Dr Omar Khan's presentation presented at the Ageing and Ethnicity conference run by Age UK and Runnymede. The conference took place on the 13th December 2012 at the Montague on the Gardens Hotel, London.
Ageing and Ethnicity:Summary of Runnymede ResearchOmar KhanHead of Policy ResearchRunnymede 11
About RunnymedeThe Runnymede Trust is an independent raceequality think tank. We generate intelligence for amulti-ethnic Britain through: High quality research and analysis Engaging communities and network building Policy engagement 22
Ageing, Ethnicity and FinancialInclusion3 Year Programme5 Research reports (4 on your memory stick; 5th in Jan 2013).2 Films (of deliberative assemblies in London & Birmingham)
Future Ageing and Diversity:Background and consequencesBackground 1 BME population of all ages increasing; Older BME pop increasing. Presently mainly overseas-born.Background 2 Lower rates of employment and wages lead to greater risk of povertyConsequence 1 Future needs likely to be very different.Consequence 2 Policymakers, health and social care services and LAs need to plan now.
BME pop of all ages is increasing 35 25 30% 30 20 BME pop (millions) 25 20.7BME pop as % 20 15 15 10 9% 10 5 5 4.5 0 0 2001 2016 2026 2051 % Million • The Future Ageing of England and Wales
Older BME pop is increasing 3,000 2,700 2,500Older BME pop (thousands) 2,000 1,940 1,500 1,000 230 500 130 0 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 2051 65+ 70+ • 12 and 14 times increase
BME people and pensioner poverty Risk of pensioner poverty by ethnicity, 2007-8 60 50Risk of pensioner poverty (%) 40 30 20 10 0 White Pakistani & Black Caribbean Indian Chinese or other All Bangladeshi • All (18%), Black Caribbean (30%), Pakistani & Bangladeshi (49%)
Why are BME people poor when older?• Less likely to have pensions… White Ethnic minorities % with private pension (in employment) 53 39 All Ethnic minorities (2005-6) •% building entitlement to S2P other assets – Less able to compensate with 75 65 • Savings • Home ownership % with no savings Black or Black British 63 Asian or Asian British 60 (2005) All 33
Low income and ethnicity Income poverty rate by ethnicity, 2002-5 White British White Other IndianBlack Caribbean Black African Pakistani Bangladeshi 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Income poverty rate (%) • Bangladeshi (65%), Pakistani (55%), White British (20%) • Reflects unemployment but also poor quality work
Retiring Overseas – Considerations •Income and savings •Family and friends •Healthcare costs – and quality •Tax and benefits arrangements (e.g. •Health (and climate!) •The Costs of ‘Returning Home’ 10 10
Retiring Overseas – Pensions Upratingand other recommendations •No uprating in Africa, most of Asia and most of Caribbean, or Canada, Australia, South Africa •Exceptions are Jamaica, Turkey, Philippines, Barbados •Loss of pension income estimated at £24,000 over 20 years •Better information •Healthcare arrangement and access to NHS •To Stay or Not to Stay 11 11
Retiring in the UK: Rural and Care Concerns•UK born will not ‘return’ home•BME tend to live in urban areas; older people retire to country•Policymakers and local officials must plan for future•This includes catering to needs of ethnic minorities, e.g.community centres•Care homes should better cater for BME needs. Culturallycompetent care, including staff training•A Sense of Place 12 12
Rural Distribution in 2001, and 2051 Proportion living in rural UK in 2001 and 2051, by ethnicity 40 35 30 25 2001 20 2051 15 10 5 0 White Asian Black Chinese/OtherRural Distribution in 2001, and 2051 13 13
Grandparenting• Report due in January 2013• Policymakers need to give greater attention to importance of informal care• BME grandparents make large contribution. Government could consider reforming leave system• Govt should tackle cultural barriers to improve uptake of formal childcare• Govt needs to do more to encourage savings 16 16
Ethnicity and Ageing: diverse but uncertain future• Increasing growth and diversity of BME older population• But still evidence of greater poverty• BME people live in urban areas, older people retire in rural or seaside areas. As the population increases and diversifies, will more BME older people move out of cities?• Almost all older BME people today were born abroad, an increasing number will be British-born in future, with different decision-making.• For policymakers, local authorities and indeed national agencies, the increased diversity and distribution of the future older population needs to be planned for today.
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