Technology in The HealthStudies Classroom:Mobile LearningAppsForHealthMay 16, 2013Agnieszka Palalas, Ed.D.
Overview• Briefly about my work in the area of technology-assistedlearning• M-learning defined• Select mobile stats• Why m-learning• What’s next and recommendations?
3• Learning or training: knowledge construction, skilldevelopment and performance support• Learners participate across locations, times and contexts(inside and outside the classroom)• Enabled by portable devices and web connectivity• flexible on-demand access to learning materials, experts,peers and other resources• tools to create content and interact with peers, experts,learning systems and supports, and the environment inwhich the learning is occurring• M-learning devices: handheld, highly portable, connected,always-on, personal, ubiquitous…contingent on needs and contextWhat is mobile learning?
4The 8 mass media in chronological order:• 1st Mass Medium: Print from the 1500s• 2nd: Recordings from late 1800s• 3rd: Cinema from about 1900• 4th: Radio from the 1920s• 5th: Television from the 1950s6th: Internet form the 1990s• 7th: Mobile from the 2000s• 8th: Augmented Reality from the 2010sTomi Ahonen: http://www.communities-dominate.blogs.comWhat is mobile technology?
5• First truly personal mass medium• First always‐on mass medium• First always carried mass medium• First to connect and access just-in-time from whenever• First portable multimedia toolkit (incl. apps)• First portable gateway to the network of learners and experts• First tool enabling interaction with context and real-life hands-on practice supported/mediated by experts• Used habitually, frequently, on-demand, spontaneously• UbiquitousMobile technology = tool
6Today• 7.1 billion mobile phone subscriptions on the planet• 7.1 billion total global population• 695 million units in 2012Spring 2013• Mobile phone subscriptions > global population• Nearly 100 countries have passed 100% per-capita mobilepenetration rates• The average cellphone user in America looks at the phone 150times per day, in Britain - 200 times per dayTomi Ahonen: http://www.communities-dominate.blogs.comBackground stats: global
7• By the end of 2013: 50% of new phones sold -smartphones• 2015 (Q2/Q3): 50% of all phones in use -smartphones• By the end of 2020: 100% of new phones sold-smartphonesTomi Ahonen: @tomiahonen (Twitter Feb 16, 2013)Background statsGlobal forecast
8• Smartphone usage has increased from 33% in March 2011 to 48% inMarch 2012 (universally across all age groups and across Canada)• 47% of mobile phone users have adata plan (2011: 37%)• Tablet ownership among cell phone users has quadrupled, from 5% in2011 to 20% in 2012• 75% of these tablet connected to a cellular network• 70% of smartphone users downloaded apps (up from 58% in March2011)Quorus Consulting Group Inc., (2012). 2012 Cell Phone Consumer Attitudes Study.Background statsMobile Phone Usage in Canada in 2012
Context: mHealth• Health is one of the fastest-growing areas of mobiletechnology application• mHealth will be worth $23 billion by 2017(PricewaterhouseCoopers - PwC)• mHealth is diverse: embraces all ages, continents, andpeople• mHealth requirements:o Internet connectivityo Ubiquitous access to informationo Secure data handling (health privacy issues)o Mobile-enabled content designo Social networking options for healthcare workers, patients, or healthenthusiastso Training on the use of the technology
mHealth apps: select uses• Education and awareness to raise general health awareness• Remote data collection through secure synchronization• Data collection and exchange at the point of care• Communication and training for healthcare workers• Disease and epidemic outbreak – live data throughcrowdsourcing• Diagnostic and treatment support – e.g., first aid app• Drug reference and medical calculators• Personal well-being - keeping track of personal diet, workouts,heart rate, etc.
Extreme mobility still supplementalUse device for academicpurposesOwn deviceImportant to do froma mobile device
13All 13 pertinent to m-learning…1. Continue to support blended-learning environments and reward innovation2. Work with faculty to experiment with open educational resources and game-based learning3. Develop mobile IT strategies that allow for cross-platform compatibility4. Prioritize the development or improvement of mobile-friendly resources and activities that students say areimportant5. Identify what additional value or resource desktops provide beyond the user-owned laptop, and consideralternative and perhaps more affordable options to meet this need.6. Consider multiple communication channels between the institution and students and between instructorsand students; students say they want options7. Bridge the gap between the technologies that have seen the greatest growth (e-portfolios, e-books/e-textbooks, and web-based citation/bibliographic tools) and students’ attitudes about their importance8. Provide students with networking opportunities…ECAR recommendations
Health studiesSelect benefits of m-learning• Access to current information at the point of care• Increased time with patients• Enhanced learning experience and learning outcomessuch as pharmacological knowledge• Improved clinical learning experience• More organized learning experience (organizers, etc.)• Preparing students for the mHealth world and ahealthcare environment that requires the use ofinnovative technologies
15Any classroom: benefits 1/2• Personal, private and familiar (reduce perceived barriers to learning)• Fit into the lives of learners (productive ‘dead’ time)• Portable and flexible (whenever, wherever)• Immediacy of communication (incl. speech and data-sharing)• Enhanced access to learning (dispersed communities, isolated situations)• Access to mentors, tutors and others learners on-the-move• Perceived as an acceptable way for learners to receive remindersand chasers (time management)• Bite-sized e-learning resources delivered to learners (field practice, work-based learning)• Abstract (representational) and concrete (environmentally-situated)knowledge integrated• Student-centred; enhanced student engagement, satisfaction andempowerment
16Any classroom: benefits 2/2• Active learning (hands-on, experiential, real-life context)• Contextualization: situational, embedded learning (location-aware)• Capturing of data, record of learning processes• Context-inspired authentic content and challenge• Connecting learning across contexts• New learning environments• Continuity across the life span• A route to learner autonomy• Flexible collaboration >> collaborative, connected learning• Accessibility for learners with special educational needs• Reflection in close proximity to the learning event
Barriers to implementing m-learning• Cost (devices and mobile data plans)• Ergonomic limitations of handheld devices• Technological difficulties• Comfort levels of students and staff• Infrastructure restrictions• Security issues• Multiplicity of mobile platforms and standards• Inadequate deign of learning materials• Lack of buy-in and experimentation• Resistance from stakeholders• Insufficient m-learning expertise
Recommendations• Incorporate m-learning in strategic, business, & educational plans• Allocate monetary and human resources to facilitate research &development of m-learning• Form partnerships between education, public & private sector• Create a culture of innovation & develop a research agenda• Disseminate research findings & share best practices• Develop standards and policies for m-learning• Encourage buy-in from all stakeholders by providing professionaldevelopment, sharing information & collaborating• Broaden access to m-learning solutions by developing cross-platform applications & maintaining/developing infrastructure