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Bgp 1232073634451868-3

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  • Path attributes defined. -         Well-known mandatory (recognized and always sent – 010) -         Well-known discretionary (recognized not necessarily sent – 010 if sent at all) -         Optional transitive (may or may not be recognized, set partial bit if not recognized and pass onwards – 11?) -         Optional non-transitive (if not recognized, quietly discard – 100)  
  • The local preference attribute is exchanged in IBGP peering sessions only and is not passed to outside AS
  • .  The MED represents the external metric of a route -         32 bit, non-negative -- not propagated beyond neighboring AS Because the MED is a nontransitive BGP attribute, the AS that receives a route with an associated MED does not forward the MED value to other ASs .  The MED is used in the route selection process only within the AS . .  If the route needs to be readvertised to another AS, the MED value must be reset to zero , unless the associated export policy sets an outgoing MED value. If a MED is received over an external BGP link, it is propagated over internal links to other BGP systems within the AS.
  • Whats Origin? - well known mandatory -         igp (isis/ospf) -         egp (egp) -         incomplete (all others – static, rip, etc) -         80% igp in current Internet table.
  • Inform other BGP speaker that the local system choose a less specific route without selecting a more Specific route that is included in it. For example select route 199.1.0.0/16 which include the 199.1.2.0/24 in it To route packet to 192.1.2.9/24 network. Length = 0
  • -         next_hop, MED is unchanged when sent to a neighboring AS in the confederation Local_pref is passed through such a connection
  • Marker: This 16-octet field contains a value that the receiver of the message can predict. If the Type of the message is OPEN, or if the OPEN message carries no Authentication Information (as an Optional Parameter), then the Marker must be all ones. Otherwise, the value of the marker can be predicted by some a computation specified as part of the authentication mechanism (which is specified as part of the Authentication Information) used. The Marker can be used to detect loss of synchronization between a pair of BGP peers, and to authenticate incoming BGP messages. Length: This 2-octet unsigned integer indicates the total length of the message, including the header, in octets. Thus, e.g., it allows one to locate in the transport-level stream the (Marker field of the) next message. The value of the Length field must always be at least 19 and no greater than 4096, and may be further constrained, depending on the message type. No "padding" of extra data after the message is allowed, so the Length field must have the smallest value required given the rest of the message. Type: This 1-octet unsigned integer indicates the type code of the message. The following type codes are defined: 1 - OPEN 2 - UPDATE 3 - NOTIFICATION 4 - KEEPALIVE
  • Version --A 1-byte unsigned integer that indicates the version of the BGP protocol, such as BGP3 or BGP4. During the neighbor negotiation, BGP peers agree on a BGP version number. BGP peers will try to negotiate the highest common version that they both support. Cisco Systems provides the option of predefining the version negotiated to cut down on the negotiation process. Setting the version statically is usually used when the versions of the BGP peers are already known. My Autonomous System --A 2-byte field that indicates the AS number of the BGP router. Hold Time --The maximum amount of time in seconds that may elapse between the receipt of successive KEEPALIVE or UPDATE messages. The hold timer is a counter that increments from zero to the hold time value. Receipt of a KEEPALIVE or UPDATE message causes the hold timer to reset to zero. If the hold time for a particular neighbor is exceeded, the neighbor would be considered dead. The hold time is a 2-byte unsigned integer. The BGP router negotiates with its neighbor to set the hold time at whichever value is lower--its own hold time or its neighbor's. The hold time could be 0, in which case the hold timer and the KEEPALIVE timers are never reset--that is, these timers never expire, and the connection is considered to be always up. If not set to zero, the minimum recommended hold time is three seconds. BGP Identifier --A 4-byte unsigned integer that indicates the sender's ID. In Cisco's implementation, this is usually the router ID (RID), which is calculated as the highest IP address on the router or the highest loopback address at BGP session startup. ( Loopback address is Cisco's representation of the IP address of a virtual software interface that is considered to be up at all times, irrespective of the state of any physical interface.) Optional Parameters --This is a variable length field that indicates a list of optional parameters used in BGP neighbor session negotiation. This field is represented by the triplet <Parameter Type, Parameter Length, Parameter Value> with lengths of 1-byte, 1-byte, and variable length, respectively. An example of optional parameters is the authentication information parameter (type1), which is used to authenticate the session with a BGP peer. Optional Parameter Length --This is a 1-byte unsigned integer that indicates the total length in bytes of the Optional Parameters field. A length value of 0 indicates that no Optional Parameters are present.
  • Unfeasible Routes Length: This 2-octets unsigned integer indicates the total length of the Withdrawn Routes field in octets. Its value must allow the length of the Network Layer Reachability Information field to be determined as specified below. A value of 0 indicates that no routes are being withdrawn from service, and that the WITHDRAWN ROUTES field is not present in this UPDATE message. Withdrawn Routes: This is a variable length field that contains a list of IP address prefixes for the routes that are being withdrawn from service. Each IP address prefix is encoded as a 2-tuple of the form <length, prefix>, whose fields are described below: +---------------------------+ | Length (1 octet) | +---------------------------+ | Prefix (variable) | +---------------------------+ The use and the meaning of these fields are as follows: a) Length: The Length field indicates the length in bits of the IP address prefix. A length of zero indicates a prefix that matches all IP addresses (with prefix, itself, of zero octets). b) Prefix: The Prefix field contains IP address prefixes followed by enough trailing bits to make the end of the field fall on an octet boundary. Note that the value of trailing bits is irrelevant. Total Path Attribute Length: This 2-octet unsigned integer indicates the total length of the Path Attributes field in octets. Its value must allow the length of the Network Layer Reachability field to be determined as specified below. A value of 0 indicates that no Network Layer Reachability Information field is present in this UPDATE message. Path Attributes: A variable length sequence of path attributes is present in every UPDATE. Each path attribute is a triple <attribute type, attribute length, attribute value> of variable length. Attribute Type is a two-octet field that consists of the Attribute Flags octet followed by the Attribute Type Code octet. 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Attr. Flags |Attr. Type Code| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  • FSM states. -         idle (will refuse incoming connection attempts) -         connect (listening) -         active (trying to establish connection) -         opensent (waiting for open from peer) -         openconfirm (waiting notification or keepalive – handshake) -         established (steady state)
  • .  The MED represents the external metric of a route
  • Each routing table is identified by a name, which consists of the protocol family followed by a period and small, nonnegative integer. The protocol family can be inet (Internet), iso (ISO), or mpls (MPLS).The following names are reserved for the default routing tables maintained by the JUNOS software: inet.0 --Default unicast routing table instance-name. inet.0 --Unicast routing table for a particular routing instance inet.1 --Multicast forwarding cache inet.3 --MPLS routing table for path information mpls.0 --MPLS routing table for label-switched path (LSP) next hops   If Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (MBGP) is enabled, inet.2 is used for subaddress family indicator (SAFI) 2 routes
  • Transcript

    • 1. Introduction toBorder Gateway Protocol (BGP 4) Version 1.2
    • 2. Summary  BGP Concept  BGP Operation  Route Control  Configuration  Trouble-shooting  Juniper vs. CiscoUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 2
    • 3. Summary  BGP Concept  BGP Operation  Route Control  Configuration  Trouble-shooting  Juniper vs. CiscoUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 3
    • 4. Concepts  The BGP protocol was developed by the IDR Working Group of IETF. A first version of BGP was published in June 1989 as RFC 1105 (BGP-1). A second version was published in June 1990 as RFC 1163 (BGP-2). A third version was published in October 1991 as RFC 1267 (BGP-3).  A fourth version was published in July 1994 as RFC 1654 (BGP-4). The Current version of BGP-4 is documented in RFC 1771 (March 1995).  BGP-4 supports  the path vector concept to avoid the potential routing loop introduced by complicated (I.e., full-meshed) Internet topology  IP prefix and length advertisementsUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 4
    • 5. BGP Protocol Overview  JUNOS software supports BGP Version 4 and several extensions to the protocol  RFC 1771, A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)  RFC 1772, Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the Internet  RFC 1965, Autonomous System Confederations for BGP  RFC 1966, BGP Route Reflection: An Alternative to Full-Mesh IBGP  RFC 1997, BGP Communities Attribute  RFC 2270, Using a Dedicated AS for Sites Homed to a Single Provider  RFC 2283, Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4  RFC 2385, Protection of BGP Sessions via the TCP MD5 Signature Option  RFC 2439, BGP Route Flap Damping  Capabilities Negotiation with BGP4, IETF draft draft-ietf-idr-cap-neg-01  BGP Extended Communities Attribute, IETF draft-ramachandra-bgp- ext-communities-04.txtUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 5
    • 6. Concepts  the concept of classless interdomain routing to allow better use of existing IP address space and to minimize the rapid growth of routing table size (CIDR, RFC 1519)  policy-based routing using a set of pre-defined path attributes  BGP-4 supports route aggregation and AS aggregation (I.e., AS Set and Confederation)  fast convergence by requiring the router to inform its neighbors when the previously announced routes become unreachable  large routing table size  authentication using BGP identifier and AS number. In addition, it supports encrypted signature in every BGP message.Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 6
    • 7. Concepts  BGP routers only use those routes whose next-hop can be reached  BGP routers advertise only those routes that they use  BGP runs over a reliable transport protocol.  TCP port 179  takes care of segmenting, sequencing, retransmission and acknowledgments  supports a "graceful" close, i.e., that all outstanding data will be delivered before the connection is close.  - 4096 max frame size  - hold time (90 sec def – smallest used between peers)  - open->updates->keepalives (steady state)-> notification (close)  | |  ------ --- -------  BGP MIB consists of the BGP Peer Table, The BGP Path Attribute Table and a Global Table.Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 7
    • 8. Concepts Autonomous System (AS)  The classic definition of an Autonomous System is a set of routers under a single technical administration, using a single IGP and common metrics to route packets within the AS, and using an EGP to route packets to other ASs.  Currently, it has become common for a single AS to use several IGPs and sometimes several sets of metrics within an AS.  The use of the term Autonomous System here stresses the fact that, even when multiple IGPs and metrics are used, the administration of an AS appears to other ASs to have a single coherent interior routing plan and presents a consistent picture of what destinations are reachable through it.Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 8
    • 9. Concepts Autonomous System Type • Stub AS BGP Peers Provider "B" – Single Exit Point Provider "A" – Local Traffic Transit AS AS 60 • Multi-Homed AS Transit AS – Multiple Exit Points – Local Traffic AS 50 •Transit AS TCP Connections Customer #1 – Local and Transit Traffic AS 100 Stub As Stub As Customer #n AS 120 Multi-Homed EBGP Customer #2 IBGP AS 110Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 9
    • 10. BGP AS  What is an AS?  -         16 bit integer (1-65535)  -         64512-65535 private.Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 10
    • 11. Concepts CIDR = Classless Inter Domain Routing  Address Assignment and Aggregation Strategy A mechanism to aggregate IP addresses into blocks of multiple of the old style classes of addresses  Reduces routing information through this aggregation  Conserves Resources  router resources (CPU, memory)  bandwidth (less routes -> less routing packets)Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 11
    • 12. Concepts  Supernet  Organizations are allocated Blocks of IP addresses  These blocks are allocated in powers of 2  The Blocks of Address Space can be Aggregated into one routing announcement (Supernetting)  Block of 256 “Class C” Networks (or a class B sized block)  IP addresses 192.24.0.0 thru 192.24.255.255  Can be described by one Supernetted Route 192.24.0.0 Mask 255.255.0.0Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 12
    • 13. Concepts Exterior Routes Routes learned from other autonomous systemsUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 13
    • 14. Concepts External Neighbor  Between BGP Speakers in different AS  Should be directly connected AS 100  Configuration Router A A bgp { .1 group EXTERNAL { 1.1.1.0 neighbor 1.1.1.2; type external; AS 200 peer-as 200 ; } { .2 B Router B bgp { group EXTERNAL { neighbor 1.1.1.1; type external; peer-as 100 ; } {Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 14
    • 15. Concepts Internal Neighbor  Neighbor in same AS  May be several hop away  Configuration Router A bgp { AS 100 group INTERNAL { type internal; neighbor 1.1.1.1; A } } B Router B bgp { group INTERNAL { neighbor 2.2.2.2; type internal; } {Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 15
    • 16. Concepts Internal vs. External BGP IBGP Update EBGP Update  Local Preference Preserved Removed  MED Preserved Removed the MED from previous AS  Cluster list Prepend the Cluster ID Unchanged by RR  Next-hop address Preserved Changed to the local address  AS Path Unchanged Prepend the local ASUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 16
    • 17. BGP AttributeWell-known mandatory – Always present in a BGP update. All BGP implementations recognize these attributes. An example is the BGP next hop attribute. (Origin, AsPath) Well-known discretionary - Might be present in a BGP update. All BGP implementations recognize these attributes. An example is the local preference attribute.Optional transitive - Must be passed to other BGP peers even if the local peer does not understand or process the attribute. An example is the community attribute.Optional non-transitive - Must not be passed to other BGP peers. An example is the MED attributeUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 17
    • 18. Concepts AS path Attributes  Standard attribute types  1, ORIGIN (well-known mandatory)  2, AS_PATH (well-known mandatory)  3, NEXT_HOP (well-known mandatory)  4, MULTI_EXIT_DISC (optional non-transitive)  5, LOCAL_PREF (well-known discretionary)  6, ATOMIC_AGGREGATE (well-known discretionary)  7, AGGREGATOR (optional transitive)  Additional attribute types have been created via supplemental specifications to extend the protocol  8, Community (optional transitive)  9, Originator Id (optional non-transitive)  10, Cluster list (optional non-transitive)  11, Destination Path Attribute (optional transitive)Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 18
    • 19. Concepts AS-Path  Path traversed one or more members of a set {100 200} (as-set) 100 143.89.14.0/24 206.161.46.0/24  A list of AS’s that a route has 200 206.161.47.0/24 traversed 300 100 (sequence) 300 210.168.35.0/24 143.89.14.0/24 300 100 210.168.35.0/24 300 206.161.46.0/23 300 {100 200}Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 19
    • 20. Concepts Next-hop set by EBGP speaker or policy  Next hop to reach a network  Router A will advertise 100.100.100.1 next hop for network 150.10.0.0 A AS 109 150.10.0.0/16 100.100.100.0 .1 .2 AS 173 BUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 20
    • 21. Concepts Next-hop Issue  Router B would advertise 100.100.100.3 as an “next-hop” to reach the network behind router C to AS 109 ( router A ) Router A AS 109 .1 EBGP 100.100.100.0/24 .2 .3 AS 173 Router B Router CUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 21
    • 22. Concepts Next-hop Issue  Problem will occur if the network in-between is actually an NBMA network ! Router A AS 109 .1 EBGP 100.100.100.0/24 .2 .3 AS 173 Router B Router CUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 22
    • 23. Concepts Next-hop Issue  Use “next-hop self” to solve Router B: Router A protocol bgp { AS 109 group BGP-to-router-A { export chg-nexthop; .1 } EBGP } 100.100.100.0/24 policy-options policy-statement chg-nexthop { from protocol bgp; .2 .3 then next-hop self; AS 173 } Router B Router CUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 23
    • 24. Concepts Local Preference AS 200 AS 666 AS 180 Where to 200 ?? AS 173  Preference send to all routers in local AS  Path with highest preference value are most desirableUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 24
    • 25. Concepts Local Preference AS 200 AS 666 AS 180 bgp { group EXTERNAL { AS 173 type external; peer-as 666 local-preference 100; neighbor 1.1.1.1; } }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 25
    • 26. Concepts Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) 32-bit, non-negative  Affects all routes from same AS path  Advertised to external neighbors  Lower MED value is more preferableUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 26
    • 27. Concepts Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) AS 666 AS 200 AS 1800 AS 1988 AS 2000 AS 173  Applies on a AS path basisUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 27
    • 28. Concepts Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) Router A: bgp { group EXTERNAL { type external; neighbor 1.1.1.1 { export MED; policy-statement MED { peer-as 666; from as-path via-200; } then { } metric 200; } accept; } } as-path via-200 ".* 200";Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 28
    • 29. Concepts Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) AS 666 set MED = 200 AS 200 A AS 1800 AS 1988 AS 2000 AS 173Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 29
    • 30. Concepts Origin  describes how a route was injected into BGP at the originating AS  IGP Default export type on policy statement for BGP  EGP From protocol EGP, can be specified in the export policy  Incomplete Unknown source of information, can be specified in the export policyUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 30
    • 31. Concepts Atomic Aggregate  Used to inform BGP speaker about less specific route.  More specific route exists and is included in it  BGP speaker receiving this attribute shall not remove the attribute when propagating itUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 31
    • 32. Concepts Aggregator (6-bytes) Last AS number that formed the aggregate route (2 bytes) IP address of the BGP speaker that formed the aggregate route (4-bytes)Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 32
    • 33. Concepts Route Reflector and Confederation  Scaling would be an issue when there are too many BGP peer within the AS  BGP speaker would not pass the BGP routes learn from an IBGP peer to another IBGP peers  Number of connection required = n(n-1)/2Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 33
    • 34. Concepts Route Reflector – RFC 1966  Acting as a “mirror” to reflect the BGP routes learned from the IBGP peers to the clients  Update from non-client to all clients  Update from client to all non-clients and the other clients except the one originated the route  Provide the normal BGP speaker function to all other non-clients  Pending cluster-list and originator IDUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 34
    • 35. Concepts Route Reflector IBGP AS300 EBGP EBGP IBGP IBGP IBGP IBGP AS100 AS200 IBGP IBGP IBGP AS300 RR EBGP EBGP non-client IBGP AS100 AS200 IBGP client clientUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 35
    • 36. Concepts Route Reflector  Loop Prevention  Originator ID If the attribute “originator ID” has not been created in the attribute of the route, the RR will create this attribute The content of “originator ID” is the router ID of the IBGP peer that pass this route to the RR The RR would not reflect the route back to the originatorUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 36
    • 37. Concepts Route Reflector  Loop Prevention  Cluster list When the RR reflect the route to other peers, it will prepend it’s cluster ID within the cluster list If the RR receive a route with it’s cluster ID within the cluster list, the route would be discardedUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 37
    • 38. Concepts Confederation – RFC 1965  Scale down an AS into several Sub-ASs  Each BGP peers between sub-AS would act as EBGP peer except some of the attributes remain unchanged  Local-preference passed through such a connect  MED, next-hop unchanged between member AS’s of the confederation.Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 38
    • 39. Concepts Confederation IBGP IBGP EBGP IBGP IBGP IBGP IBGP AS100 IBGP IBGP IBGP EBGP AS200 EBGP AS65500 IBGP IBGP IBGP IBGP AS100 IBGP AS65501 AS200Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 39
    • 40. Summary  BGP Concept  BGP Operation  Route Control  Configuration  Trouble-shooting  Juniper vs. CiscoUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 40
    • 41. BGP Protocol Messages  Four types of messages  Open  Update  Keepalive  NotificationUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 41
    • 42. BGP Header 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | + + | | + + | Marker | + + | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Length | Type | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+•Marker: synchronization and authenticationUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 42
    • 43. BGP Open message 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Version | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | My Autonomous System | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Hold Time | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | BGP Identifier | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Opt Parm Len | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | | Optional Parameters | | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 43
    • 44. OPEN Message (Cont.) Optional Parameters  Authentication Information (type 1) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Auth. Code | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | | Authentication Data | | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 44
    • 45. NOTIFICATION Message 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Error code | Error subcode | Data | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ + | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 1 = HRD Error 2 = OPEN Error 3= UPDATE Error 4 = Hold Time Expired 5 = FSM Error 6 = Cease(for fatal errors besides the ones already listed)Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 45
    • 46. UPDATE Message +-----------------------------------------------------+ | Unfeasible Routes Length (2 octets) | +-----------------------------------------------------+ | Withdrawn Routes (variable) | +-----------------------------------------------------+ | Total Path Attribute Length (2 octets) | +-----------------------------------------------------+ | Path Attributes (variable) | +-----------------------------------------------------+ | Network Layer Reachability Information (variable) | +-----------------------------------------------------+ 0 1 +---------------------------+ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 | Length (1 octet) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +---------------------------+ | Attr. Flags |Attr. Type Code| | Prefix (variable) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +---------------------------+Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 46
    • 47. BGP Operation BGP-4 Message Exchange BGP Peers BGP TCP TCP BGP Idle Idle Connect Connect syn Listen Syn Sent Syn +Ack Syn Received Established Ack Initializing Established Open Open Initializing Open Sent Open Sent Open Confirm KeepAlive KeepAlive Open Confirm Established Established Update UpdateUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 47
    • 48. BGP Operation BGP-4 FSM 1 Idle 2 3 6 4 Connect 12 5 11 9 13 Open Sent 10 Active 8 7 14 Open Confirm 15 16 EstablishedUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 48
    • 49. BGP Operation Current New Event State State Idle Idle 1). Error Connect 2). Start Connect Idle 3). Any other event Connect 4). ConnectRetry Timer Expired Open Sent 5). Transport Protocol Connect Succeeds Active 6). Transport Protocol Connect Fails Open sent--- Wait for open from peer Open Sent Idle 7). Stop, Open Error, Connection Collision, Hold Timer Expires, or any other event Open Confirm 8). No Errors Active 9). Disconnect NotificationUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 49
    • 50. BGP Operation Current New Event State State Active Open Sent 10). Transport Connect Protocol Succeeds Connect 11). ConnectRetry Timer Expired Active 12). Remote Peer Trying, IP Address Not Expected Idle 13). Any Other Event Open Confirm (waiting notification or keepalive – handshake) Open Confirm Idle 14). Hold Timer Expired, Notification, Disconnect, Stop, or any other event Established 15). Keepalive Established Idle 16). Notification, UPDATE Message error Disconnect Notification, Hold Timer Expired, Stop, or any other eventUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 50
    • 51. Summary  BGP Concept  BGP Operation  Route Control  Configuration  Trouble-shooting  Juniper vs. CiscoUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 51
    • 52. Route Control Route Selection  Route with lowest preference value  Route with highest local preference  Route with the shortest AS path length  Route with the lowest origin code ( IGP < EGP < incomplete )  Route with the lowest MED (cisco-nondeterministic / always-compare-med )  Routes are local generated  Routes from EBGP peer  Routes with the closest next-hop (determined by IGP metric)  Routes from the peer with lowest router-id  Routes from the neighbor with lowest IP addressUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 52
    • 53. Route Control Policy Control Import / Export Policy Communities AS path Route filteringUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 53
    • 54. Route Control Import / Export Policy  Per group / neighbor import / export policy  Used for advertise routes originated from the local AS  Used for change / add / delete BGP attributes  Global specific > Group specific > Neighbor specificUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 54
    • 55. Route Control Import / Export Policy  Applying policies: bgp { import global-import-policy-here; export global-export-policy-here; group testing-policy { import group-import-policy-here; export group-export-policy-here; neighbor 1.1.1.1 { import neighbor-import-policy-here; export neighbor-export-policy-here; } } }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 55
    • 56. Route Control Import / Export Policy  Check the routes received from a peer before applying an import policy: show route receive-protocol bgp 1.1.1.1 Check the routes sent to a peer after applying an export policy: show route advertising-protocol bgp 1.1.1.1Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 56
    • 57. Route Control Community  Well-known community no-advertise Do not advertise to neighbors no-export Do not advertise outside your confederation/AS no-export-subconfed Do not advertise outside your subconfederation  Define Community community community-name members [ 100:10 100:30 ];Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 57
    • 58. Route Control AS Path  AS Path Regular Expressions {m,n} at least m and most n repetitions of term. {m} Exact m repetitions of term {m,} m or more repetitions of term * Zero or more repetitions of term + One or more repetitions of term ? Zero or one repetitions of term | One of the two terms on either side of the pipeUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 58
    • 59. Route Control Route filtering  Filteringbased on IP prefix / AS path / Community string / Neighbor / Origin …..  Import / Export policyUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 59
    • 60. Route Control Route filtering  Matching criteria + as-path Name of AS path regular expression (BGP only) + community BGP community local-preference Local preference associated with a route + neighbor Neighboring router Origin BGP origin attribute > prefix-list List of prefix-lists of routes to match > route-filter List of routes to matchUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 60
    • 61. Route Control Route filtering  Matching AS Path policy-statement filtering { from as-path testing-as-path; then accept; } as-path testing-as-path ".* 200";Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 61
    • 62. Route Control Route filtering  Matching Community string policy-statement filtering { from community testing-community; then accept; } community testing-community members 100:200;Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 62
    • 63. Route Control Route filtering  Matching route entry policy-statement filtering { from route-filter 100.100.0.0/16 orlonger; then accept; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 63
    • 64. Route Control Route filtering  Matching within a group of route entries prefix-list route-list { 100.100.0.0/16; 100.110.0.0/16; 100.120.0.0/16; } policy-statement filtering { from prefix-list route-list; then accept; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 64
    • 65. Summary  BGP Concept  BGP Operation  Route Control  Configuration  Trouble-shooting  Juniper vs. CiscoUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 65
    • 66. Configuration BGP minimum configuration [routing-options] autonomous-system <your own AS>; [protocol bgp] group BGP-setup { type [external | internal]; peer-as <peer’s AS>; neighbor <peer IP address>; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 66
    • 67. Configuration Example [protocol bgp] group BGP-setup { type external; peer-as 100; neighbor 100.1.1.2; } [routing-options] autonomous-system 200;Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 67
    • 68. Configuration  Set the local-preference [protocol bgp] group BGP-setup { type external; local-preference 100; peer-as 100; neighbor 100.1.1.2; }  Set the MED [protocol bgp] group BGP-setup { type external; metric-out 200; local-preference 100; peer-as 100; neighbor 100.1.1.2; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 68
    • 69. Configuration  Change the origin [protocol policy-options] policy-statement change-origin { from protocol aggregate; then { origin incomplete; accept; } } [protocol bgp] group BGP-setup { type external; export change-origin; peer-as 100; neighbor 100.1.1.2; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 69
    • 70. Configuration  AS-prepend [policy-options] policy-statement as-prepend { from protocol aggregate; then { as-path-prepend “300 300 300"; accept; } } [protocol bgp] group BGP-setup { type external; export as-prepend; peer-as 100; neighbor 100.1.1.2; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 70
    • 71. Configuration Attach community [protocol bgp] group BGP-setup { type external; export att-community; peer-as 100; neighbor 100.1.1.2; } [policy-options] policy-statement att-community { then { community set send-community; } } community send-community members [ 100:10 200:10 ];Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 71
    • 72. Configuration Route Reflector [protocol bgp] group RR-client { type internal; cluster 100.1.1.1; neighbor 100.1.1.2; neighbor 100.1.1.3; } group non-client { type internal; neighbor 10.1.1.2; } group EBGP { type external; peer-as 100; neighbor 192.168.1.2; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 72
    • 73. Configuration Confederation [routing-options] autonomous-system 65000; confederation 200 members [ 65000 65001 ]; [protocol bgp] group confe { type external; peer-as 65001; neighbor 100.1.1.2; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 73
    • 74. Configuration  Advertise summary network [routing-options] aggregate { route 202.168.0.0/17 discard; } [policy-options] policy-statement adv-summary { from protocol aggregate; then accept; } [protocol bgp] group BGP-setup { type external; export adv-summary; peer-as 100; neighbor 100.1.1.2; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 74
    • 75. Configuration  Advertise the routing entries in other protocol [policy-options] policy-statement adv-ospf { from protocol ospf; then accept; } [protocol bgp] group BGP-setup { type external; export adv-ospf; peer-as 100; neighbor 100.1.1.2; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 75
    • 76. Summary  BGP concepts  BGP Operation  Route Control  Configuration  Trouble-shooting  Juniper vs. CiscoUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 76
    • 77. Trouble-shooting  Checking the BGP neighbor status root@router> show bgp summary Groups: 1 Peers: 1 Down Peers: 0 Table Tot Paths Act Paths Suppressed History Damp State Pending inet.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 inet.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peer AS InPkt OutPkt OutQ Flaps Last Up/Dwn State|#Active/Received/Damped... 100.1.1.2 65001 275 279 0 0 02:17:30 0/0/0 0/0/0Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 77
    • 78. Trouble-shooting  Neighbor can’t establish Groups: 1 Peers: 1 Down Peers: 1 Table Tot Paths Act Paths Suppressed History Damp State Pending inet.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 inet.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peer AS InPkt OutPkt OutQ Flaps Last Up/Dwn State|#Active/Received/Damped... 100.1.1.2 65001 0 4 0 0 00:00:57 Active  Enable traceoption [protocol bgp] traceoptions { file bgp-trace; flag packets detail; flag open detail; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 78
    • 79. Trouble-shooting  Monitoring root@router> monitor start bgp-trace *** bgp-trace *** Nov 10 14:53:50 Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP RECV 100.1.1.2+1113 -> 100.1.1.1+179 Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP RECV message type 1 (Open) length 45 Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP RECV version 4 as 65001 holdtime 90 id 192.168.1.2 parmlen 16 Nov 10 14:53:50 MP capability AFI=1, SAFI=1 Nov 10 14:53:50 Refresh capability, code=128 Nov 10 14:53:50 Refresh capability, code=2 Nov 10 14:53:50 bgp_pp_recv: dropping 100.1.1.2 (External AS 65001), connection collision prefers 100.1.1.2+1113 (proto) Nov 10 14:53:50 bgp_send: sending 45 bytes to 100.1.1.2 (External AS 65001) Nov 10 14:53:50 Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP SEND 100.1.1.1+179 -> 100.1.1.2+1113 Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP SEND message type 1 (Open) length 45Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 79
    • 80. Trouble-shooting  Monitoring Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP SEND version 4 as 65000 holdtime 90 id 192.168.1.1 parmlen 16 Nov 10 14:53:50 MP capability AFI=1, SAFI=1 Nov 10 14:53:50 Refresh capability, code=128 Nov 10 14:53:50 Refresh capability, code=2 Nov 10 14:53:50 bgp_send: sending 19 bytes to 100.1.1.2 (External AS 65001) Nov 10 14:53:50 Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP SEND 100.1.1.1+179 -> 100.1.1.2+1113 Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP SEND message type 4 (KeepAlive) length 19 Nov 10 14:53:50 Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP RECV 100.1.1.2+1113 -> 100.1.1.1+179 Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP RECV message type 3 (Notification) length 21 Nov 10 14:53:50 BGP RECV Notification code 2 (Open Message Error) subcode 2 (bad peer AS number) root@router> monitor stop bgp-traceUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 80
    • 81. Trouble-shooting  Configuration Near end [routing-options] autonomous-system 65000; confederation 200 members [ 65000 65001 65002 ]; [protocol bgp] group bgp-demo { Far End type external; [routing-options] peer-as 65001; autonomous-system 65001; neighbor 100.1.1.2; confederation 200 members [ 65000 65001 65002 ]; } [protocol bgp] admin@Jessie# show protocols bgp group testing { type external; peer-as 65002; neighbor 100.1.1.1; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 81
    • 82. Trouble-shooting  Logged result: root@router> file show /var/log/? Possible completions: <[Enter]> Execute this command <filename> Filename to display /var/log/bgp-trace Size: 2459, Last changed: Nov 7 18:41:08  Stop logging: root@router# delete protocols bgp traceoptions root@router# commitUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 82
    • 83. Trouble-shooting  Other problem  Local-address definition (cisco’s update-source) [protocol bgp] group <group> { local-address <local IP address>; }  Peer AS mis-configured  Peer address unreachable  Mulithop issue for EBGP [protocol bgp] group <group> { multihop; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 83
    • 84. Trouble-shooting  Problem Report  “show bgp summary”  “show bgp neighbor”  “show bgp group”  “show version”  “show configuration”Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 84
    • 85. Summary  BGP concepts  BGP Operation  Route Control  Configuration  Trouble-shooting  Juniper vs. CiscoUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 85
    • 86. Presentation and command difference between Juniper and Cisco Juniper: Cisco: fxp1 { interface Loopback0 unit 0 { ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.255 family inet { address 172.27.4.172/24; } ! } interface Ethernet0 } ip address 172.27.4.173 255.255.255.0 lo0 { ! unit 0 { router bgp 200 family inet { address 192.168.1.3/32; } neighbor 192.168.1.3 remote-as 100 } neighbor 192.168.1.3 ebgp-multihop 255 } neighbor 192.168.1.3 update-source Loopback0 routing-options { ! autonomous-system 100; } group Cisco { type external; multihop; Juniper Cisco local-address 192.168.1.3; peer-as 200; neighbor 192.168.1.254; }Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 86
    • 87. Presentation and command difference between Juniper and Cisco root@Juniper> show bgp summary Groups: 1 Peers: 1 Down Peers: 0 Table Tot Paths Act Paths Suppressed History Damp State Pending inet.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 inet.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peer AS InPkt OutPkt OutQ Flaps Last Up/Dwn State| #Active/Received/Damped... 192.168.1.254 200 12 14 0 0 00:05:46 0/0/0 0/0/0 Cisco#show ip bgp summary BGP table version is 1, main routing table version 1 Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd 192.168.1.3 4 100 14 14 1 0 0 00:05:39 0Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 87
    • 88. Presentation and command difference between Juniper and Cisco root@Juniper> show bgp neighbor Peer: 192.168.1.254+179 AS 200 Local: 192.168.1.3+3844 AS 100 Type: External State: Established Flags: <> Last State: OpenConfirm Last Event: RecvKeepAlive Last Error: None Options: <Multihop Preference LocalAddress HoldTime PeerAS Refresh> Local Address: 192.168.1.3 Holdtime: 90 Preference: 170 Number of flaps: 0 Peer ID: 192.168.1.254 Local ID: 192.168.1.3 Active Holdtime: 90 Keepalive Interval: 30 NLRI advertised by peer: NLRI for this session: inet-unicast Peer does not support Refresh capabilityUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 88
    • 89. Presentation and command difference between Juniper and Cisco Table inet.0 Bit: 10000 Active Prefixes: 0 Received Prefixes: 0 Suppressed due to damping: 0 Table inet.2 Bit: 20000 Active Prefixes: 0 Received Prefixes: 0 Suppressed due to damping: 0 Last traffic (seconds): Received 3 Sent 3 Checked 3 Input messages: Total 16 Updates 0 Refreshes 0 Octets 304 Output messages: Total 18 Updates 0 Refreshes 0 Octets 368 Output Queue[0]: 0 Output Queue[1]: 0 Route Queue Timer: unset Route Queue: emptyUpdated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 89
    • 90. Presentation and command difference between Juniper and Cisco Cisco#show ip bgp neighbors BGP neighbor is 192.168.1.3, remote AS 100, external link Index 1, Offset 0, Mask 0x2 BGP version 4, remote router ID 192.168.1.3 BGP state = Established, table version = 1, up for 00:08:45 Last read 00:00:15, hold time is 90, keepalive interval is 30 seconds Minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds Received 20 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Sent 20 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Connections established 1; dropped 0 Last reset never No. of prefix received 0 External BGP neighbor may be up to 255 hops away. Connection state is ESTAB, I/O status: 1, unread input bytes: 0 Local host: 192.168.1.254, Local port: 179 Foreign host: 192.168.1.3, Foreign port: 3844 Enqueued packets for retransmit: 0, input: 0 mis-ordered: 0 (0 bytes)Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 90
    • 91. Presentation and command difference between Juniper and Cisco Event Timers (current time is 0x2590F0): Timer Starts Wakeups Next Retrans 21 0 0x0 TimeWait 0 0 0x0 AckHold 20 17 0x0 SendWnd 0 0 0x0 KeepAlive 0 0 0x0 GiveUp 0 0 0x0 PmtuAger 0 0 0x0 DeadWait 0 0 0x0 iss: 401687383 snduna: 401687774 sndnxt: 401687774 sndwnd: 16384 irs: 486200570 rcvnxt: 486200977 rcvwnd: 15978 delrcvwnd: 406 SRTT: 342 ms, RTTO: 1337 ms, RTV: 326 ms, KRTT: 0 ms minRTT: 4 ms, maxRTT: 300 ms, ACK hold: 200 ms Flags: passive open, nagle, gen tcbs Datagrams (max data segment is 556 bytes): Rcvd: 25 (out of order: 0), with data: 20, total data bytes: 406 Sent: 38 (retransmit: 0), with data: 20, total data bytes: 390Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 91
    • 92. Presentation and command difference between Juniper and Cisco Juniper Cisco no synchronization ( Default behavior ) no synchronization set policy-options damping cisco bgp damping set routing-options confederation members bgp confederation set protocols bgp group Cisco cluster bgp cluster-id show bgp neighbor show ip bgp neighbor show bgp summary show ip bgp summary show route aspath-regex "200" show ip bgp regexp ^200$Updated 8/22/00 Juniper Networks, Inc. Copyright © 2000 - Proprietary & Confidential 92
    • 93. Thank you!http://www.juniper.net