Motivation Theories


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  • Being employed is much more commonplace today than it was in prior generations, for example, with the majority of teenagers working and many two-income families and single parents working. All of us have different reasons why we work and what motivates us to do a good job at work. This lesson focuses on what makes us tick as far as work goes, which leads to the type of job or career we have as well as our goals in that job.
  • Managing differs from leading in many ways. However, when it comes to the type of power a manager can possess towards employees, this refers more to “leading”. For example, some employees do their jobs simply because their boss has told them to do certain things. Some employees do their jobs well because they might have to work overtime if they don’t or they can get a raise if they do. Other workers respect and trust their manager’s knowledge about their work so they want to do well. And still others want to be recognized by the boss and be accepted by them.
  • Many motivation theories have been established and identified through the decades that may be more related to how a company’s management philosophies can motivate employees as opposed to how one individual manager can influence an employee.
  • Herzberg believed two factors explained motivation. Hygiene factors were situations such as fringe benefits or positive working conditions which, if absent, would result in employees being dissatisfied with their jobs. On the other hand, there were Motivators such as challenging work and a feeling of accomplishment which, if present, resulted in higher job satisfaction.
  • Maslow believed that there was a progression of motivation through a hierarchy of needs being met. For example, once your physiological needs of food and shelter are met, you progress through the next step of security needs, and so on. As each need is met you are motivated to seek the next level of need which in turn increases your motivation.
  • Certain motivation theories have been geared toward improving productivity and efficiency at work which, of course, increases revenues; however, Mayo believed in the importance of employees being respected by management and being able to work together in teams with other employees which, in turn, increases their motivation.
  • McClelland believed that employees are motivated by three basic needs. The need for achievement meant that employees would set their own personal goals. They also had a need for affiliation which meant that they were concerned about interpersonal relationships. And finally, people have a power need which refers to the desire to influence and guide other people, in other words, taking on more responsibility in their jobs.
  • McGregor identified two very distinct ways of motivating employees. If a manager assumes employees dislike working, they are motivated by threats and controlling behavior. If, however, employees believe that work is a natural part of life, they can be motivated by meeting goals and achieving higher levels of responsibility on their jobs.
  • Taylor believed that money is a prime motivator for working. This not only includes salary or piece-rate pay, but also alternatives such as vacation days and other non-monetary rewards.
  • Vroom believed that employees have their own expectations of their job performance. If they work harder, their work quality will be better, therefore they should be entitled to a higher reward at their job, whether it be a bonus or recognition of their efforts. The reward can be perceived differently by different employees.
  • Motivation Theories

    1. 1. What Makes Employees TickMotivational Strategies Business Management 1
    2. 2. What is Motivation? • It is what makes us do things, or more formally, a set of factors that influence an individual‟s actions toward accomplishing a goal. • internal factors – a person‟s beliefs, feelings, and attitudes, also known as intrinsic • external factors – rewards and punishments, also known as extrinsic 2
    3. 3. Influence and Power Position Power Reward Power the ability to control rewards and punishments Expert Power power because of a manager‟s superior knowledge about the work Identity Power 3 the position the manager holds in the company power given because people identify with and want to be accepted by them
    4. 4. Motivation Theories • • Maslow, Abraham – “hierarchy of needs” • Mayo, Elton – “human relations movement” • McClelland, David – “achievement theory” • McGregor, Douglas – “Theory X and Theory Y” • Taylor, Frederick – “monetary rewards” • 4 Herzberg, Frederick – “two-factors” Vroom, Victor – “Expectancy Theory”
    5. 5. Herzberg‟s Two Factors Hygiene factors Can result in dissatisfied employees if absent– fringe benefits, working conditions 5 Motivators Can result in higher job satisfaction if present – challenging work, accomplishment
    6. 6. Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs Selfactualization Esteem Social Security Physiological 6
    7. 7. Mayo and Human Relations • Mayo believe that when managers communicated with and showed an interest in employees, they are motivated to do their best work. • Mayo also thought that employees work well when they interact with each other and work in teams to accomplish goals. • Employee input was also valued. 7
    8. 8. McClelland‟s Achievement/Need Theory Achievement Need – set personal goals 8 Affiliation Need – concerned about relationships Power Need – influence and control others
    9. 9. McGregor‟s Theory X and Theory Y • Theory X Assumptions: – that people dislike work, – that people need control, – that motivation occurs through threats about job security • Theory Y Assumptions: – that working is natural, – that work effort is related to employees wanting to meet objectives and goals, – that managers have faith in subordinates as people 9
    10. 10. Taylor‟s Scientific Management • Monetary Rewards – Pay as a prime motivator – Monetary alternatives • i.e., buying or selling vacation days – Applies more to assembly line work – piece rate pay – Development of employees not emphasized 10
    11. 11. Vroom‟s Expectancy Theory • Based on three components: – Expectancy – more work effort will result in better performance – Instrumentality – the higher the performance the higher the outcome or reward – Valence – the „value‟ perceived in the type of reward 11
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