MELISSA: Investigations in the incidence of bee losses in corn and oilseed rape growing areas of Austria and possible correlations with bee diseases and the use of insecticidal plant protection products
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MELISSA: Investigations in the incidence of bee losses in corn and oilseed rape growing areas of Austria and possible correlations with bee diseases and the use of insecticidal plant protection products

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MELISSA - Report ...

MELISSA - Report

http://www.dafne.at/dafne_plus_homepage/index.php?section=dafneplus&content=result&come_from=&&search_fields[offer_number]=100472&search_fields[title_ger]=&search_fields[research_objective]=&search_fields[beauftragungsjahr]=&search_fields[antragsteller]=&search_fields[projektleiter]=&project_id=2909

Summary

The number of reports about honey bee colony losses or damages from many countries has increased over the last years. The potential causes are numerous and could differ case by case. According to the current knowledge, a single factor is rarely responsible. In fact, in many cases more likely a combination of etiological factors is involved, e.g. colony management and good apicultural practice, environmental and anthropogenic elements as well as honey bee pests and parasites.
In spring 2008 severe honey bee losses occurred in Germany (Rhine valley), in Italy and Slovenia during and after sowing of clothianidin coated maize seed with pneumatic seed drills. Further investigations in Germany proved the causal connection between the use of this seed dressing insecticide and the reported damages in honey bee colonies.

In order to assess the possible relevance of this problem to Austria, the project “Investigations in the incidence of bee losses in corn and oilseed rape growing areas of Austria and possible correlations with bee diseases and the use of insecticidal plant protection products” (acronym: “MELISSA”) was carried out in the years 2009 – 2011 on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management and the Austrian federal provinces. The aim of the project was to identify possible correlations between the incidence of honey bee losses in production areas of maize and oilseed rape and bee diseases or the use of plant protection products on the basis of field data.

Summing up, the results of the MELISSA-project give evidence that in Austria regional clustered bee damages had occurred in the years 2009 – 2011, which were frequently associated with the use of maize and oilseed pumpkin seeds coated with insecticides, as proved by residue analysis. The strong local component and the accumulation in areas with small-scale structured agriculture indicated special environmental conditions resulting in an increased exposition of honey bees to the identified insecticidal plant protection substances in the affected areas.

Regulatory measures to prevent honey bee losses due to the exposure of bees to insecticidal seed dressing substances have significantly improved the situation. However, repeatedly observed incidences of honey bee mortality in defined regions suggest their systematic correlation with local factors contributing to increased exposure of bees. In addition to considering environmental factors, all measures to mitigate risks have to be implemented invariably and with discipline.

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MELISSA: Investigations in the incidence of bee losses in corn and oilseed rape growing areas of Austria and possible correlations with bee diseases and the use of insecticidal plant protection products Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Investigations on the incidence of bee losses in corn and oilseed rape growing areas of Austria and possible correlations with bee diseases and the use of insecticidal plant protection products (Acronym: MELISSA) Order for project: Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, the Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) Funding: BMLFUW, Federal provinces of Austria, AGES, Consortium of seed and plant protection companies Duration: 1.3.2009 – 31.1.2012 Details and full report: www.dafne.at Project Nr. 100472Project manager: DI Leopold GirschInvolved AGES-Divisions and Departments:Division for Food Security: Inst. for Seed and Propagating Material, Phytosanitary Service and Apiculture; Inst. for Sustainable Plant Production; Inst. for Plant Protection Products;Division for Food Safety;Department Data, Statistics & Risk Assessmentwww.ages.at Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES)
  • 2. MELISSAObjectives• documentation of incidences of honey bee losses in production areas of maize and oilseed rape• analysis of possible causes (honey bee pathogens and parasites, plant protection products)• evaluation of results with respect to measures taken to prevent honey bee losses• development of decision guidances for authorities, beekeepers and farmers for the implementation of measures to prevent honey bee losses by pathogens, parasites and plant protection products Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation:www.ages.at 2 Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPP Legislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012
  • 3. Studies conducted• diagnosis for pathogens and parasites in honey bees Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., 7 honey bee viruses• analysis for residues - insecticidal seed coating products - other active substances of plant protection products sampled matrices: bees, beebread, extracted honey plants seed Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: www.ages.at 3 Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPP Legislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012
  • 4. Symptoms in honey bees andbee colonies - increased numbers of dead bees inside and outside the hives - flightless bees with symptoms of trembling, cramping, disorientation, paralysis, abnormal wing movements, hyperexcitation, disordered locomotory activity o at time of maize sowing (simultaneously or from next day onwards) o ca. 10 – 14 days after beginning of maize sowing - flightless crawling bees or groups of bees on the soil or in the grass in front of beehives o from the beginning of maize sowing o in many cases also considerably later in the season (May until beginning of June) - intensity and duration of symptoms o one to several days – in some cases considerably longer o in some particular cases massive damages occured when bees showed a multiple contamination by insecticidal seed coating substances and other insecticides Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: www.ages.at 4 Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPP Legislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012
  • 5. Observed symptoms in the apiaries(1) • increased bee mortality Residue analysis in bees: Residue analysis in bees: *Clothianidin 0.0021 mg/kg; *Clothianidin 0,0033 mg/kg; *Thiamethoxam 0,0088 mg/kg *Imidacloprid 0,0273 mg/kg *LOD = 0,0002 mg/kg; *LOQ = 0,001 mg/kgRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 5
  • 6. Observed symptoms in the apiaries(2)• flightless crawling bees from the beginning of maize sowing and in many cases also considerably later in the season Residue analysis:Residue analysis: bees: negative;bees: negative bee bread positive: *Imidacloprid < LOQ **Thiacloprid < LOQ *LOD = 0,0002 mg/kg; *LOQ = 0,001 mg/kg; ** LOQ: 0,01 mg/kgRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 6
  • 7. Observed symptoms in the apiaries(3)• large quantities of dead bees in cases of multiple contamination by insecticidal seed coating substances and other insecticidesInsecticides detected in dead bees by residue analysis: *Clothianidin, *Fipronil,*Fipronil-sulfone, **Chlorpyrifos *LOD = 0,0002 mg/kg; *LOQ = 0,001 mg/kg; ** LOQ: 0,01 mg/kgRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 7
  • 8. Bee yards with suspected bee poisonig –results of residue analysis year 2009 Insecticidal seed coating materials: Clothianidin, Thiamethoxam, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Fipronil-sulfone < LOQ ≥ LOQ negativeRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 8
  • 9. Bee yards with suspected bee poisonig –results of residue analysis year 2010 Insecticidal seed coating materials: Clothianidin, Thiamethoxam, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Fipronil-sulfone < LOQ ≥ LOQ negativeRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 9
  • 10. Bee yards with suspected bee poisonig –results of residue analysis year 2011 Insecticidal seed coating materials: Clothianidin, Thiamethoxam, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Fipronil-sulfone < LOQ ≥ LOQ negativeRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 10
  • 11. Results of residue analysis for„other plant protection substances“ Bees and Beebread – Several different active substances were detected – insecticides – herbicides – fungicides – unapproved substances according to VO (EG) Nr. 1107/2009 were detected in single cases (e.g. phosalone, chlorfenvinphos,paraoxon-methyl, diphenylamin)Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 11
  • 12. Colony losses during hibernationperiod 2009/2010 (1) 4 beekeepers supposed losses to be connected with the uptake of potentially contaminated pollen during late summer and autumn of the previous year a) Diagnostic results for pathogens and parasites In beekeeping operations 1 – 3 Varroosis could be identified as the most likely cause for colony losses (Varroa-infestation rate bee samples: 17-39 %; brood samples: 24-56 %) In beekeeping operation 4 severe failures to comply with good apicultural practice were revealed (establishment of very weak mating nucs late in the year, no protective measures against shrews, dysentery and N. ceranae as cofactors), therefore no residue analysis was performedRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 12
  • 13. Colony losses during hibernationperiod 2009/2010 (2) b) Residue analysis • No residues from insecticidal seed coating materials or other active substances of plant protection products were detected in – bee bread samples (pooled by apiaries) from 3 beekeeping operations – dead bees (pooled sample) from one beekeeping operation • Conclusion: In these 4 cases there are no indications for a contamination of hive products by the investigated analytesRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 13
  • 14. Colony losses during hibernationperiod 2010/20116 beekeepers supposed losses to be connected with the uptake of potentiallycontaminated pollen during late summer and autumn of the previous yeara) Residue analysis of bee bread from dead or very weak colonies • Case 1: Clothianidin < LOQ • Case 2: Imidacloprid < LOQ • Cases 3 - 5: negative • Case 6: no residue analysis was performed (severe case of varroosis: 24 % infestation rate in remaining brood cells)b) Diagnostic results for pathogens and parasites In cases 3 - 6 pests and parasites were most likely the causes for colony winter losses.Conclusions: an exposure to insecticide seed coating material was confirmed for 2cases of winter losses. Because Imidacloprid is used both as a seed coating and aspray treatment the source for this contaminant remained unclear.Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 14
  • 15. Suspected bee poisoning incidentsduring bloom of maize or later inthe year 2011Reports from 5 beekeeping operations (5 bee yards)Reasons suspected by beekeepers: • case 1: “spray applikations in seed maize or grape-vine“; residue analysis bees: Imidacloprid 0,0016 mg/kg • case 2: “plant protection activity“: residue analysis bees: Imidacloprid < LOQ (LOQ = 0,001 mg/kg) • cases 3, 4: “contaminated pollen from maize, oilseed-pumpkin, grape-vine“; residue analysis negative • case 5: “unidentified plant protection activity“; residue analysis not possible due to insufficient sample sizeRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 15
  • 16. Clothianidin – three-years-comparison ofresidue results for samples of bees and bee bread MELISSA-Vergiftungsverdacht LOD Rückstandsanalysen auf Clothianidin = 0,0002 mg/kg; LOQ = 0,001 mg/kg Matrix: Bienen und Bienenbrot Legend: CLO >= BG CLO < BG CLO n.n. BG = LOQ 100% 0 0 n.n. = not detected 90% 7 15 2 15 80% 2 11 7 9 70% 19 28 60% 9 18 42 29 50% 1 3 1 2 0 1 1 40% 2 30% 24 42 7 3 27 2 20% 2 7 Bees + Bee bread: 10% 0 4 5 9 1 significant decline 2 2 0% 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 in percentage of 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 positive samples B K NOE OOE ST T W V from 2009 - 2011Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 16
  • 17. Thiamethoxam – three-years-comparison ofresidue results for samples of bees and beebread MELISSA-Vergiftungsverdacht LODRückstandsanalysen auf Thiamethoxam = 0,0002 mg/kg; LOQ = 0,001 mg/kg Matrix: Bienen und Bienenbrot Legend: THI >= BG THI < BG THI n.n. BG = LOQ 100% 0 n.n. = not detected 90% 80% 70% 44 60% 16 30 5 25 44 36 50% 1 20 3 1 48 31 4 1 1 40% 30% 12 20% 0 2 2 Bees + Bee bread: 10% 7 2 1 3 0 2 3 1 10 5 significant decline in 0% 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 percentage of positive 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 samples from 2009 - B K NOE OOE ST T W V 2011Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 17
  • 18. Fipronil + Fipronil-sulfone – three-years-comparison of residue results for samples ofbees and bee bread MELISSA-Vergiftungsverdacht MELISSA-Vergiftungsverdacht Fipronil Rückstandsanalysen auf Fipronil Matrix: Bienen und Bienenbrot Rückstandsanalysen auf Fipronil-sulfon Fipronil-sulfone Matrix: Bienen und Bienenbrot FIP >= BG FIP < BG FIP n.n. FIP-S >= BG FIP-S < BG FIP-S n.n.100% 100% 90% 90% 80% 80% 70% 70% 60% 3 60% 3 28 59 28 62 50 50% 1 20 3 1 6 49 20 38 32 36 50 1 1 50% 1 20 3 1 6 49 20 39 32 37 1 1 40% 40% 30% 30% 0 0 20% 20% 1 1 10% 10% 0 4 0 2 1 1 3 0 2 2 0% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 0% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 B K NOE OOE ST T W V B K NOE OOE ST T W V LOD = 0,0002 mg/kg; LOQ = 0,001 mg/kg Bees: significant decline in percentage of positive samplesLegend: BG = LOQ; n.n. = not detectedRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 18
  • 19. Imidacloprid – three-years-comparison ofresidue results for samples of bees and beebread MELISSA-Vergiftungsverdacht LOD = 0,0002 mg/kg; LOQImidacloprid Rückstandsanalysen auf = 0,001 mg/kg Matrix: Bienen und Bienenbrot IMI >= BG IMI < BG IMI n.n. Legend: 100% 0 BG = LOQ n.n. = not detected 90% 80% 1 70% 14 60% 25 33 46 19 63 48 50% 1 3 1 6 30 40 4 1 1 40% 30% 1 20% 3 3 Bees + Bee bread: 10% 3 4 5 significant increase 2 1 1 1 0% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 in percentage of 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 positive samples B K NOE OOE ST T W V from 2009 - 2011Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 19
  • 20. Exposure of bee yards (%) to insecticidal seed coatingmaterials1 in the years 2009 – 2011 according to results ofresidue analysis in bees or bee bread Anteil der Bienenstände mit bzw. ohne Rückstandsnachweis für insektizide Saatgutbeizmittel in 1 Clothianidin, Thiamethoxam, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Bienen oder Bienenbrot Fipronil-sulfone: LOD = 0,0002 untersucht, bzw. 7 Proben nur aufmg/kg * 2011 wurden keine Monitoringstände mg/kg; LOQ = 0,001 "sonstige Pflanzenschutzmittel" untersucht 100% 7 2 90% 5 27 80% 8 70% 66 Bienenstände 13 n.u.** Legend: Bee yards 11 60% neg. BG = LOQ 50% 7 neg = negative < BG 40% 20 28 n.u. = not analysed 30% 55 ≥ BG 2 20% 43 7 *7 samples just analysed for 10% 4 „other active substances of 0% plant protection products; 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011* ** in 2011, no monitoring Suspected poisoning Vergiftungsverdacht Monitoring Monitoring beeyards were investigated;Significant downtrend of exposed bee yards during years of study.Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 20
  • 21. Residue analysis of extracted honeyIn 2009 9 samples and in 2010 62 samples were analysed for Clothianidin, Thiamethoxam,Imidacloprid: all negative (LOD = 0,0006 mg/kg; LOQ = 0,002 mg/kg)2011: 13 samples analysed: all were in compliance with the MRL-regulations and fully marketable according to the Austrian legislative framework. Analytes n.d. > LOQ < LOQ Samples (n=) *Clothianidin1 11 0 2 *Thiamethoxam2 12 0 1 *Imidacloprid1 11 1 1 13 *Fipronil2, *Fipronil-sulfone1 13 0 0 Thiacloprid2 5 4 4 Amitraz3 12 1 0 Legend: n.d. = not detectable; LOQ = level of quantification; LOD = level of detection 1 LOQ = 0,0002 mg/kg; LOD = 0,00006 mg/kg 2 LOQ = 0,0005 mg/kg; LOD = 0,00015 mg/kg 3 LOQ = 0,01 mg/kg *for these substances LOD and LOQ, respectively, were lower by a factor of 10 in 2011 compared to the years 2009 and 2010.Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 21
  • 22. Wind conditions at time of maize sowing 2011„no sowing of insecticidal coated maize and oil pumpkin seed with pneumatic seeddrills at a windspeed > 5 m/s (18 km/h)“ Wind-peak values (wsp) 25 20 Windspeed (m/sec) 15 Hours 10 5 DayRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 22
  • 23. Wind conditions in April at time of maize sowingyears: 2009, 2010, 2011„no sowing of insecticidal coated maize and oil pumpkin seed with pneumatic seeddrills at a windspeed > 5 m/s (18 km/h)“ Neusiedl/See 2009 - 2011 Location Neusiedl/See Wind-Spitzenwerte 12 Uhr Wind-peak values (wsp) at 12 (a.m.) wsp-12h-2009 wsp-12h-2010 wsp-12h-2011 200 20 Windspeed (m/sec) Windgeschwindigkeit 150 (Zehntelmeter/sec) 15 100 10 50 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 TagRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 23
  • 24. Heubach-values of abrasion tests fromenforcement (marketing) control samplesof insecticidal coated seed batches in 2010and 2011 0,80 2010 2011 Grenzwert Abrieb 0,75 g / 100.000 permissible abrasion value: 0.75 g/100.000 kernels Maximum Korn 0,70 0,60 Average = 0.35 = 0,35 g / 100.000 Korn Mittelwert g/100.000 kernels Average = 0.17 g/100.000 / 100.000 Korn Mittelwert = 0,17 g kernels 0,50 0,40 0,30 0,20 0,10 0,00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 24
  • 25. Summary• Results of the MELISSA-project give evidence that in Austria regional clustered bee damages had occurred in the years 2009 – 2011, which were frequently associated with the use of maize and oilseed pumpkin seeds coated with insecticides.• Regulatory measures to prevent honey bee losses due to the exposure of bees to insecticidal seed dressing substances have significantly improved the situation. However, repeatedly observed incidences of honey bee mortality in defined regions suggest their systematic correlation with local factors contributing to increased exposure of bees.• Seed dressing quality and seed drill equipment still need further improvement and sowing of insecticidal dressed seed with pneumatic seed drills has to be avoided under windy conditions• Insecticidal seed dressings should be used solely based on a given risk in plant production with therefore reasoned indication.• An adjustment in the approval procedure is required for risk assessment and approval of insecticidal substances concerning the specific characteristics and possible routes of exposure of bee toxic seed dressing substances.Rudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 25
  • 26. For further Details, please contactDr. Rudolf MoosbeckhoferAGES, Institute for Seed and Propagation Material, PhytosanitaryService and ApicultureDepartment for Apiculture and Bee Protectionrudolf.moosbeckofer@ages.atRudolf Moosbeckhofer, Leopold Girsch - AGES Division Food Security; Presentation: Robert Womastek; SCFCAH - PPPLegislation Meeting, 27-28 Sept 2012 26