Qualitative Interviewing in Market Research + MORE by RI Qualitatif
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Qualitative Interviewing in Market Research + MORE by RI Qualitatif

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Qualitative Interviewing in Market Research + MORE by RI Qualitatif Qualitative Interviewing in Market Research + MORE by RI Qualitatif Presentation Transcript

  • Qualitative Interviewing in Market Research and more! Europe March 2003/JG
  • Agenda A brief history of qualitative research Interview formats and settings Cultural differences in respondents Strengths and limitations of qual. as a data collection method What are we seeking to learn from moderating Establishing a good interviewing relationship Group dynamics Stages of a group Other patterns in interviewing Good moderators are born, not made Respondents’ experiences Problems of poor moderating The use and effects of viewing facilities Interviewing and questioning skills Barriers of respondents and how to overcome them 2
  • “You are educating yourself, going to different places, finding out all sort of interesting things and getting paid for it!” 3
  • A brief history of qualitativeresearch
  • Brief history of qualitative research1920s Groups were being conducted, though depths dominated - to help surveys/study social issues Commercial research was mainly quant. But post war over-production call for more consumer understanding1930s “Motivation(al)” research was born 5
  • Brief history of qualitative research Ernest Dichter set up Institute for Motivational1940s Research in 1946 with a branch in Switzerland in 1947 Social scientists, psychologists and cultural anthropologists were working for advertising agencies1950s First paper on using social stereotypes in advertising strategy 1953 Research interviewing framework devised which overcame concerns about qualitative being too leading but there are still issues with this in the US 6
  • So what went wrong in the US? Tendency for all motivational researchers to oversell themselves Overclaiming of the power of the techniques Dichter used his own hypotheses with little evidenceBacklash and scepticism from qualitative researchers, suspicions from clients“They are attempting to prove that sales are controlled bythe libido or that people buy merchandise because subconsciouslythey hate their fathers!”“The depth manipulators which try to invade the privacy or our minds”Vance Packard 1957 7
  • And what went right in Europe? Growth of qual was slower so it evolved rather than hit by storm Researchers were psychologists rather than psychoanalysts  more credible Bill Schlackman came to the UK- provided an unofficial training ground for some well known researchersAnd there must have been other “Schlackmans” elsewhere 8
  • The evolution1960s “Phenomenological” approach to research1980s The qual-quant debate Changes in client requirements esp. the agency planner 9
  • And now? We don’t call it motivational research any moreBut we have retained the “psychological legacy” without the Freudian concepts More intuition, symbolism, cultural analysis, values 10
  • And now?Client requirements are changing yet again Consumer insight managers Rather than research managers Planning managers New sources of information New methodologies and ways of doing the research including “learning journeys” RI has got to keep up This is where Fifteen20 and all our innovation practice is so crucial to our continued success 11
  • EXERCISE: BREAK OUT GROUPSDiscuss how qualitative research has evolved and developed in Europe What is its current status and how has it been influenced by the US model or any other 12
  • Interview formats and settings
  • Focus groups There are no limits! Group discussions extended groups Individual depths Creativity groups Paired depths (dyad) Weekend groups Triads In facilities Reconvened groups Conflict pairs In home Peer groups Partners In hall Mini groups Families In shops Workshops etc. On line Brainstorming At work On the bus At the zoo Be creative! In a theatre In pubs and clubs In public lavatories etc.Consumers/non consumers DiariesUsers/non/lapsed users Bring visualsExperts/key informants Change behaviourEmployees Take photographs Interview friends Observations 14
  • Groups v. individual interviewing• GROUPS • stimulating • INDIVIDUAL • homogenous people • when groups are impractical • social norms + individual • when detail is important perspectives • discretion/secrecy Safety in numbers A positive experience No group dynamics to deal with Entertaining One to one rapport Supportive BUT BUT Focus on one person/no escape Influence of social norms Can be mismatch of personality and style Group members adopt roles More stressful/rigid and less open Interactions run out of control 15
  • So why bias towards groups?  Favoured data collection method Europe (expect Netherlands)  lower cost per respondent for the client  moderators’ ability to avoid negative effect of groups and collect individual information  dynamic, involving and entertaining  clients have “unit price awareness” for groups  can make quick baseline comparison Apart from being more interested and appropriate these days,creative sampling and different approaches can militate against clients being able to make these price comparisons because not comparing like with like 16
  • And groups offer: Cost efficiency when a range of opinions is sought Allow people to bring to the surface hidden feelings and attitudes in a safe environment 17
  • DISCUSSIONWhat interviewing formats are used most often in your markets and is this ideal?  Who largely influences the interviewing used - proposals writers? - client?What formats are not being used very much and how could we usefully introduce them into our markets 18
  • Cultural difference inrespondents
  • Cultural difference in interpersonal relations There are big difference in how people inter-relate with each other across and within cultures Although some surprising parts of the world are part of homogeneous groups in this respect People do vary within cultures, of course, so the next couple of charts are huge generalisations (and the tongue is a bit in the cheek!)  but the broad differences do apply and need to be considered in designing research for different markets 20
  • Cultural differences: national “personalities” Better at rankings, ratings, more specific tasks More reserved/more formal cultures Japan Maoris Pacific Region Germany/Finland/Austria/Sweden/Canada/South Korea More direct/ straightforward Less developed More developed Norway markets/less markets/more Czech brand literate brand literate Russia/Poland/Hungary UK/Denmark/Australia India Middle East NZ/USA Latam Africa More excitable/open/willing to please/verbalSouthern Europe France Better at creative, philosophical projectives 21
  • Cultural “families” (some interesting groupings) 22
  • The US versus the rest “Journalism” v. “newsreading” Connotative Cognitive More the rest More US Smaller groups (4-8) Larger groups (8-12) Deal with feelings Deal with external information Stimuli for “show and tell”: Stimuli to be reacted to foils for exploration/insight More structured questioning Unstructured questioning More focus on special issues - can change as you go Confirm or expand on known issues Information gathering Uncover new issues Analysis and interpretation ongoing The moderator makes sense of it all Often by the clients Presentation the norm Lots of summary reports (or none)Strong recommendations often required Very few presentations 23
  • DISCUSSIONAre your markets more connotative or cognitive in the approach to qualitative research Why is that? Is this ideal? 24
  • Strengths and limitations ofqualitative as a data collectionmethod
  • Strengths People tell their We understand experiences own story and reconstruct eventsTheir own priorities Experience their world and frames and gain insights of reference about them It’s natural In society people are like a conversation communicated to all the time Trust builds upPeople are willing Being a participant helps to share respondents gain insights about themselves 26
  • Strengths We are free to explore outside the guide We can build on knowledge, ideas and hypotheses from outside these interview occasions  indeed we must for TMK We become experts in people, product areas, brands etc. over time We can understand attitudes and behaviours within their context in fieldwork and observations in situ 27
  • Self perceptions Limitations influence what people say People have blind spots about themselves Reality seen through observation may Negative self belief be different prejudices, hostility anxiety Habitual behaviour outside consciousness The group and the moderator do affect responses People con themselves and really believe We can deal with this butsomething which is not true people often want to be seen in a particular way 28
  • Overall Our role is to explore people’s motivations, desires, needs and this had to be done by dealing with the private, intuitive, symbolic world of the consumer This is not accessible to consciousness and has to be explored via qualitative methods But we have to accept that things are visibly evolving to meet the challenges of the information age We have to be aware of the limitations of qualitative moderating as well as its strengths  and take action to militate against the limitations by subsidiary work such as observation as well 29
  • What are we seeking to learnfrom moderating?
  • Some UK qualitative researchers’ views ‘Exploring their views, finding out in detail what they think about things they have never thought about before.’‘Looking at their emotions, its more about going down into the feelings, the irrational part.’ ‘We help them uncover their own reasons and motivations for doing things.’ ‘Its about insights, learning things that are not obvious. Qual goes deeper into what influences them.’ 31
  • Model and theories It is not necessary to be a psychologist or familiar with theories to be an excellent interviewer However, it is useful to be familiar with jargon and have understanding of the industry thinking  some may wish to associate with a particular theoretical perspective  but most know there is no one unique truth about human nature and like to cherry-pick the theory which has most salience and explanatory power for different circumstances One model I do like came from Lannon and Cooper in 1983 32
  • Model and theories Conscious Accessible to structured factors questionnaires Needs a sympathetic Private feelings interview structure and language Non-verbal, play. The inner world of consumers, Intuitive brands and advertising Associations Projective interviewing (and observation, Unconscious deduction). Spontaneous, factors uncensored reactionsResearching symbolic attitudes to advertising: basic model Humanistic Advertising by Lannon and Cooper 1983 33
  • Psychoanalysis and psychodynamics Where is all started with Dichter and his contemporaries  motivational research set up the expectation that qualitative was to give insights into factors below the surface which influence human behaviour That still applies today 34
  • Psychoanalysis and psychodynamicsSome of the fathers of psychoanalysis and early qualitative research Freud Jung Adler Rogers 35
  • Freud (1856-1939) He came from a tradition of psychopathologists seeking to understand dysfunction/mental illness Publishing since 1890 but came into force in the 1920s Popularised the concept of the unconscious  before that thinking was more rigid: that people have more or less immutable characteristics which can be moulded by learning and experience  this thinking did not allow for dreams, passion, neuroses, depression 36
  • Jung (1875-1961) Worked with Freud but his interest in anthropology, mythology and the occult led him to develop independently a theory of personal development His theories include the personal and collective unconscious, the “complex”, the importance of symbols (semiotics), personality types and so on 37
  • Adler (1870-1937) He saw future hope and ambitions, parental relationships and the social environment as important factors in healthy personal development 38
  • Carl Rogers (1902-1987) An influential American psychotherapist who developed a new approach to his work based on non directive and person centred questioning. He researched counselling and therapy and concluded that the therapist  should provide conditions under which patients could use their inner resources for change  rather than the therapist’s role being to diagnose and prescribe solutions In that respect Rogers probably provided the best bridge between psychotherapy and modern day qualitative research 39
  • Psychoanalysis and psychodynamics Some of the fathers of psychoanalysis Freud Jung Adler Rogers But there are many more and their thinking has all helped us in where we are today with qualitative moderating and analysis There have been attempts to discredit Freud “You don’t think of Freud as relevant any more, all this business about seeing everything as a sexual symbol - that is about the level of teenage boys nowadays.!” (UK researcher) but his concepts and those of other analysts are ingrained in thedevelopment of qualitative market research, whether we are aware of it or not 40
  • The unconscious Suppressed and repressed, emotionally-charged memories and ideas  expressed in any way they can: physical symptoms, artwork, dreams, spontaneous behaviour Freud’s “talking cure” beings them to the surface We use projective techniques to do the same thing 41
  • The structure if the psyche Freudian concept of division of the self Id Super Ego Ego unconscious the moral and the conscious instincts and social self drives conscience Drives to The problem The “shoulds” ensure solver/mediator and “oughts”: physiological between desires the ideal ego needs are met and reality 42
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of need SELF ACTUALISATION NEEDS (realisation of true potential) Super Ego ESTEEM NEEDS (self esteem, esteem from others) Ego BELONGINESS, LOVE NEEDS(acceptance, caring, sense of community)SAFETY/SECURITY NEEDS (human rights, freedom from fear) IdBASIC NEEDS (physiological: food, water, shelter, medical care) 43
  • The relevance of the psyche in moderating Listen and be aware of which element of the psyche is to the forefront in the discussion: to take a dieting example Forbidden foods/ Id indulgent snacks Battles for control of eating patterns Ego They need to lose Super weight to fit social Ego morés/to be healthy So how are you framing your questions? From which part of their psyche are consumers responding? And remember it is topic specific 44
  • Social psychology in interviewing We are also influenced by how other people see and respond to us and this is a dynamic to watch out for in interviewing Humans are members of social groups - not just peer groups, but changing groups depending on the environment and the topic To whom are we talking on this specific occasion Consider the “me” of respondents on each occasion 45
  • Social psychology in interviewing peer co-worker expert Volvo subordinate driver childteacher golfer teenager ME gourmet studentparent music appreciator moralist wife boss sibling 46
  • And the cultural context  Cultural factors surround us and are taken for granted in order to facilitate our way  and they vary by market  they vary by social group  they can be very subtle  Who do consumers see themselves as and what value groups do they belong to  how does that fit with what they are saying about the brand, communications or productWe should never short change the research by not spending enough time understanding the group and where it is coming from 47
  • Establishing a good interviewingrelationship
  • Empathy Empathy is entering the private perceptual world of the client (i.e. respondent) and becoming thoroughly at home. Temporarily living the other’s life, moving about in it delicately, without making judgements.” (A Way of Being - Carl Rogers) Being willing to enter the frame of reference of other people  not necessarily agreeing with them or pretending to  but being open to them and non judgmental Empathy is a process/ a way of being and not a technique  if you don’t have it perhaps qual is not for you 49
  • Reflective listening Showing understanding and acceptance of the thoughts which have been expressed Being slightly outside understanding the respondent  leaves you able to interpret, rephrase and check back with the respondent  shows you are listeningGet this wrong and you can come over as judgmental and patronising 50
  • Genuineness Being genuine in an authentic way We all have a personal façade (or more than one)  we learn from this in childhood to please people and conform with society Drop the professional from when necessary  you can ask “help I’m stuck” or “I don’t know how to as you this” Be yourself - in every way 51
  • Unconditional positive regard  The ability to accept others  To set aside the judgmental mistake of identifying people with their behaviours (claimed or during the interviewing)This is a hard one for qualitative researchers when respondents are precisely identified and categorised by their behaviour! 52
  • Congruence  In effect “to thine own self to be true”  Transparency to dissolve illusions of power  Not pretending to accept something you personally dislike but, at the same time, not being judgmental  It would in incongruent to notice unacceptable behaviour but pretend it is not happening  e.g. homophobic or sexist language or continual side conversations or drunkennessIn an ideal group respondents would deal with issues such as these for you If you have to do it yourself it can take courage! 53
  • Directive v. non directive interviewing Directive Leading the witness Not getting at “truth”Process Content Chaos and the objectives won’t be met X Non Directivepsychotherapy 54
  • Group Dynamics
  • What are group dynamics? A group of 2 or more individuals who influence each other through social interaction = GD The larger the group the more formalised its structure needs to be  larger groups waste time and effort spent on activities not related to the task  allow “loafers” as effort per respondent decreases as group size increases but non task-related effort for the interview increases As we have more complex groups and material these days and guides are fuller and more detailed, we have less time to spend managing the process  consider smaller groups for this reason: e.g. 6 rather than 8 56
  • Benefits of group dynamics Socio-biography suggests natural selection of group dwellers: Groups satisfy environmentally protected social needs Group discussion allows us to re-evaluate Problem solving our personal works better beliefs in groups Group membership Group membership satisfies basic is rewardingpsychological needs 57
  • Stages of a group
  • Stages of a group FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMINGMOURNING/ADJOURNING 59
  • Forming Insecurity as respondents don’t know each other (!) or the tasks to come Looking to the moderator to lead the way The warm up is crucial to setting the tone for the rest of the discussion Respondents need guidance at the outset  how to behave to each other  no right or wrong answers (May occur before entering the discussion room though this varies by culture and lifestage) 60
  • Storming Actually storming can happen anytime Distribution of power and control • Who will be leader Dominant • how much will I take respondents control • who will talk the most Irrelevant chatter • will they all co-operate Frozen polite • who will they try to dominate responses • who will opt out Chaotic all • who will rebel, play up talking at once 61
  • Norming Group unconsciously figuring out how to work in harmony • More frustrating • has found ways of sharing and co-operating But the moderator still has to keep control Respondents will expect rules to be restated where necessaryChallenging or explicitly stating rules may be uncomfortable but it will keep the group functioning 62
  • Perfoming Task-oriented, co-operative, constructive activity (ideal time for projective work)WATCH OUT FOR regression into an earlier storming stage due to: • late member arriving • someone leaving the room etc. 63
  • Mourning or adjourning Allow time for group to register the ending • recap their experience in the group • ask - if they have any final remarks - if they have any left something important unsaidIf respondents aren’t given warning of the end and time to round up you may have problems getting them to go home 64
  • Overall  Use a sense of group energy as a guide to the stage a group is in  does the group feel safe  are they sharing  are things not being said  You can increase or decrease the group energy by body language  stand up, sit down, move around, stay still ‘You can walk in and tell the mood of a room with your eyes closed, you can tell my feeling that energy; there is an aura, if you will.I’ve had to learn a long time ago when to turn on energy-perform- and when to pull back energy, and to turn it off when you are done. Because when you leave a group you are on a high.’ (Moderator interview, UK) 65
  • Other patterns in interviewing
  • Power in groups Power is the capacity to influence others, even when they resist! Ultimately the moderator must retain tacit power (or there will be chaos) but not “lead” the group However, the level and nature of moderator power needs consideration and careful handling: e.g. Too much power, e.g. Too little power, e.g. with children who are young female moderator used to the classroom doing business interview - need to reduce perceived - need to balance back to power more equalityBut power does not mean leading the group nor not being part of it It’s lovely if a respondent takes over moderating, but only if they are sticking to the areas we want to cover! 67
  • DISCUSSIONHow can you ensure that power is balanced in qualitative interviewing? 68
  • Tactics to get right balance of power for the moderator Physical position as well as verbal cues  sit on floor with kids  sit at equal height to businessman Discussion, negotiation, requests work better than coercive or aggressive shows of power  this can lead to rejection, evasion, dislike  more likely to get a fairer balance of power between respondents as well Remember: extreme non-directive interviewing places too much responsibility on the group An ambiguous role for the moderator is like to mean we do not meet our research objectives or cover all the issues 69
  • Tactics to get right balance of power between respondents Clients sometimes think a respondent is leading  but all groups develop temporary leaders  some people need to get things off their chest  group dynamic shows the individual is speaking for all  some respondents like to think and then come in with something really pertinent Power, leadership, energy, status can change hands regularly in a group  can’t make early judgements of how respondents will be once they settle 70
  • Tactics to get the right balance of power between respondents - maintain volume of speech if they interruptDominant respondents - redirect comments back to- seeking status/control the group for agreement/- speaking without hesitation disagreement- tell others what to do - thank them but tell them it- confirm others’ statements is a group discussion - pre-empt them - use of name - talk less yourself Submissive respondents - ask open-ended questions - spend time on what does interest them - reward the things they say 71
  • Tactics to get the right balance of power between respondents “Groupthink” - impartial moderating - majority dominate - use of sub groups to - minority don’t agree discuss specific issues - but feel they must conform Conformity effect - use of sub groups to - not lying but…. discuss specific issues - conformists - support “unyielding deviants” - seeking balance - introduce “evidence” from “other groups”Several studies suggest women use conformity to introduce harmony to a group whereas men may use nonconformity to create an impression of independence 72
  • Good moderators are born, notmadebut training does help…………...
  • ‘…Much more is vested in the skill and expertise of the individual researcher than is the case in other more structured forms research…’ (MRS R&D sub- Committee, 1979, p113) 74
  • DISCUSSIONWhat sort of moderators would you choose for what sort of research? 75
  • The right moderator The quality of the moderator is hard to define  the key is choosing the right moderator for a project and establishing a good working relationship The Market Research Society R & D sub- Committee likened this to falling in love “You’ll recognise that feeling, and the more satisfied depth of understanding is there.” 76
  • The role of experience and training Becoming a good qualitative research is like learning to drive  you need to acquire the core skills  you need to learn the rules and regulations  but if you lack awareness and are not co-ordinated you’ll never be good at it QRCA (US) offers 25 reasons to use a professional moderator with the objective of showing this is not something easy for amateurs: 77
  • The 25 reasons There are no plain vanilla  Pros can sort of psychological groups issues Pros do more than moderate  Pros know how to probe Pros create a safe climate  Pros are sensitive to atypical Pros interpret groups Pro’s skills are up to date  Pros notice anomalies Pros are better trained  Pros regulate pace and Pros understand the process direction Pros are experienced  Pros take advantage of diversity Pros ask ‘dumb questions’  Pros can handle sensitive Pros get to real meaning topics Pros get around defensive  Pros can unearth the big idea behaviour  Pros can stand up to the client Pros effectively handle talkers and non talkers  Pros adhere to ethnical standards Pros are trained to be objective  Pros consistently excel 78
  • Qualitative researchers must be multi-faceted “They must have intellectual ability yet show common sense and be down to earth! They must show imagination, yet be logical. While an eye for detail is essential they must have conceptual ability. They must become involved yet remain detached. They must show ‘instant’ empathy, yet project themselves neutrally. They must be able to identify the articulate but also good listeners.” (MRS R & D sub-Committee) “Knowing what you are feeling, and being able to handle those feelings without having them swamp you…Being able to motivate yourself to get jobs done, be creative and perform at your peak…Sensing what others are feeling and handling relationships effectively.” (Goldman, D. 1996) 79
  • Personal skill and qualities: The emotional quotient Self awareness Self regulation Motivating oneself Empathy Handling relationships How well do we listen David Goldman 2000 80
  • The interviewer effect There is potential for interviewer bias Background Psychological Behavioural characteristics factors factors Education Ways of asking Expectations Accent Time spent Attitudes Religion Energy Motives etc Race etc. Interest etcEven skilled Interviewers convey more than they perhaps wish, by body language, by non-verbal cues. The problems this can create - respondent resentment, distrust, posturing - are greater than those created by Interviewers’ misuse of verbal communication. (Gordon and Robson 1982) 81
  • DISCUSSIONHow can we avoid the interviewer effect? 82
  • Strategies to manage bias…. Setting up the interview as aLearn to respect learning experience Being genuinelyall respondents for the self aware moderator Non verbal Develop own behaviour Suspend all style and be to vary power judgement natural Doing more listening than speaking 83
  • But, even so, we need to be chameleons The Experienced Veteran Friend/PeerThe Naïve one Independent ReporterThe Devil’s Advocate The The Counsellor Taskmaster The The Joker Fisherman 84
  • Respondents’ experiences
  • The group/interview experience The recruiter is vital  overcoming suspicion  being persuasive Potentially easier in markets like the UK  face to face recruitment in interviewer’s areas  they nearly always turn up because they might meet the recruiter again  Makes pre group tasks easier to organise too But there can be cheating however respondents are recruited  by the recruiters  by the respondents: they know what to expect and they get paid! 86
  • DISCUSSIONHow are respondents recruited in your market and how ideal is this?What are the pros and cons of your recruitment method compared with the UK’s? What would be the ideal recruitment method to avoid cheating 87
  • The group/interview experience Various studies have been conducted into the experience  Michael Olszewski (ex RIUK) compared experiences in Poland and the UK a few years back  at the time CEE respondents were more “biddable” and there were very few experienced groupies: the process was slightly more “official” for them and they were highly likely to turn up  the UK findings seem to replicate findings carried out by Gordon and Robson (1982), McCraken (1988), Cordwell and Gabbott (1999) 88
  • The group/interview experience Initial anxiety Irritation with other respondents Often not expressed at the time What is the real reason for it Irritation with moderators not in How to behave control How will others BUT “You (the market researchers) should have nipped it in the bud before one person took over. You should have behave brought everyone else forward, because that is what you are being paid for, everyone’s opinion, not just for one.’Then general enjoyment (in Cordwell and Gabbott, 1999) Irritation with moderators seeming Sharing Views irritated or impatient New ways of thinking Learning experience Don’t like to be patronised and pick etc. up on moderators who draw wrong conclusions about what is being said 89
  • The group/interview experience Interviews can be more or less stressful than a group Working alone The perfect conversational partner No-one to hide behind Listens to me Personality clashes I am the centre of attentionAnd the moderator is more exposed so needs to be even more careful about establishing the relationship than in groups 90
  • DISCUSSION What can we do to manage anxieties?Are there any requirements - professional or legal - to help manage anxieties? What is your practice in managing anxieties? 91
  • Strategies to manage anxieties A really solid introduction  as frank and as open as possible Codes of conduct and increasingly the law in many countries are based on two main concepts  As much transparency with respondents as possible  Absolute adherence to respondent confidentiality 92
  • What we should tell respondents It makes sense to tell them as much as you canWhat the research What they are Usual is going to be going to be asked If possible reassurances about: some to do and they who the no right or wrong outline of are free to leave research is for answers etc objectives if they wish 93
  • What we have to tell respondents Respondents are told that they are being/will be viewed/recorded before f/w  some exceptions where they can be told at the end (except D)  in some markets written permission is obtained (D, UK) Suspect that some companies do not tell respondents if the viewers are clients unless directly asked  ESOMAR does not demand the respondents are told they are clients  MRS code is a little woolly: first names, part of overall team, from a company involved in the research; can I tell you at the end; but ideally “a client” Researchers must tell clients of the rules of observation and demand adherence Clients who recognise respondents should be asked to leave unless the respondents agree e.g. in B2B with small databases Number who can view limited by room size and confidentiality issues  e.g salesmen at customer groups/bosses at employee groups We know of instances in some markets where these rules are flouted 94
  • Problems of poor moderating:what to look out for and avoid
  • Yelland and Varty - 1997 Non directive interviewing Neutral, detached moderators Poorly applied projectives Rushing through stimulus materials Poorly worded questions Ambiguous language and use of marketing-speak Everything just too rushed 96
  • The use and effects of viewingfacilities
  • Viewing facilities  Are the norm in cities almost everywhere except the UK  Are here to stay  clients getting closer to consumers  quality control over moderators and recruitment  just how the infrastructure has developed  Although we have the “backlash” of the concept of ethnographies  taking the interviewing back into the homeHowever, we need to be conscious of the negative effect of the facility and steps we can take to limit these 98
  • Things to watch for Feel you are being judged Put on a “theatre” for clients and respondents may aid and abet that Group Room: Moderator and Respondents Viewing Room: Clients Goldfish bowl Do not feel the Out of normal energy environment; If don’t hear may not behave what they want normally may not like M Facing the the group clients all Don’t listen the time is properly distracting Send in notes Get drunk etc. Boardroom layput in most markets is not helpful, esp. with lots of stimuliBut facilities are here to stay so we need to develop strategies to lessen the effect 99
  • DISCUSSIONWhat strategies can we develop to mitigate the facility effect? 100
  • Strategies to cope Careful briefing of clients of what the moderator requires in their behaviour  demand they keep notes ‘til the end  no interruptions: your responsibility is firstly to your respondents Careful introduction of the observers to the respondents Suggest running at least some groups unobserved as a control Move around if you can  have clip chart facing the mirror so respondents have to face you and not the client  do at least some moderation facing the mirror  keep energy levels up and focus on you and the other respondents 101
  • Strategies to cope Moderate the client group as well  second researcher in with the clients  or after the group yourself Esp. moderate “instant debriefs”  the client may not have been listening properly 102
  • Listening and questioning skills:How to overcome barriers
  • Listening skillsit is not a passive process: have to choose to listen actively- in order to hear what we need to hear BARRIERS TO LISTENING comparing mind reading rehearsing filtering judging dreaming identifying advising sparring being right derailing placating THE MOST SIMPLE LISTENING SKILL IS SILENCE 104
  • Questioning skillsOPENwho, what, why, when, where, how ?????- open questions should be an invitation to keep talking“Could you tell me what you think of…”“What happened then”“How did you feel about the situation”“Why do you think it happened”FEEL is an excellent open probe 105
  • Questioning skillsCLOSEDare, is, do, didToo easy to get an abbreviated response“Are you interested in XYZ?”“No.”- closed questions can come across as interrogation- they can be leading and put words into respondents’ mouths- can be answered with only a few words- can probe when the respondent is not ready to answer- poorly timed questions can interrupt and hinder the thought process 106
  • Questioning skillsPROMPTS “Tell me more about..” “Can you elaborate….” “I wonder what…” “And?”IMAGINATION - APPEALING TO THE SENSES I WANT TO BE RICH “What will you see around you when you are rich” “What will you hear” “What will you touch/feel/smell” “How will you know when you are rich” 107
  • Questioning skillsNON SPECIFICSDELETION I was always told BY WHOMLACK OF REFERENCE They’re always in my way WHAT IS/WHENUNSPECIFIC VERB He always frustrates me WHO, HOW 108
  • Questioning skills PARAPHRASING- is NOT parroting, it’s maximising understanding Are you’re saying … ? In other words ? It sounds as if ? What I’m hearing is ? The picture I’m getting is ? REFLECTING = EMPATHY - is NOT parroting, it’s maximising understanding That ad gets on my wick You sound annoyed and irritated Yes because………. 109
  • Questioning skills SUMMARISING- prompts for further themes- closes a theme- helps respondents find direction- helps free a respondent who is stuck etc. etc. META-COMMENT - dealing with potentially destructive dynamics by bringing them out into the open I notice you seem wound up about something You seem bored That was a long silence, I wonder what is going on here 110
  • Barriers of respondents and howto overcome them
  • The influence of the cultural context Domains of influence on consumer actions Public/ External Social Cultural Social/Family pressures and Myths, folklore, and language expectations Collective wisdom Compromise and conformity Accepted practices Identity and distinctiveness Rules and obligations Values, symbols, and iconsIndividual Collective Personal Rational Individual experience Internalised knowledge, facts Feelings and emotions Shared beliefs and perceptions Private associations (Social) justification and rationalisation Intuitive images Perceived advertising and marketing claims Unconscious connections Private/Internal 112
  • Projectives to fit the contexts Methods to penetrate the domains Public Bubble pictures Conversation Collages Discussion Role play Word association Collages Social CulturalIndividual Collective Psychodrawing Probing and elaboration Free association Bubble picture Analogies and metaphors Projective pictures Personal Rational Private 113
  • The Johari window Will say Won’t say Conscious Private feelingsAware factors , public Private but and spoken suppressed – Don’t like to admit – Hard to verbalise Intuitive Unconscious Associations factorsNot Potentially publicaware but unspoken Private and - No repressed vocabulary - Right brain 114
  • A further adaptation of the Johari windowJOHARI WINDOW TASK OF TECHNIQUES PANE PROJECTIVES More descriptive, lateralConscious “I’m not creative.” & imaginative Give permission toPrivate “I’m bad, you won’t like me.” reveal, acceptanceIntuitive Translate “impressions” “It’s not that important.” into words Glimpse the symbolic,Unconscious “I don’t believe in it.” tonal & atmospheric 115
  • How this affects the projectives we would tryJOHARI WINDOW TASK OF TECHNIQUESPANE PROJECTIVES TOP OF MIND Association, Analogies,Conscious More descriptive, lateral Personification, Imagination, & imaginative Bubble drawings, Mapping Sentence completion, Bubble Give permission to drawings, Personifications,Private reveal, acceptance Collages, School reports, Self Scripts Self-scripts, Storytelling, DIG DEEPER & MakeIntuitive Laddering, Role Play Collages, revelation safe and non- Personification judgmental Guided visualisations EXPRESS THE Mapping, Psychodrawing, Role INACCESSIBLEUnconscious play, Sculptures, Collages, Glimpse the symbolic, Guided Visualisation tonal & atmospheric 116
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