and characterization of anew interactive genre- Working on a possible analysis model about interactivedocumentaryINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 3. Objectives- The main objective of this study is to analyze the state ofdevelopment of interactive documentary and discuss/debate thedesirability of adopting a new model of gender analysis.- The aim of this research is to describe, classify and analyzeinteractive online documentary applications.INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 4. FICTION NON-FICTIONFICTION GENRES NON-FICTION GENRESFull-length film DocumentaryShort film Report... ...INTERACTIVE FICTION INTERACTIVE NON-FICTIONVideo gameNarrativeORIGINAL FRAMEWORK FORTHE STUDY OF THE NEW GENRECALLED “INTERACTIVEDOCUMENTARY”Settingthe fieldINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 5. THE INTERACTIVE DOCUMENTARY. A PROPOSED MODEL OF ANALYSISTraditional Documentary + New Digital Technology=Interactive DocumentaryINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 6. THE INTERACTIVE DOCUMENTARY. A PROPOSED MODEL OF ANALYSISTraditional Documentary + New Digital Technology=Interactive DocumentaryINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 7. Documentary Genre + Digital Media + Net=Interactive DocumentaryINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 8. THE INTERACTIVE DOCUMENTARY. A PROPOSED MODEL OF ANALYSISINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012THEORETICAL WORKSBYAUTHORS:READING+ANALYSISBill NicholsErik BarnouwRichard BarsamMichael RenovElisenda ArdèvolMichael RabigerJan BreschandJosetxo CerdànAlan RosenthalPaul RothaMagdalena SellèsAlejandro CockEtc.AUDIOVISUAL WORKS(Documentaries)VIEWING+ ANALYSISLa sortie des ouvriers des usines (1895) - Germans LumièreNanook (1922) - Robert FlahertyCelovek kinoapparatom (1929) - Dziga VertovBerlin, die Synphonie eines Grosstadt (1927) - Walter RuttmanÀ propos de Nice (1930) - Jean VigoRegen (1929) - Joris IvensDrifters (1929) - John GriersonListen to Britain (1942) - Humphrey JenningsWhy We Fight (1943) - Frank CapraDu und mancher Kamerad (1955) - Andrew and Annelie ThorndikeDet Stora Äventyret (1953) - Arne SucksdorfGlas (1958) - Bert HaanstraChronique d’un été (1961) - Jean RouchSee it now (1951) - Edward MurrowHigh School (1968) - Fred WisemanPrimary (1960) - Richard LeacockLa Jetée (1962) - Chris MarkerHealth Care: Your Money or your Life (1977) - John AlpertThe Thin Blue Line (1988) - Errol MorrisHuman Reminds (1998) - Jay RosemblattRoger & Me (1989) - Michael MooreMethodology
  • 9. THE INTERACTIVE DOCUMENTARY. A PROPOSED MODEL OF ANALYSISINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012THEORETICAL WORKS BYAUTHORS:READING+ANALYSISLev ManovichJanet MurrayGeorge LandowRaymond KurzweilTed NelsonXavier BerenguerIgnasi RibasLluís CodinaHugo PardoCarlos ScolariManuel CastellsEtc.INTERACTIVE WORKSANALYSISOFFLINEAu cirque avec Seurat (1996)Dotze sentits (1996)Joan Miró. El color dels somnis (1998)Le Louvre. El palacio y sus pinturas (1994)Le mystère Magritte (1996)Makers of the 20th Century (1996)Moi, Paul Cézanne (1995)Musée d’Orsay. Visite virtuelle (1996)Operation Teddy Bear (1996)Online (interactive multimedia applications)Andaman Rising (2008)Canto do Brasil (2006)Génération Tian’Anmen (2009)Our first loves (2009)Remembering Bogle Chandler (2008)Theban Mapping Project (1997)Etc.Methodology
  • 10. THE INTERACTIVE DOCUMENTARY. A PROPOSED MODEL OF ANALYSISINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012THEORETICALWORKS BYAUTHORS:READING+ANALYSISTimothy GarrandGlorianna DavenportMike MurtaughSandra GaudenziMitchell WhitelawNick MontfortChris CrawfordEspen J. AarsethConnor BritainEtc.PERSONALCONTRIBUTIONTO RESEARCHDefinition of the genreCharacteristics according to Nichols triple definition (filmmaker/author, text/narrative and viewer/interactor)Description and list of the modes of non-linear navigation and digital modes of interactionCombination of the various modes describedProposed classification / categorization of the genreConsideration, rationale and development of an analytical modelWEB SEARCH+ ANALYSISEXAMPLES OF IMD(interactivemultimediadocumentary)OnlineBCNova (2003)Becoming Human (2008)Capturing Reality: the Art of Documentary (2008)360degrees (2001)Gaza Sderot (2008)GDP: Spacing Montreal (2009)Guernika, pintura de guerra (2007)Hope: Living and Loving with HIV in Jamaica (2006)Journey to the end of the coal (2008)The big issue (2009)The Iron Curtain Diaries (2009)Jazz Loft Project (2010)When we left earth (2010)Etc.OfflineWritten documentsMethodology
  • 11. Research Hypothesis1There is a representative sample of significant examples of interactivedocumentary to develop a differentiated framework, systematic andcoherent, that has some attributes justified through the analysis model wedeveloped.2In this new form of documentary, the nature of the three main roles of theconventional documentary is affected: the author may not be hoped to create asingle narrative program, closed and subjective, and must assume thatsomehowthey would lose control of their work . Moreover, the construction ofthe narrative and the discursive order move from a linear, sequential scheme toa new stage characterized by diffrents ways of development approaches, nodesand endpoints. Finally, the interactor is configured as a transmitter and acontributor of content created by the author, and that the genre tends to givethe user a generating capacity.INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 12. 3The online interactive documentary created new logical representation ofreality. The emphasis of these new logics lies in the way and therelationship established between text and interactor when browsing andinteracting, rather than how the author develops a speech given in reality toa passive spectator. The new discourse is constructed through the methodsof navigation and interaction recorded in the documentary rather than fromthe modes of representation.4Gender study incorporates new strategies and formulas for immersive,interactive documentary products and general non-fiction can be asattractive as the products of fiction. That is, there is a set of input andinteractive communication innovations that the interactive documentaryand nonfiction offers in order to equate to the powerful attraction tonarrative forms of fiction.INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 13. 5Interactive documentaries tend to be equated with open and generoussystems by the interactor, the structure and organization of which at anygiven time, are no longer controlled by either the author or the recipient.This arrangement means that the user-interactor-participating contributorcan generate content and, therefore, to acquire the role of issuer and havethe ability to enrich the documentary with his own personal vision andcontent. This radically changes the concept of ownership of traditionalaudiovisual documentary.6The digital media allows a type of interactive discourse, and its two maincharacteristics are interactivity and multimodality. These two basic aspectscontribute decisively to the time to enrich the interactive multimediadocumentary and general nonfiction. Thus, the genre of documentarybegins to equate to powerful forms of fiction and short film, feature film orvideo game.INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 14. Definition- Interactive movies and/or applications, carried out with theintention of representing reality with their ownmechanisms, which we will call navigation and interactionmodalities, depending on the grade of participation that isrequired.- The interactive documentaries try to document, represent andinteract with the reality, for which a series of techniques ormethods must be considered and used (navigation andinteraction modalities), which become, in this new way ofcommunication, the key element to achieve the documentaryobjectivesINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 15. Interactive documentary genreComplex and dynamic fieldMultiple proposal (3)THEMATIC – SUPPORT – USER EXPERIENCEComplementary[Coherent overview of the exactly place where to locateeach application]INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012Taxonomy
  • 16. Initial Sample:200 – 250 examples analysedVisibility/DifusionINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012Taxonomy
  • 17. Theoretical basis:Based on triple definition offered by Bill nichols (1991)author-text-receptorTHEMATIC = AUTHOR/TEXTSUPPORT/PLATFORM = AUTHOR/TEXTUSER EXPERIENCE = RECEPTOR (AUDIENCE)INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012Taxonomy
  • 18. - In relation to the documentary subject, we see that there are fourcategories that predominate over the others. These are ecology andenvironment, war and conflict, urban cultures and personal stories.- In relation to the support or platform that houses the interface, webbrowsers are by far the most used on the proposed classification. Byextension, the subgenre of web documentaries would be the predominateclass.- From the standpoint of the user experience, the mosaic and the navigabletimeline are more used than other possibilities.- We could say that interactive documentaries that are specific forweb with a timeline (explicit or implicit) or mosaic structure thatfocuses on the ecological and environmental themes, several conflictsand war, life in large cities or personal stories are the most commonprojects.INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 19. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS:- We cannot consider the interactive documentary as a mere evolution ofdocumentary films.- The forms of representation cannot be considered sufficient indicators toanalyze the new genus, but new resulting forms of navigation and interaction.- The intrinsic nature of the conventional documentary suffers significantchanges since the advent of this new documentary form, derived from actualnew technological scenario:- The author cannot be expected to create a single narrative program, closedand subjective, and must assume that somehow they will lose control of theirwork due to the new situation often goes against their interests.INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 20. CONCLUSIONS:- The construction of the narrative and the discursive order moves from alinear, sequential scheme to a new stage characterized by differentapproaches, nodes and endpoints. The text of the work turns from havinga close structure to an open one.- The interactor is configured as a contributor of content created by theauthor: the new gender and new methods of navigation and interactioninclude generic features resulting from the user. The classic spectator(now interactor, participant and contributor), becomes the creator of apersonal documentary themselves because it directs the navigation control(the order of speech) and uses the great power that enables interaction(the defining characteristic that distinguishes digital media, thanks to itsinterface and the possibility of relationship with others).INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 21. - One of the essential premises of the traditional documentary is the desireto organise a story that is both informative and entertaining. And, inthis sense, the interactive format should continue with the tradition oftrying to offer similar experiences that mix a recreational(entertainment) proposal with an educational one (knowledge), in themost efficient, original and attractive possible way.- And this is mainly possible thanks to the combination of differentnavigational and interactive modalities, which enables a multipleexchange between the work and the interactor.- Firstly, navigating and visiting different proposals and structuring thecontents (information and knowledge) means the use of strategies andresources of the games. This way, from the structure of theinteractive, and through the navigation modalities, the user, in a certainway, “plays” with the possibilities offered by the work and can satisfytheir first necessity: the one related to amusement and entertainment.INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 22. - Secondly, this strategy closer to the game experience usually gives theuser a sensation of deep immersion and stops their learning frombeing boring and that their need of being informed or need of learningends up fading. Therefore, the didactic proposal offered is attractive anddynamic, beyond that present in most classical hypertexts.- Already at this stage, the interactor “learns through playing” and oncethey have “learnt the lesson” in a fun, original and lightheartedway, they can share it with other interactors, in real time or wheneverthey deems it appropriate.- Therefore, we see how an interactive documentary can satisfy threeneeds or desires: the player’s one –recreational–, the one of thestudent or anyone with cultural interests –educational or formative–and the relational –communication level with other participants–. Webelieve that, through the correct mixing of these three aspects, non-fictional multimedia applications can be equated in attractivenesswith proposals close to fiction.INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON HIGHER EDUCATION 2012
  • 23. Contact:Arnau Gifreu CastellsFEC – Universitat de VicUniversitat Pompeu FabraContact: agifreu@gmail.comPersonal website: www.agifreu.comProjects network: www.arnaugifreu.netIdocs Community: i-docs.orgUvic_Lab: lab.uvic.catTHANKS!

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