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Frequency Ranges and Radio Licensing Regulations

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RFID is also a new trend in industry and will come in daily use soon. Various frequency ranges and explanation is in this presentation....

RFID is also a new trend in industry and will come in daily use soon. Various frequency ranges and explanation is in this presentation.
(For Downloads, send me mail
agarwal.avanish@yahoo.com)

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    Frequency Ranges and Radio LicensingRegulations Frequency Ranges and Radio Licensing Regulations Presentation Transcript

    • AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES Frequency Ranges and Radio Licensing Regulations Mr. Avanish Agarwal [email_address]
    • Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC)
      • Automatic identification procedures provide information about people, animals, goods and products in transit
      • automatically identifying objects
      • collecting data
      • storing data
      • processing and analysis
    • Fig 1. overview of the most important AUTO-ID procedure Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Barcode System Biometric Smart Cards RFID Voice Identifi-cation Fingerprint Procedure Auto ID
      • Bar code
      • Optical Character Recognition ( OCR)
      • Biometrics
      • Smart card
      • Voice Recognition
      • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
      AUTO IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES
      • Binary code with a field of bars and gaps arranged in a parallel fashion
      • A predetermined pattern
      • Interpreted numerically and alphanumerically.
      • Read by optical laser scanning, i.e. by the different reflection of a laser beam from the black bars and white gaps
      • 10 different barcode types currently in use
      Bar Codes
      • Successful over the past 20 years.
      • Storage capacity and reprogramability is the restriction
      • The most popular barcode EAN code (European Article Number
      • was designed in 1976 to fulfill the requirements of the grocery
      • industry
      • The EAN code of 13 digits:
      • the country identifier,
      • the company identifier,
      • the manufacturer’s item number and
      • a check digit.
      EAN code (European Article Number) Barcode systems
    • Fig 3. Example of the structure of a barcode in EAN Coding Chocolate Rabbit 100g Company name 1 road name 80001 Munich FRG 9 0 5 1 8 0 5 4 3 2 1 0 4 CD Manufacturer’s Item Number Company Identifier Country Identifier
    • In addition to the EAN code, popular Bar codes are: • Code Codabar: medical/clinical applications, fields with high safety requirements. • Code 2/5 interleaved: automotive industry, goods storage, pallets, shipping containers and heavy industry. • Code 39: processing industry, logistics, universities and libraries.
      • First used in the 1960s.
      • Special fonts developed
      • characters could be read both by people and automatically by machines.
      • Important advantages of OCR
        • The high density of information and the possibility of reading data visually in an emergency
        • used in production, service and administrative fields
        • in banks for the registration of cheques
      • OCR systems have failed to become universally applicable due to
        • their high price
        • the complicated readers that they require in comparison with other ID procedures.
      Optical character recognition (OCR)
      • Defined as Biometric procedures science of counting and (body) measurement procedures involving living beings.
      Biometrics
      • Procedures that identify people by comparing unmistakable and individual physical characteristics like
      • Fingerprints
      • Hand prints
      • Voice identification and
      • Retina (or iris) identification.
      • Identification of the people based upon their voice
      • Specialized systems to identify individuals
      • Speaker verification (speaker recognition)
      • Checking the speech characteristics of the speaker against an existing reference pattern
      Voice identification
      • Electronic data storage system,
      • Plastic card with the size of a credit card.
      • First smart cards prepaid telephone smart cards launched in 1984.
      • Galvanic connection to the contact surfaces of the smart card using contact springs.
      • Energy and a clock pulse supplied from the reader via the contact surfaces.
      • Data transfer using a bi-directional serial interface (I/O port)
      Smart Card Reading Smart cards
    •  
    • Cryptographic smart cards used for digital signature and secure identification
      • Two basic types of smart card
      • Memory card
      • Automated chip card was invented by German rocket scientist Helmut Gröttrup
      Vcc RST Vpp Vcc I/O GND Address and Security Logic EEPROM ROM
    • Microprocessor card In 1977, Michel Ugon from Honeywell Bull invented the first microprocessor smart card security sensitive applications. GSM mobile phones and EC (electronic cash) cards. Vcc RST Vpp Vcc I/O GND ROM (Operating System) CPU RAM EEPROM (Application data)
      • Payphones
      • Mobile Communications
      • Banking & Retail
      • Electronic Purse
      • Security in the form of PIN number
      • Flexibility
      • Portability
      • Increasing data storage capacity
      • Reliability that is virtually unaffected by electrical and magnetic fields.
      Advantages Applications
      • Health Care
      • ID Verification and Access Control
      • Computer security
      • Fees applied with the use of a card
      • It gives liability issues if stolen or lost
      • The accuracy of information is small
      • Loss of data on one card if lost or stolen
      • It is a potential area for computer hackers and computer viruses
      Drawbacks of Smart card:
    • Major application in Criminology since the early twentieth century. Comparison of papillae and dermal ridges of the fingertips, from the finger itself & from objects that the individual has touched . A special reader for identification . Fingerprinting procedures (dactyloscopy) System compares data with previous references Modern fingerprint ID systems require less than half a second to recognize and check a fingerprint. To prevent violent frauds, fingerprint ID systems have even been developed
    • No influence Unidirectional --- --- Low Low Influence of Direction and Position No influence --- Possible --- Total Failure Total Failure Influence of (opt.) covering No influence Possible (contacts) --- --- Very High Very High Influence of Dirt/Damp Impossible Impossible Difficult Simple Simple Limited Readability by People Good Good Expensive Expensive Good Good Machine Readability Very High Very High High High Low Low Data Density 16-64K 16-64K --- --- 1-100 1-100 Typical Data Qty. (bytes) RFID Systems Smart Card Biometry Voice Recog. OCR Barcode System Parameters Comparison of different RFID systems showing there Advantages and Disadvantages Medium Low Very High Very High Medium Very Low Purchase cost / Reading Electronics No influence Contacts --- --- Limited Limited Degradation/wear
    • 0-5 m microwave Direct contacts Direct contacts 0-50 cm <1 cm Scanner 0-50 cm Maximum distance between data carrier and reader Very Fast ~0.5s Low ~4s Very Low >5 – 10s Very Low >5s Low ~3s Low ~4s Reading speed (including handling of data carrier) Impossible Impossible Impossible Possible (Audio Tape) Slight Slight Unauthorized copying/modification None Medium (contacts) None None Low Low Operating Cost (e.g. Printer) RFID Systems Smart Card Biometry Voice Recog. OCR Barcode System Parameters
    • Legal classification of RFID as RADIO SYSTEMS (Generation & radiation of Electromagnetic waves ) Probable services affected : Radio, Television, Mobile radio services (including police, security services, industry) Marine radio services, Aeronautical Radio Services and Mobile Telephones . ISM frequency ranges (Industrial–Scientific–Medical), world wide accepted for RFID applications. Due to possibility of working with high magnetic field strengths & with inductively coupled RFID systems in this range . Frequency Ranges and Radio Licensing Regulations for RFID
      • 0–135 kHz, and
      • The ISM frequencies around 6.78 Hz, 13.56 Hz, 27.125 MHz, 40.68 MHz, 433.92 MHz, 869.0 MHz, 915.0 MHz (not in Europe), 2.45 GHz, 5.8 GHz and 24.125 GHz.
      Important frequency ranges for RFID systems
      • Frequency range 9–135 kHz
      • below 135 kHz frequencies can propagate within 1000 km continuously, at a low technical cost.
      • Aeronautical and marine navigational radio services operate in this range.
      • Short Wave Frequencies .
      • Daytime propagation range up to a few 100 km and during nighttime transcontinental propagation possible.
      • Used by a wide range of radio services, like broadcasting, weather reports, aeronautical radio services and press agencies.
      Frequency range 6.78 MHz
      • The range is 13.553–13.567MHz
      • situated in the middle of the short wavelength range.
      • Allows the transcontinental connections during day time
      • used by a wide variety of radio services like press agencies and telecommunications (PTP) and remote control systems, radio equipment and pagers.
      Frequency range 13.56 MHz
      • Range 26.565–27.405 allocated to CB radio across the entire European continent, in the USA and in Canada.
      • The ISM range between 26.957 and 27.283MHz is situated approximately in the middle of the CB radio range.
      • Applications like inductive radio diathermic apparatus, medical
      • application, high frequency welding equipment, remote controlled models and pagers
      Frequency range 27.125 MHz
      • The range 40.660–40.700 MHz situated at the lower end of the VHF range
      • The propagation of waves limited to the ground wave.
      • Used by mobile commercial radio systems for forestry, motorway management and by television broadcasting .
      • The major ISM applications operated in this range are telemetry and remote control applications
      Frequency range 40.680MHz
      • range 430.000 – 440.000MHz allotted to amateur radio services. for voice as well as data transmission and for communication via relay radio stations and home-built space satellites.
      Frequency range 433.920 MHz
      • Applications like backscatter rfid systems, baby intercoms, telemetry transmitters, cordless headphones, unregistered LPD walkie-talkies for short range radio, vehicle central locking and many other applications are possible in this frequency range.
      • The ISM range 433.050 – 434.790MHz is located approximately in the middle of the amateur radio band and is used by a wide range of ISM applications.
    • In 1997 in Europe, the frequency range of 868 – 870 MHz was passed for Short Range Devices (SRDs) in and is thus available for RFID applications in the 43 member states of CEPT. not available for ISM applications in Europe USA & Australia 888-889MHz & 902-928MHz used by backscatter(RFID) Systems. Frequency range 915.0 MHz Frequency range 869.0 MHz
    • The ISM range 2.400 – 2.4835 GHz partially overlaps with the frequency ranges used by amateur radio and radiolocation services. For this UHF frequency range, buildings and other obstacles behave as good reflectors and damp electromagnetic waves at transmission. Applications like backscatter (RFID) systems, telemetry transmitters and PC LAN systems for the wireless networking of PCs are carried out in this frequency range Frequency range 2.45 GHz
    • The ISM range 5.725 – 5.875 GHz partially overlaps with the frequency ranges used by amateur radio and radiolocation services. Typical ISM applications for this frequency range include movement sensors, used as door openers or contact less toilet flushing and also for backscatter (RFID) systems. The ISM range 24.00 – 24.25 GHz overlaps partially with the amateur radio and radio location services and also by earth resources services via satellite. This frequency range is used by movement sensors, directional radio systems for data transmission. Frequency range 24.125 GHz Frequency range 5.8 GHz
      • En.wikipedia.org/wiki/automatic_identification _and_ data_capture-29k
      • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Automatic _ Identification _System
      • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ RFID -*
      • rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/208/
      References
    •