Mobile-Enabled Language Learning Eco-System


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  • Input, rehearsal, repetition and practice in meaningful context with appropriate feedback
  • Mobile-Enabled Language Learning Eco-System (MELLES)The holistic approach encapsulated in Ecological Constructivism put more emphasis on the interdependence of the MELL solution components and the context in which they were intended to be used. The constituent elements of the recommended system need to co-exist for the intervention to promote learning. In fact, it is imperative for the MELLES components to interact and maintain a dynamic balance, as exemplified by the combination of collaborative and individual language activities. Considering the multiplicity of elements recognized as critical for the effective mobile design, and how they interrelate and support each other, MELLES has to provide a learning environment in which the parts of the system could interact in various configurations promoting the flexibility and evolution of the whole system, and most importantly, enabling seamless mobile learning experience.Hence, the central feature of the MELLES approach is the coexistence and the relationship of its learning tasks, learners, facilitators, the dynamic language environment in which these tasks are completed, as well as the technology that enables and mediates the learning process and the collaboration between the actors involved in the process. Mobile devices enable communicative exchanges, storage and access to ESP content, learning support and scaffolding. They also help capture linguistic evidence by way of learner-generated artefacts and assist in interaction with contextual affordances used for linguistic action. In addition, the MELLES network of peers, experts and authentic language speakers facilitates learning by means of authentic discourse, feedback, resource sharing and social support. Additionally, MELLES instruction should encourage dynamic interaction with the English speaking environment to help decode the meaning offered by the real-life language situations. Regular in-class instruction should also be combined with the out-of-class practice and linked into a cohesive learning experience via the MELLES platform and its communication management tools. Furthermore, offering on-demand connection to the system promotes social, cognitive, teaching, and emotional presence (Swan et al., 2008). This results in a collaborative network which has become the predominant structure of the recommended MELLES solution. All in all, MELLES provides mobile access to people, linguistic resources, and context affordances (Hoven & Palalas, 2011) mediating real-life language practice.Accordingly, new knowledge is generated across the web connecting (1) language, (2) mobile technology, (3) artefacts, (4) learners, experts and (5) other speakers, in (6) a real-life context of learning which all co-mediate the learning process (Figure 2).
  • Mobile-Enabled Language Learning Eco-System

    1. 1. Mobile-Enabled Language Learning Eco-System Agnieszka (Aga) Palalas, Ed.D. George Brown College apalalas@georgebrown.camLearn 2012HelsinkiOctober 2012 1
    2. 2. 1. Background and statement of the problem2. Significance of the research3. Research question4. DBR phases and their findings5. Outcomes of the study6. Limitations7. Future research8. Conclusions 2
    3. 3. 3
    4. 4.  Inadequate aural skills instruction - college ESP students Purpose: MELL educational intervention to enhance effectiveness and appeal of ESP ◦ augment in-class learning  flexible contextualized communicative practice  interaction with others  personalized to learner preferences ◦ students’ own mobile devices ◦ replicable and reusable design principles 4
    5. 5.  Constructivism ⇨ Social Constructivism ⇨ SCT: Sociocultural Theory ⇨ Ecological Constructivism (Bruner, Davis & Sumara, Dewey, Lafford, Lam & Kramsch, Lave & Wenger, Piaget, Proulx, Vygotsky, van Lier, von Glasersfeld, Wertsch) Listening and language learning (Lynch, Nation & Newton, Rost) From SLA to MALL ◦ SLA: Second Language Acquisition (Chomsky, Krashen, Long, Swain) ◦ CALL: Computer-Assisted Language Learning (Warschauer, Davies, Levy) ◦ MALL: Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (Sharples, Kukulska-Hulme, Laurillard) ◦ MALL on listening (Kukulska-Hulme, Shield, Thornton & Houser) ◦ MALL design principles (Ally, Quinn, Rosell-Aguilar) 5
    6. 6.  Evolution of practice ◦ MELLES prototype ◦ model for replication Evolution of theory ◦ MELLES design framework ◦ Ecological Constructivism DBR application for mobile language learning environmentMELLES =Mobile-Enabled Language Learning Eco-System 6
    7. 7. What are the characteristics of aneffective, pedagogically-sound learning object MELLESfor students’ mobile devices, through which adult ESPstudents in a community college enhance listeningskills, while expanding their learning outside theclassroom? 7
    8. 8. A systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improveeducational practices through iterativeanalysis, design, development, and implementation, basedon collaboration among researchers and practitioners inreal-world settings, and leading to contextually-sensitivedesign principles and theories. (Wang & Hannafin, 1999, p. 7) 8
    9. 9. • Bannan, B. (2009)• Barab, S., & Squire, K. (2004)• Brown, A. (1992)• Dede, C. (2004)• Herrington, J., McKenney, S., Reeves, T., & Oliver, R. (2007)• Kelly, A. (2009)• Plomp, T. (2009)• Reeves, T. (2006)• Van den Akker et al (2006)• Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005) 9
    10. 10. 10
    11. 11. Findings: Emerging ThemesCritical Elements of Effective Design:  Pedagogy  PEDAGOGIC PROCEDURE - How  CONTENT - What  CONTEXT - When and Where  ACTORS - Who  Technology  FUNCTIONALITY - How  TECH SOLUTION – What  TECH CONTEXT - When and Where 11
    12. 12. Ecological Constructivism ◦ Social Constructivism + Sociocultural Theory + Ecological Linguistics + Contextual and situated learning  Interaction mediated by “cultural tools such as language and technology” (Pachler, 2009, p. 5)  Learning mediated by the context  Active learning around real-life problems  Goal-oriented real-life communicative activities  Interactivity in social contexts  Community-based communication  Scaffolding and guidance  Feedback from facilitators and peers 12
    13. 13. Contextual mobile learning (context-aware):learning activities relate to the location (physical, geographicalor logical) of the actor and the context (David, Yin, & Chalon, 2009) Situated learning ◦ Authentic context & social interaction (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Lave & Wenger, 1991) ◦ Access to expertise & collaboration with others (Herrington & Oliver, 1995) “…metaphor of ecology attempts to capture theinterconnectedness of psychological, social, andenvironmental process in SLA” (Lam & Kramsch, 2003, p.144) Affordance: “ … a particular property of the environmentthat is relevant … to an active, perceiving organism in thatenvironment” (van Lier, 2000, p. 252) 13
    14. 14. 1. Language is dynamic and contextually contingent2. Affordances are inherent in the dynamic environment3. Learners act on linguistic affordances in the environment4. Learning, individual or collaborative, emerges from and through interactions – co-construing of knowledge5. The process of collaboration enables individuals to perceive novel affordances6. Dynamic networks of fluidly inter-linked contexts form an open system7. Mobile technologies mediate interaction and connection over the network and with environment8. Knowing: an evolving process enabled by acting on affordances available in the environment, in which learners operate and collaborate across dynamic networks through connections made possible by mobile technologies 14
    15. 15. 15
    16. 16. Other speakers of English 16
    17. 17.  Design Prototype Testing Refinement 17
    18. 18. 18
    19. 19. 19
    20. 20. Ten Essential Pedagogic Characteristics1/21. Balanced combination of individual and collaborative (group work) tasks2. Learner-generated linguistic artefacts (audio, video, photos, images)3. Game-like real-life communicative tasks4. Expert facilitation: scaffolding, feedback, and coordination5. Feedback mechanism (immediate and delayed)6. Focus on authentic listening tasks in the dynamic real-world communicative situations 20
    21. 21. Ten Essential Pedagogic Characteristics 2/27. Support of self-paced individual audio tasks feeding into/preparing learners for the real-life tasks8. Integrate all four language skills but focus on listening outcomes9. Linguistic resources (task-related): relevant vocabulary, dictionaries, pronunciation, clear task directions and explanations, examples10. Support of out-of-class learning with in-class (f2f) instruction and practice (a blend of in-class and out-of-class context) 21
    22. 22. Eight Essential Technological Components1. One-point access to all resources2. Exchange and communication platform3. Scalability, flexibility and adaptability of the system4. Scalable rating scheme (from artefact to learning structures to the whole system)5. Multimedia (including text) - artefact authoring, management and usage capabilities6. Cross platform and multi-technology support7. Integrated technology support and tutoring/instruction8. Personalized user progress tracking capabilities 22
    23. 23.  Evolution of practice • MELLES prototype • model for replication  Evolution of theory • MELLES design framework • Ecological Constructivism  DBR application for mobile language learningInterconnected elements of the MELLES environment learning context 23
    24. 24.  The scope of DBR • complexity of the system - breadth • no objective measure of learning • amount of data • intensity The role of the researcher • multifaceted • conflicting roles • threats to validity 24
    25. 25.  In-depth examination of constituent elements Measuring effectiveness - tests of proficiency Actualization of the MELLES theory – technology Role of the teacher Transferability of findings 25
    26. 26. 26
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