• Like
User research  - different approaches and methods
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

User research - different approaches and methods

  • 3,325 views
Published

This is the second part of my fourth lecture at HITLab, Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand about user research. I am presenting the three levels of understanding user needs and the …

This is the second part of my fourth lecture at HITLab, Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand about user research. I am presenting the three levels of understanding user needs and the methods that correspond with investigating these needs. The idea is to show how different methods enable a designer to dig for different insights and how to conduct exemplary studies for each type of the method.

Published in Design
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,325
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6

Actions

Shares
Downloads
118
Comments
0
Likes
57

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. user research: different approaches and methods aga szóstek(at)gmail.com
  • 2. what people level of knowledge research methods Fraukje Sleesvijk Visser
  • 3. what people level of knowledge tell think explicit interviews research methods Fraukje Sleesvijk Visser
  • 4. what people level of knowledge tell think do act explicit observational interviews observations research methods Fraukje Sleesvijk Visser
  • 5. what people level of knowledge tell think do act know feel dream explicit observational subconscious latent deep interviews observations generative techniques research methods Fraukje Sleesvijk Visser
  • 6. before discussing the different methods it is crucial to know about the concurrent and retrospective experiences
  • 7. -  when people report on their current feelings the feelings themselves are accessible to introspection allowing for accurate reports -  affective experiences are fleeting and become not available once the feeling is gone -  once the feeling disappears the affective experiences need to be reconstructed
  • 8. -  when people report on their current feelings the feelings themselves are accessible to introspection allowing for accurate reports -  affective experiences are fleeting and become not available once the feeling is gone -  once the feeling disappears the affective experiences need to be reconstructed -  reports of past feelings are based on semantic knowledge -  when asked how they“usually”feel during a particular activity, people draw on their general beliefs about that activity -  the actual experience does not figure prominently in these reports because the experience itself is no longer accessible -  the same knowledge is a basis for predicting future feelings, for which episodic information is not available to begin with
  • 9. so, let’s discuss the methods
  • 10. what people level of knowledge tell think explicit interviews research methods
  • 11. introspective versus retrospective methods
  • 12. introspective methods Analysis of present behaviour and gathering of preferences by combining observations and interviews in context: -  cognitive walkthorugh: heuristic identification of problems connected to the current ways of behaviour and interaction -  think aloud: heuristic identification of problems arising from the current state of interaction through verbal articulation of user observations while interacting with the solution -  co-discovery: a method where two users collaborate in order to resolve the problems found in the process of interaction with the current solution -  Contextual Inquiry: gathering of detailed information about behaviour and motivations of users while the user is actually performing a given task
  • 13. retrospective methods Support for retrospective assessment of user preferences towards a given solution:   -   interviews: a discussion with the user aiming to collect rich material about his / her interactions and attitudes -  focus groups: group discussion about a given problem or solution -  retrospective analysis of behaviour: and interview supported by a qualitative recoding of user behaviour (e.g., video or audio recordings)
  • 14. when to apply? -  exploration phase -  to get a better understanding -  to find inspiration for further research -  requirements validation -  to check whether study assumptions are correct -  evaluation -  to discuss and verify design decisions
  • 15. types of studies
  • 16. -  fully structured: the entire study takes place according to the earlier prepared scenario -  good for comparison across individuals -  more extensive answers comparing to written surveys -  inability ask unplanned questions
  • 17. -  fully structured: the entire study takes place according to the earlier prepared scenario -  good for comparison across individuals -  more extensive answers comparing to written surveys -  inability ask unplanned questions -  semi-structured: there are certain guidelines to the elements of the study but the order is unimportant -  pre-specified questions -  questions as a starting point for discussion -  digression from the script is acceptable
  • 18. -  fully structured: the entire study takes place according to the earlier prepared scenario -  good for comparison across individuals -  more extensive answers comparing to written surveys -  inability ask unplanned questions -  semi-structured: there are certain guidelines to the elements of the study but the order is unimportant -  pre-specified questions -  questions as a starting point for discussion -  digression from the script is acceptable -  unstructured: going with the flow, only the initial question and a possible list of topics is defined -  good for open ended exploration -  difficult to conduct and analyse
  • 19. study questions -  close-ended -  simple questions get simple answers -  “On a scale of 1-10, 10 being best, how did you like the prototype?” -  “Did you like the prototype?” -  easy to analyse, but may not be that informative -  open-ended -  invite elaboration and discussion -  build conversation and stories -  “What did you think about the prototype?” -  avoid -  long questions, jargon, leading questions, unconscious biases, negative questions
  • 20. -  ask why? -  even when you think you know the answer, ask people why they do or say things -  encourage stories -  whether or not the stories people tell are true, they reveal how they think about the world -  look for inconsistencies -  sometimes what people say and what they do are different. These inconsistencies often hide interesting insights -  observe nonverbal cues -  be aware of body language and emotions. -  do not be afraid of silence -  if you allow for silence, a person can reflect on what they’ve just said and may reveal something deeper
  • 21. preparing the study -  brainstorm questions -  identify and order themes -  pilot the study -  write an interview guide -  prepare for capturing the interview -  prepare logistic backup
  • 22. conducting the study -  you are the host -  be friendly, respectful and non-judgmental -  do not bias through body language -  be flexible (unless fully structured) but keep things on track -  ask for clarifications if something is unclear -  listen (don’t talk too much) and read between the lines -  be consistent -  outline -  briefly introduce testing goals -  complete paperwork (informed consent) -  simple questions first, hard questions later
  • 23. capturing the study -  have someone to help taking notes or do the audio or video recording -  capture insights, non-verbal responses, etc. -  balance between detail and conciseness -  summarize immediately after the interview -  do transcriptions -  respect privacy and anonymity
  • 24. debriefing -  ask for any final comments -  provide more detail about research goals -  offer a brief summary of findings -  turn off recording devices -  say“thanks”! -  reflect and summarize notes immediately
  • 25. what people level of knowledge tell think do act explicit observational interviews observations research methods
  • 26. -  roots in ethnographic research -  observing people in action -  recording what is being observed -  helping the researcher learn perspectives held by participants -  often used in conjunction with other methods (e.g. interviews, focus groups, content analysis)
  • 27. -  observations: observing and recording of user behaviour without a direct contact between the user and the researcher -  shadowing: direct observation of user behaviour by the researcher without intervening with his / her actions -  interaction logging: logging previously defined behaviours and system states that pertain to the specified user behaviour -  diaries: systematic reporting by the user his / her interactions in a form of a diary or a blog -  experience sampling: a systematic way of having participants provide samples of their ongoing behavior when participants' reports are dependent on either a signal, pre-established intervals or the occurrence of some event -  day reconstruction method: capturing daily experiences of the users at the end of each day where participants are asked to listed all activities of the day that somehow related to the product or a situation that is under investigation
  • 28. data collection -  field notes -  video -  audio -  transcripts -  behaviour matrix -  situational drawings
  • 29. pros and cons -  flexible and open-ended -  directly measures behavior -  gives the researcher insider view -  allows for morphing of the study -  hard to be an insider -  invasive and intrusive -  difficult to record -  subjective -  Hawthorne effect -  time consuming -  not generalizable -  does not measure cognitive or affective aspects
  • 30. phases of observational research -  phase 1: develop positive relationships with participants, gatekeeper, etc. -  phase 2: improve design, refocus, redefine questions after initial observations (may be ongoing) -  phase 3: select additional participants as necessary -  phase 4: follow up and probe deeper
  • 31. ethical considerations -  how much do you disclose? -  make your intentions clear -  get an informed consent -  develop a code of practice -  maintain confidentiality
  • 32. (Mack, et al., 2005)
  • 33. being an effective observer -  know what you are researching -  check in with your lens, biases, experiences and expectations -- have a blank mind -  go where people are engaged in their daily lives and find the right informants -  understand the culture -  rehearse how you will explain the purpose of your study -  decide how you will do the observation and collect the notes -  document what you observe without expectations -  summarize and expand on field notes as soon as possible -  be open to the research problem reformulation
  • 34. what people level of knowledge tell think do act know feel dream explicit observational subconscious latent deep interviews observations generative techniques research methods
  • 35. using design as a research tool
  • 36. cultural probes
  • 37. -  tools for better understanding of people’s latent needs and dreams -  small craft objects used in empathic engagements with individuals around issues centered on self- identity and personal significance -  their form should reflect the research question and its context -  asking questions by applying a delicate, provoking and creative means -  and offering intriguing ways to consider the asked questions and to look for surprising answers
  • 38. understanding what people do with their invoices AgaSzóstek,MarcinPiotrowski,
  • 39. what is agood and a bad invoice?
  • 40. what happens to an invoice once it arrives?
  • 41. what is the best way to pay an invoice?
  • 42. how should the email accompanying an invoice look like?
  • 43. which elements should actually stay on an invoice?
  • 44. what should happen if you forgot to pay?
  • 45. technology probes
  • 46. -  simple, flexible, adaptable interactive installations -  combining collecting data about the use of the technology in a real-world setting, testing the technology and inspiring users (and designers) to think of new kinds of technology -  installed in user environment with the goal to observe them over a period of time -  helping to identify design partners determining which kinds of technologies would be interesting to pursue -  open-ended, inspiring new activities and encouraging experimentation
  • 47. managing interruptions | project supervised by Aga Szóstek
  • 48. dealing with stress at work
  • 49. design probes
  • 50. -  collaboration with a singular person based on a very deep engagement in the topic that is personally significant -  designing objects, which reflect individual experiences and their meaning for the user -  objects that support reflection and auto-reflection -  such objects often become a part of an intimate relationship between the designer and the user
  • 51. Top Trumps probe cards to mark objects which are perceived to have magical power
  • 52. helping to keep a straight posture | Magda Rydygier project supervised by Aga Szóstek
  • 53. preparing the study -  brainstorm the context to the given problem (e.g. through contextmapping exercises) -  brainstorm on user expectations and the ideal experience -  prepare a list of questions regarding the current experience -  decide on the format of the cultural probe (digital elements, physical element and intangible elements) -  select the criteria for choosing participants and prepare awards -  develop the probes and the instruction -  organize a session with participants to explain to them the elements of the probe and the study procedure -  provide informed consent forms -  personally give the probes to the participants
  • 54. running the study -  the study typically lasts no longer that one week (but this is very individual to the research problem) -  usually the study happens without an active involvement of the researcher -  if the study involves an online diary – check the entries every day and comment on them -  give participants a phone number and an email address where they can contact you in the case of any problems -  at the end of the study invite all participates either to a joint session (a Focus Group or a creative workshop) or for individual interviews -  record the sessions for later reference
  • 55. summary -  the research method should reflect the information you are trying to obtain -  don’t be afraid to combine the methods and experiment with them -  think of creating visual materials for your studies – they engage the users bringing you more insight -  user research is a moment when you approach users with open mind – try not to bias them and put your ideas into their mouth -  the quality of the data you collect will likely be directly reflected in the ideas you will create later on
  • 56. references Gaver, William W., et al. "Cultural probes and the value of uncertainty." interactions 11.5 (2004): 53-56. Gaver, Bill, Tony Dunne, and Elena Pacenti. "Design: cultural probes." interactions 6.1 (1999): 21-29. Mattelmäki, Tuuli. Design probes. Aalto University, 2006. Hutchinson, Hilary, et al. "Technology probes: inspiring design for and with families." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems. ACM, 2003. Buijs, Jan. The Delft innovation method: A design thinker's guide to innovation. Eleven International Publishing, 2012.